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the poor as well as the rich, the mean as well as the noble, deliver their opinion with confidence, and are heard with attention. Besides, those greatest statesmen, who have been esteemed the brightest examples of political virtue, though they have given their children every accomplishment of the body which education could bestow, do not at all appear to have improved their minds with those qualities for which they themselves were so eminent, and in which consequently they were best able to instruct them, if instruction could convey these virtues to the soul at all.
Protagoras answers by reciting a fable delivered in very beautiful language; the substance of it is this : Prometheus and Epimetheus, when the gods had formed all kinds of animals within the bowels of the earth, and the destined day approached for producing them into light, were commissioned to distribute among them the powers and qualifications which were allotted to them. The younger brother prevailed upon the elder to let
P. 318. Zevžitos.] Of Heraclea. I do not find this painter mentioned any where else ; perhaps it should be read, Zeuxis, who was of Heraclea, and now a young man.
Ib. Opoayopas.] The Theban, who taught Epaminondas on the flute. See Aristoxenus, ap. Athenæum, L. 4. p. 184.
319. Οι Τοξοται- κελευοντων των Πρυτανεων.] See Aristophanes in Acharnens. v. 239.
Ib. Apropovos.] Ariphron was the brother of Pericles; they were both (by their mother Agariste) first cousins to Dinomache, the mother of Alcibiades, and Clinias, to whom they were guardians : Clinias was mad. (See Alcibiad. 1. p. 118.) Prometheus and Epimetheus (Foresight and Aftersight) were the sons of Iapetus, the Titan, and Clymene.
him perform this work, and Prometheus consented to review afterwards and correct his disposition of things. Epimetheus then began, and directed his care to the preservation of the several species, that none might ever be totally lost. To some he gave extreme swiftness, but they were deficient in strength; and the strong he made not equally swift: the little found their security in the lightness of their bodies, in their airy wings, and in their subterraneous retreats; while those of vast magnitude had the superiority of their bulk for a defence. Such as were formed to prey on others, he made to produce but few young ones; while those, who were to serve as their prey, brought forth a numerous progeny. He armed them against the seasons with hoofs of horn and callous feet, with hides of proof and soft warm furs, their native bed and clothing all in one. But when Prometheus came to review his brother's work, he found that he had lavished all his art and all his materials upon the brute creation, while mankind, whose turn it
P. 320. Apeto.] Every divinity had some such animals, which fed at liberty within the sacred enclosures and pastures. Such were the oxen of the Sun, (in Homer, Od. M.) the owls of Minerva in the Acropolis at Athens, (Aristophan. Lysistrat.) the peacocks of Juno at Samos, (Athenæus, L. 14. p. 655. ex Antiphane et Menodoto Samio) the tame serpents of Æsculapius, at Epidaurus, (Pausan. L. 2. c. 28. and at Athens, Aristoph. Plut. v. 733.) the fishes of the Syrian goddess, &c. (Xenoph. Cyri Anabas. L. 1.
321. Tulos.] This seems to be a gloss only, as an explanation of Δερμασι στερεοις και αναιμoις, to which it is synonymous. Insert in the end of the sentence, Ταρσους επεστερεωσεν, for a verb is wanting, equivalent to eroo uno e.
was next to be produced to light, was left a naked helpless animal, exposed to the rigour of the seasons and to the violence of every other creature round him. In compassion therefore to his wants, Prometheus purloined the arts of Pallas and of Vulcan, and with them fire, (without which they were impracticable and useless) and bestowed them on this new race, to compensate their natural defects. Men then, as allied to the divinity and endowed with reason, were the only part of the creation which acknowledged the being and the providence of the gods. They began to erect altars and statues; they formed articulate sounds, and invented language; they built habitations, covered themselves
P. 321. Olcyoviav.] This is remarked by Herodotus, and by Aristotle, and seems to be very true with regard to the larger size of animals ; but it does not appear in the lesser part of the creation, as in spiders, and in other insects, which live on their kind, the smaller rapacious fishes, snakes, &c. probably because they themselves were to serve as food to larger creatures.
