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compare it with more ancient times; for Archelaus had now reigned at least nine years, and continued on the throne about six years longer. So in p. 503, in those words, Περικλεα τουτονι τον νεωστι τετελευτη‐ KOTα, we must understand NewσT in the same manner, for Pericles had been dead 23 years, but the time is there compared with that of Cymon, Themistocles, and Miltiades, who died many years before. Socrates indeed might have seen and remembered Cymon, the other two he could not. These particulars of Archelaus's history are curious and not to be met with elsewhere: viz. That he was the bastard son of Perdiccas by a female slave belonging to his brother Alcetas; that he caused his uncle and master Alcetas, together with Alexander his son, to be murdered after a banquet, to which he had invited them; that he caused his own brother, a child of seven years old (the true heir to the crown and the son of Perdiccas by his wife Cleopatra) to be drowned in a well. Athenæus (L. 11. p. 506.) is absurd enough to question the truth of these particulars, or, supposing them true, he says, that they are instances of Plato's ingratitude, who was much in favour with Archelaus. The passage, which he cites immediately after from Carystius of Pergamus, disproves all this, for it shews Plato's connexion to have been with Perdiccas, the Third, who began to reign thirty-five years after Archelaus's death, and was elder brother to the famous Philip of Macedon. We have an epistle of Plato to that prince still remaining. At the time of Archelaus's death, Plato was under thirty years of age.

Ρ. 471. Ευδαίμων γενεσθαι.] This is the true read

ing, and is meant of Archelaus.

The other reading,

which Ficinus followed, is very insipid, Evdaiova γενεσθαι.

P. 472. Nikias.] The famous Nicias. He is produced here as an example, on account of his great wealth, whence Socrates supposed him to have placed the chief happiness of man in affluence of fortune. The tripods, mentioned here as dedicated in the temple of Bacchus, must be the prizes which he and his family must have gained in their frequent Xopnyia. Nicias was remarkable for his piety and innocency of life. See Thucydides and Plutarch. The brother of Nicias was named Eucrates: he outlived his brother, and was this very year Trierarch at Ægos-Potami; (Lysias. Orat. contr. Poliuchum, p. 320.) and soon after was put to death with Niceratus, his nephew, by order of the thirty tyrants, in the number of which he had refused to be.

Ib. Αριστοκρατης ὁ Σκελλιου.] Α principal man in the oligarchy of Four hundred (Ol. 92. 1.) and of the same party with Theramenes. Οὗ αυ εστιν εν Πυθιου τούτο το καλον αναθημα. (See Thucyd. L. 8. p. 516. and Lysias Orat. cont. Eratosthenem, p. 215. Ed. Taylori. Aristophan. in Avibus, v. 125. et Schol. D. Heraclides of Pontus, speaking of the seditions at Miletus, says, Οἱ πλουσιοι κρατησαντες ἅπαντας, ὧν κυριοι κατέστησαν, μετα των τεκνων κατεπιττωσαν. (Ap. Athenæum L. 12. p. 524.)

P. 473. KaTaTITTWOη.] Covered with pitch, and burned alive.

Ρ. 480. Τουναντιον γε αυ μεταβαλοντα.] This is a conclusion so extravagant, that it seems to be only a

way of triumphing over Polus, after his defeat, or perhaps in order to irritate Callicles, who heard with great impatience the concessions which Polus had been forced to make, and now breaks out with warmth, and enters into the dispute. Or, perhaps, this may be meant of that justice, which Socrates practised on himself and on all who conversed with him, (which made him many enemies) in exposing their ignorance and their vices, and in laying them open to their own correction and from p. 509. Tiva av Bonleiav μn Svvaμevos, &c. I judge this to be the true sense of it. See also p. 521. Κρινοῦμαι γαρ, ώς εν παιδίοις ιατρος, &c. See also De Republica, L. 9. p. 591.


