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here mentioned to be the attack made on the city, soon after the arrival of Agno and Cleopompus with fresh troops. Thucyd. L. 2. p. 116. If we consider the purport of the narration, we shall find that these words, Φορμίων δε και δι ἑξακοσιοι και χιλιοι ουκετι ησαν περι Xaλkideas, mean, that Phormio and his troops (among which were Socrates and Alcibiades,) were returned from their expedition into Chalcidice (mentioned p. 36.) and had joined the army newly arrived from Potidea.

P. 154. Дevkη στaμn.] The line used by carpenters and masons to mark out their dimensions with, after it had been tinged with minium, or with some other colour: it is used proverbially for a mind susceptible of any impression which may be given to it. So Philippus in Anthol. L. 6. cap. ult.


Σχοινον, ὑπ' ακρονυχω ψαλλομενην κανονι.

Ρ. 155. Δοκει αλλοις τε και ξαυτω.] Perhaps εμαυτω, or eμol, for Critias was an excellent poet. Athenæus has preserved several fine fragments of his writings.

Ib. Zolovos.] Solon's poetry is well known. From the birth of Solon to that of Plato was 210 years, which takes in five generations of that family. Diogenes Laertius reckons six generations, making Glauco (as it seems) the brother, and not the uncle of Critias. Proclus, in his comment on the Timæus, observes that Theon the Platonick had been guilty of the same mistake, and corrects it on the authority of this very dialogue.



P. 155. Evλaßeio0au.] This seems part of an hexameter, and an iambick.

Ib. Tηv Еπwdŋv.] Horace alludes to these incantations, and perhaps to this very passage, Lib. 1. Epist. 1.

Р. 156. Ажа@avaričev.] Zamolxis, (Herodot. L. 4. c. 94.) (by some said to have been a slave of Pythagoras, but affirmed by Herodotus to have been of much greater antiquity) the king and prophet of the Getes, who were at first only a clan of the Thracians, but afterwards, having passed the Danube, became a great and powerful nation. It is very remarkable, that they had a succession of these high priests, (Strabo, L. 7. p. 297.) who lived sequestered from mankind in a grotto, and had communication only with the king, in whose power they had a great share from Zamolxis down to the time of Augustus, and possibly long after.

P. 157. The family of Dropides, celebrated by Anacreon.

P. 158. Pyrilampes, the great-uncle of Plato, ambassador in Persia, and elsewhere, admired as the tallest and handsomest man of his time: he was a great friend of Pericles, and father to Demus, a youth remarkable for his beauty.

P. 173. Ata kepaтwv.] See Hom. Odyss. T. 565. The only reason of this fable, which has puzzled so many people, seems to be a similitude of sounds between Ελεφαs and ελεφαίρεσθαι (to delude) and Κερας and Kрaive (to perform or accomplish), as one of the Scholiasts has observed.

Ρ. 167. Το τριτον τω Σωτηρι.] Α proverbial expression frequent with Plato, as in the Philebus, p, 66.

IOI SE TO TρITOV тw Zwτηpi, &c. and in Epist. 7, speaking of his third voyage to Sicily, Ελθων δ' ουν το τρίτον, &c. I imagine it alludes to the Athenian custom (see Athenæus from Philochorus, L. 2. p. 38.) which was to serve round after supper a little pure wine, with these words, Aya Aapovi, and afterwards as much wine. and water as every one called for, with the form of Ai Zwrηpt. See Erasmi Adag. Servatori, and Plato de Republ. L. 9. p. 583.



THIS long dialogue on the origin of words was probably a performance of Plato when he was very young, and is the least considerable of all his works.

Cratylus,1 a disciple of Heraclitus, is said to have

1 Diog. Laert. in Platone, and Aristot. Metaphys. L. 1. p. 338. Εκ νέου τε γαρ συγγενομενος πρωτον Κρατύλω, και ταις Ηρακλείτειοις δόξαις, κτλ.


Platon. Op. Serrani, Vol. 1. p. 383.

and p. 401,

P. 398. Ancient Attick words, danμwv, eipe εσια ; 410, Οραι ; 418, Ιμερα, vel Εμερα. He remarks that the ancient Attick abounded in the I and A, which in his time had been often changed to the H or E and the Z, and that the women preserved much of the old language among them.

399. Accents used in Plato's time, as now, A piλos, changed into Δι φιλος.

401. Προ παντων Θεων τη Εστιᾳ.] See Aristophan. Aves, v. 865, and Vespæ, v. 840.

405. The Thessalians in their dialect called Apollo, 'Aπλos. 407. Οίσι Ευθύφρονος ἱπποι.] An allusion to Homer. 409. Much of the Greek language derived from the Barbarians: 'Tôwp, Пup, Kuwv, borrowed from the Phrygians.

425. The Barbarians acknowledged to be more ancient than the Greeks.

been the master of Plato after Socrates's death; but the latter part of the dialogue is plainly written against the opinions of that sect, and of Cratylus in particular.


P. 427. The powers of the several Greek letters, and the manner of their formation: viz. the P expressive of motion, being formed by a tremulous motion of the tongue; the I of smallness and tenuity; the . V. Z. Z. of all noises made by the air; the A and T of a cessation of motion; the A of slipperiness and gliding, the same with a г prefixed, of the adherence and tenacity of fluids; the N of any thing internal; the A of largeness; the O of roundness; and the H expressive of length.

428. Ev Airais.] The ancients called the ninth book of the Iliad, Aural. See v. 640.

429. Cratylus seems to have been the son of Smicrio. 434. The Eretrians for σκληροτης used σκληροτηρ.

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