Ib. Ου πανυ του σοφος.] Ηesiod calls him, “Αμαρτινούν τ' Emiundea. Theogon. v. 511.
Ib. Evropa MEV TOV Biov.] See the Prometheus of Æschylus.
325. Something is understood or lost after the words, èKWV πειθηται, as, ευ εχει, or καλως.
327. Ευρυβατω και Φρυνων δα.] Ρhrynondas is mentioned by Isocrates, as a name grown proverbial for a villain. Iapaypaφικος προς Καλλιμαχον, p. 382. And ΑΕschines in Ctesiphont: Αλλ' οιμαι ουτε Φρυνωνδας, ουτε Ευρυβατος, ουτ' αλλος πωποτε των παλαι πονηρων, τοσουτος μαγος και γοης εγενετο. p. 73. See also Aristophanes, Oequopop. Eurybatus was an Ephesian, who being trusted by Cresus with a great sum to raise auxiliaries, betrayed him, and went into the service of Cyrus. See Ephorus ap. Harpocrat. and Diodorus, Excerpt. de Virt. et Vitiis, p. 240.
with clothing, and cultivated the ground. But still they were lonely creatures, scattered here and there, for Prometheus did not dare to enter the citadel of Jove, where Policy, the mother and queen of social life, was kept near the throne of the god himself; otherwise he would have bestowed her too on his favourite mankind. The arts, which they possessed, just supported them, but could not defend them against the multitude and fierceness of the wild beasts : they tried to assemble and live together, but soon found that they were more dangerous and mischievous to one another than the savage creatures had been. In pity then to their condition Jove, lest the whole race should perish, sent Mer
P. 328. Της πραξεως του μισθου.] It is remarkable in what general esteem and admiration Protagoras was held throughout all Greece. If any scholar of his thought the price he exacted was too high, he only obliged him to say upon his oath, what he thought the precepts he had given him were worth, and Protagoras was satisfied with that sum. Yet he got more wealth by his profession than Phidias the statuary, and any other ten the most celebrated artists of Greece, as Socrates (in Menone, p. 91, and in Hipp. Maj. p. 282) tells us. Euathlus (see Quintilian, L. 3. c. 1.) gave him 10,000 drachmæ (about £300. sterling), for his art of rhetorick in writing. the first sophist in Greece who professed himself a IIaidevoews και αρετης διδασκαλος, and such an one as could make men better and better every time he conversed with them, p. 318 et infra,
329. Ει δε επανεροιτο, τινα.] See the Phædrus, where he uses the same thought, p. 275. Δεινον γαρ που, ω Φαιδρε, &c.
333. Iapatetaxoa..] To be set against it, that is, to have an aversion to it.
336. Ουκ οτι παιζει.] Perhaps we should read, καιτοι παιζει. cury to earth, with Shame and Justice; and when he doubted how he should bestow them, and whether they should be distributed, as the arts had been, this to one, and that to another, or equally divided among the whole kind; Jove approved the latter, and commanded, that if
any did not receive his share of that bounty, he should be extirpated from the face of the earth, as the pest and destruction of his fellow-creatures.
This then, continues Protagoras, is the cause why the Athenians, and other nations, in debates, which turn on the several arts, attend only to the advice of the skilful ; but give ear in matters of government, which are founded on ideas of common justice and probity, to every citizen indifferently among them : and that this is the common opinion of all men, may hence appear. If a person totally ignorant of musick should fancy himself an admirable performer, the world would either laugh or be angry, and his friends would reprimand or treat him as a madman: but if a man should have candour and plain-dealing enough to profess himself a villain and ignorant of common justice, what in the other case would have been counted modesty, the
P. 339. IIpos Ekotrav.] The son of Creon and Echecratia, of Cranon in Thessaly, a citizen of great riches and power, and a principal patron of Simonides, who repaid him with immortality. See also Theocritus Idyll. 16. ν. 36. Πολλοι δε Σκοπαδαισιν, &c. Here is also a large fragment of one of the odes of Simonides to him.
340. θεια τις ειναι παλαι.] Perhaps, Κεια τις.
341. Και ουδαμως Κειον.] Dacier corrects this to Ουδαμως θειον.