Ρ. 481. Του τε Αθηναίων Δημου, και του Πυριλάμπους.] The son of Pyrilampes was called Demus, and Plato here alludes to his name. It is possible too, that there may be a secret allusion to the Equites of Aristophanes, where the Athenian people is introduced as a person, under the name of Demus, an old man grown childish, over whom the demagogues try to gain an ascendant by paying their court to his ridiculous humours. drama of the Equites was played about twenty years before the time of this dialogue. Demus was much in the friendship of Pericles, and remarkable for being the first man who brought peacocks to Athens, and bred them in his volaries. (Plutarch in Pericle and Athenæus, L. 9. p. 397.) Demus is mentioned as a Trierarch in the expedition to Cyprus (as I imagine) about Ol. 98. 1. under Chabrias. (Lysias de Bonis Aristophanis, p. 340.) He was, when a youth, famous for his beauty :

Καινη Δι', αν ιδῃ γε που γεγραμμενον,

Τον Πυριλαμπους εν θυρα Δημον καλον, &c.

Aristophan. in Vespis, v. 98, and Scholia. The play of the Vespa was played eighteen years before the time of this dialogue.

P. 482. 'O Kλevietos.] Alcibiades had now left Athens, and taken refuge in Thrace, and the year after he was murdered.

Ρ. 484. Νομος, ὁ παντων βασιλευς.] A fragment of Pindar.

Aulus Gellius, L. 10, c. passage at large, ending at aya@a, (in p. 486.) makes

Ib. Hıλoσopia yap Toi.] 22, having transcribed this the words ka aλλa wоila several reflections upon it. "Plato veritatis homo amicissimus, ejusque omnibus exhibendæ promptissimus, quæ omnino dici possunt in desides istos ignavosque qui, obtento philosophiæ nomine, inutile otium et linguæ vitæque tenebras sequuntur, ex personâ quidem non gravi neque idoneâ, verè tamen ingenuéque, dixit. Nam etsi Callicles, quem dicere hæc facit, veræ philosophiæ ignarus inhonesta et indigna in philosophos confert; proinde tamen accipienda sunt quæ dicuntur, ut nos sensim moveri intelligamus, ne ipsi quoque culpationes hujusmodi mereamur, neve inerti atque inani desidiâ, cultum et studium philosophiæ mentiamur," &c. though Gellius is certainly mistaken in this, justly incurring the same censure, as those whom Quintilian mentions, L. 2. 16, yet thus far he is right in saying, that Plato often put much truth and good sense into the mouth of characters which he did not approve.

The Protagoras is a remarkable instance

of this, where Socrates is introduced in the beginning, arguing against the very doctrine which naturally follows from those principles which he himself lays down in the end, and of which he obliges the sophist to confess the truth. Dacier, in his notes, has run into a thousand mistakes, by imagining all which is advanced by the characters opposed to Socrates in the disputation, to be absurd and ridiculous.

The character, which Callicles here pretends to expose, is doubtless such as Plato thought worthy of a true philosopher, των κορυφαίων τινος, και ου φαύλως διατριβοντος εν φιλοσοφια. (Vid. Theætetum, p. 173.)

Ρ. 484. Το του Ευριπίδου.] From that famous scene in the Antiope (a drama now lost) between Zethus and Amphion, Joshua Barnes reads,

Εν τουτῳ γαρ

Λαμπρος θ' ἑκαστος, καπι ταυτ' επείγεται.

To this scene Horace alludes Lib. 1. Epist. 18. to Lollius "Gratia sic fratrum geminorum Amphionis atque Zethi dissiluit," &c.

Ρ. 485. Και τας αγορας.] What passage of Homer is here alluded to? or is it Hesiod in his Theogonia, v. 90. Μετα δε πρεπει αγρομενοισι.

Ib. Προς τον αδελφον.] Alluding to the fragment of Antiope: Eurip. Edit. Barnes. p. 453.

Ψυχης ὧδε γενναιαν φυσιν

Γυναικομιμω διαπρεπεις μορφωματι.
Ουτ' εν δίκης βουλαισιν ορθον αν ποτε
Λογον προθεΐ, η πιθανον· ουτ' αλλων ύπερ
Νεανικόν βουλευμα βουλευσαιο τι.

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