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thing only they seem directly to contradict each other : Xenophon says, he neither offered himself any thing in mitigation of his punishment, nor would suffer his friends to do so, looking upon this as an acknowledgment of some guilt: ουτε αυτον ὑπετιμησατο, ουτε τους φιλους ειασεν αλλα και ελεγεν, ότι το ὑποτιμᾶσθαι ὁμολογοῦντος ειη αδικειν. If the word ὑποτιμᾶσθαι means that he would not submit to ask for a change of his sentence
Ρ. 32. Εβουλευσα δε.] Socrates was in the senate of Five Hundred, Ol. 93. 3, being then sixty-five years of age. The Prytanes presided in the assemblies of the people, were seated in the place of honour, and attended by the Toğoral, who, by their orders, seized any persons who made a disturbance; they introduced ambassadours, gave liberty of speaking to the orators, and of voting to the people; and (as it appears) any one of them could put a negative on their proceedings, since Socrates alone, at the trial of the Zrparnyol, insisted, that the question was contrary to law, and would not suffer it to be put to the assembly.
Ib. Θολος.] A building in the Ceramicus near the Βουλευτηριον των Πεντακοσίων, where the Prytanes assembled to perform sacrifice and to banquet. (Pausanias, L. 1, p. 12, and Jul. Pollux in fin. L. 8.) Who were Nicostratus and Theodotus, the sons of Theodotides?
34. Εις μεν, μειρακιον ηδη δνω δε, Παιδια.] Socrates had three sons, (D. Laert. L. 2, s. 26.) Lamprocles, Sophroniscus, and Menexenus, the first by Xanthippe, the two others (as it is said) by Myrto, grand-daughter to the famous Aristides. Some say, he married the latter first; but that is impossible, because he had Lamprocles, his eldest son, by Xanthippe; and she certainly survived him; therefore, if Myrto were his wife, he must have had two wives together. This is indeed affirmed in a treatise on nobility ascribed to Aristotle, and by Aristoxenus and Callisthenes his scholars, as well as by Demetrius Phalereus, and others. It is a very extraordinary thing, that such men should
into banishment, or perpetual imprisonment, so far it is agreeable to Plato, p. 37. but if it means, that he would not suffer any mulct himself, nor permit his friends to mention it, we see the contrary, p. 38, where he fines himself one mina (all he was worth), and where his friends Crito, Critobulus, Plato, and Apollodorus, offer thirty minæ (£96. 17s. 6d.) which was, I suppose, all they could raise, to save him. Now this being a fact,
be deceived in a fact which happened so near their own time; yet Panætius, in his life of Socrates, expressly refuted this story; and it is sure, that neither Xenophon, nor Plato, nor any other of his contemporaries, mentions any wife but Xanthippe.
P. 35. Apioтa eivaι кaι vμiv.] Here is an interval; and we see that Melitus, Anytus, and Lyco, having gone through their accusations, and Socrates having made his defence, and some of his friends, perhaps, having also supported it, the judges proceeded to vote guilty, or not guilty. The former suffrages exceeded the latter by three, by thirty, or by thirty and three, for the MSS. differ in the number. Justus of Tiberias (Laert. L. 2. s. 41.) says by 281, which is doubtless false; and he adds that 361 condemned him to death.-I imagine, from what occurs afterwards, that Melitus and Anytus spoke a second time, after Socrates had finished his defence, before the court had voted. Xenophon tells us, that some of Socrates's friends actually pleaded for him. Εῤῥηθη πλειονα ὑπ' αυτου, και των συναγορευοντων φιλων avтov. Xenoph. Apolog. Sect. 22.
36. Kav wpλe xiλias.] I do not see how Socrates should know this, unless a small number of the judges, immediately after his defence, had risen to give their vote against him, and the rest deferred voting, till after Lyco and Anytus had spoken a second time in support of Melitus. In all publick accusations (some sorts of Eloayyeλiaι excepted) this was the case, if the accuser did not get a fifth of the votes. The next question regards the Tunua, which the court had it in their power to mitigate, if
at that time easily proved or disproved, I am of opinion that Plato never would have inserted into his discourse a manifest falsity, and, therefore, we are to take Xenophon's words in that restrained sense which I have mentioned.
Potter says, that from the nature of the crime (Aσeßeîa), it is evident that the trial was before the court of Areopagus: but I take the contrary to be
they were persuaded or moved by the plea of the criminal. See Lysias in Epicratem, p. 454.
P. 37. My pa μovov.] Here we see that capital causes were decided in a single day.
38. Ağtoxpew.] Here follows a second interval, during which the court voted, and condemned him to die.
39. Tiμwpiav.] Do not imagine with Dacier, in this place, that he is threatening them with plagues and divine judgments: he only means that for one Socrates a hundred shall spring up to tell the Athenians their faults, which was very true; as the Socratick school was continually increasing.
N.B. It may be observed, that Socrates was one of the senate of Five Hundred, and was one of the Prytanes on the trial of the Zτparnyo: this is certain, both from Plato, in this piece, and from Xenophon, Hist. Græc. L. 1. p. 449, and from Æschines in Axiocho, p. 101. This last writer tells us, that the matter was carried the next day by the choice of certain IIpoedpol EYKатalεTоι, to take the votes; whence it should seem that it was not, at that time of the republick, the constant custom to elect IIpoedpo for this purpose, as it afterwards was out of the nine tribes, which were not Prytanes; (See Potter, L. 1. 17.) but that the Prytanes alone, or some chosen from among them, exercised this office. Xenophon, in his Apomnemon, L. 4. c. 4, seems to speak of the same trial, and says, that Socrates was ETσтαTηs in the assembly: if so, it was his particular province to give the people liberty of voting; but it is certain that he was not an Επιστατης chosen out of the Προεδροι, as was usual
evident from the style both here and in Xenophon. He always addresses his judges by the name of Avopes, or Ανδρες Αθηναιοι, whereas the form of speaking either to the 1 Areopagites or to the senate 2 of Five Hundred, was constantly ∞ Bovλŋ: and in the courts 3 of justice, Ανδρες Δικασται, or sometimes Ανδρες Αθηναιοι, or Avopes alone: he therefore was judged in some of these
1 See Lysias's Apolog. in Simonem, and his Oration, Pro sacrâ Olivâ.
2 See Lysias in Philonem, pro Mantitheo, &c.
3 Ib. in Epicratem in principio et sub fin. : et pro Euphileto, passim.
in the time of Demosthenes: he might indeed be Erioтarns of the Prytanes, an honour which continued but one day. See also Xenophon in Apomnem: L. 1. c. 1, where a clearer account is given of the same fact, where he is called Bouλeurηs and ETIOTATNS EV TW Anuw. See also Plato's Gorgias, p. 473, and Corsinus Fast. Attic. v. 1. Diss. 6. de IIрoedрwv кaι ЕTIOтaтv Electione.
Η, ΠΕΡΙ ΠΡΑΚΤΟΥ.
or (as the second Basil edition more justly entitles it)
ΠΕΡΙ ΔΟΞΗΣ ΑΛΗΘΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ.
Ol. 95. 1.
Plat. Op. Serrani, Vol. 1. p. 43.
THIS beautiful dialogue (besides Dacier's translation and Foster's notes) has been translated and illustrated by the Abbé Sallier, keeper of the printed books in the French king's library; see Vol. 14. Mém. de l'Acad. des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, p. 38.