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P. 486. Аπоlavois av.] From this, and from many other strokes against the people of Athens, which seem to carry a strong air of indignation and concern in them, it looks as if this dialogue had been written not long after the death of Socrates, perhaps while Plato was at Megara.
Ib. Επι κοῤῥης.] The Ατιμοι might be struck by a citizen, without being able to call him to an account for it. Ib. Аλλ' w 'ya¤e.] Another fragment of the Antiope:
Αλλ' εμοι πιθου,
Παυσαι δ' αοιδων, πραγματων &' ευμουσιαν
Ib. The several kinds of Ariuia are enumerated in the oration of Andocides Περι Μυστηρίων, p. 10.
P. 487. Tisander of Aphidnæ; who seems to be the same mentioned by Socrates a year after this; (Xenoph. Aponemon. L. 2. sect. 7.) Nausicydes of Cholargi,
Andro, the son of Androtion.
P. 488. First proof against Callicles (who had advanced that by the law of nature the stronger had a right to govern the weaker) that the many are stronger than the few, and consequently ought to govern them so that the positive law of the commonwealth is the result of the law of nature.
Ρ. 492. Τις δ' οίδεν, ει το ζῆν.] eido, Fragm. p. 490. edit. Barnesii.
Euripides in Poly-
ment is repeated again in other words in the Phryxus, ibid. p. 503.
Ρ. 493. Ηκουσα των σοφων.] In Cratylo, p. 400. Σημα τινες φασιν αυτο ειναι της ψυχης, &c.
Ib. Κομψος ανηρ, ισως Σικελος τις η Ιταλικος.] This idea (whosesoever it be) is imitated by Lucretius, L. 3. v. 949 and 1022:
Omnia, pertusum congesta quasi in vas,
I take this to be meant of Empedocles.
P. 500. Texvikos.] The philosopher. Vid. Protagoram, p. 357, and p. 509, 517, and 521 of this dialogue.
Schol. in locum; et in
P. 501. Cinesias, the son of Meles, was a dithyrambick poet in some sort of vogue among the people at this time. He was still a worse man than a writer, and the depravity of his character made even his misfortunes ridiculous; so that his poverty, his deformities, and his distempers, were not only produced on the stage, but frequently alluded to by the orators, and exposed to the scorn of the multitude. Vid. Aristophan. in Avibus, v. 1374, et Lysistrata, in Ranis, v. 369. ap. Athenæum, L. 12. p. 551.) Strattis, who lived at this time, made Cinesias the subject of an entire drama. See Lysias Απολογία Awроdokias, p. 381. Fragm. Orat. contra Phanium ap. Athenæum ut supra, and in Taylor's edition, p. 640. Harpocration in voce Cinesias. Plutarch de gloria Atheniens. Pherecrates apud Plutarchum de Musicâ. See also the notes of Mr. Burette on that treatise, in the Mém. de l'Acad. des Inscript. vol. 15. p. 340, and Suidas in voce Cinesias.
In Fragment. Gerytadis
P. 503. The bold attack, made in this place on some of the greatest characters of antiquity, has drawn much censure on Plato; but we are to consider that he is here proving his favourite point, (which seems to me the grand aim and intention of this dialogue) that philosophy alone is the parent of virtue, the discoverer of those fixed and unerring principles, on which the truly great and good man builds his whole scheme of life, and by which he directs all his actions; and that he, who practises this noblest art, and makes it his whole endeavour to inspire his fellow citizens with a love for true knowledge, (and this was the constant view and the employment of Socrates) has infinitely the superiority not only over the masters of those arts, which the publick most admires, as musick, poetry, and eloquence, but over the most celebrated names in history, as heroes and statesmen; as the first have generally applied their talents to flatter the ear, to humour the prejudices, and to inflame the passions of mankind; and the latter to soothe their vanity, to irritate their ambition, and to cheat them with an apparent, not a real, greatness.
P. 506. Tov Aμpiovos.] Of which tragedy some few verses are still preserved to us; see Euripid. Fragm. ed. Barnesii, p. 454:
Εγω μεν ουν αδοιμι, και λεγοιμι τι
Σοφον, ταρασσων μηδεν, ὧν πολις νοσει, &c.
Ρ. 508. Τω αδικουντι και κακιον.] This was not the principle only, but the practice, of Socrates. See Diog. Laert. L. 2. sect. 21.
P. 510. Οπου τυραννος εστιν αρχων αγριος.] Α severe reflection on the Athenian people.
P. 511. The price of a pilot from Ægina to Attica was two oboli (about two-pence halfpenny); from Attica to Pontus or to Egypt two drachmæ (fifteen-pence halfpenny).
Ρ. 514. Εν τω πιθω την κεραμειαν μανθανειν.] Proverb. To begin with a jar before we have made a gallipot. Hor. Art. Poet.
Institui, currente rotâ cur urceus exit?
P. 515. Els polopopav.] The administration of Pericles was the ruin of the Athenian constitution. By abridging the power of the Areopagus, and by impairing their authority, who were the superintendents of education and the censors of publick manners, he sapped the foundations of virtue among them; by distributing the publick revenue among the courts of justice, he made them mercenary and avaricious, negligent of their private affairs, and ever meddling in those of their neighbours; by the frequency and magnificence of the publick spectacles, he inured them to luxury and to idleness; and by engaging them in the Peloponnesian war, he exposed them to be deserted by all their allies, and left to the mercy of the braver and more virtuous Lacedæmonians. Isocrates 1 looked upon the first of these alterations only, as the ruin of his country. (Orat. Areopagit. p. 147, &c.)
1 Though he had no prejudice to the person of Pericles, and does justice to his disinterestedness and honesty in the management of the publick money. (See Isocrat. Orat. de Pace, p. 184.)
Ρ. 515. Εις μισθοφοραν.] The Μισθος Δικαστικος here spoken of by Socrates was three oboli a day paid to 6000 citizens (for so many sat in the courts of justice), which was to the state a yearly expense of one hundred and fifty talents; i.e. reckoning ten months to the year, for two months were spent in holidays, when the courts did not meet. Α Μισθος (appointed by Agyrrius about Ol. 96. 4, see Aristophan. Εκκλησιαζουσαι, ν. 102, 185, 284, 292, 302, 380, and also his Plutus, v. 330, which last passage is wrongly interpreted by the Scholiast, by Spanheim, and by Kuster;) a Milos (I say) was given by every Athenian citizen who came to the EKKλnoia, or assembly of the people. The ill effect which this had upon their manners is painted by Aristophanes with much humour in several of his dramas, and particularly in the Vespa.
Ib. Των τα ωτα κατεαγότων.] From such as affected to imitate the manners of the Lacedæmonians, and constantly practised the roughest exercises of the Palæstra, particularly boxing, the bruises and scars of which were visible about their temples and ears: so in the Protagoras, p. 342. Οἱ μεν ωτα τε καταγνυνται μιμούμενοι αυτους (τους Λακεδαιμονιους) &c.
P. 516. Επι τελευτη του βιου.] See Plutarch in Pericles, towards the end.
Ib. Oi γε δικαιοι ἡμεροι.] Hom. Odys. Oσol χαλεποιτε, και αγριοι, ουδε δικαιοι. Θ. v. 575.
Ib. Els To ẞapa@pov.] This is not related either by Herodotus, or by Cornelius Nepos, or by Justin.
Ρ. 517. Ούτε τη αληθινη, ουτε τη κολακικη.] This