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which are formed with where-, such as whereby, whereof, &c. may be replaced by by which, of which, &c.

Now when Andrew heard whereunto Christ was come, he forsook his master John, and came to Christ. Latimer, Rem. p. 25.

Whet, pp. (Ps. Ixiv. 3, Pr.-Bk.). Sharpened.

Assaying how hir speres were whette.

Chaucer, Troil, and Cr. v. 1772. Whether, pr. (Matt. xxi. 31). Which, of two; Moso-Goth. hvathar, A. S. hwæder, used, like the Icel. hvárr and Sans. katara, when the question is of two things or persons. The following passages illustrate the usage.

And weper of hem al so lengore were alyue,
Were opere's eyr, bote he adde an eyr by hys wyue.
Robert of Gloucester, p. 424.

And thus byhote I yow withouten fayle
Upon my trouthe, and as I am a knight,
That whethir of yow bothe that hath might,
This is to seyn, that whethir he or thou &c.

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1858.
Chesith yourself which may be most pleasunce
And most honour to yow and me also,

I do no fors the whether of the tuo.

Id. Wife of Bath's Tale, 6816.

Seing againe that all these euelles and troubles were endles: at the laste layde their heades together, and like faithfull and louinge subiectes gaue to their kynge free choise and libertie to kepe styll the one of these two kingdomes whether he would. More, Utopia (ed. Arber), p. 58.

Whether of both he shall attempt I am ready to releue them, and if he doe nether, then doe I hope to sett these parts freer and in better securitie then theie were these vij yeres. Leycester Correspondence, p. 262.

It shall be tried before we do depart,
Whether accuseth other wrongfully.
Heywood, 1. Ed. IV. 11. 3.

Whether, adv. (Mark ii. 9). As an interrogative particle 'whether' is almost superfluous; but it serves to introduce one of two alternatives.

Whether had you rather lead mine eyes, or eye your master's heels? Shakespeare, Merry Wives, III. 2. 3.

Whether dost thou profess thyself, a knave or a fool? Id.

All's Well, IV. 5. 23.

Whether hadst thou rather be a Faulconbridge,

And like thy brother, to enjoy thy land,

Or the reputed son of Coeur-de-lion,

Lord of thy presence, and no land beside?

Id. K. John, I. I. 134.

Whetter, sb. (Gen. iv. 22 m). A sharpener; from A. S. hwettan, G. wetzen, to sharpen. Richardson quotes from Beaumont and Fletcher (Valentinian, IV. 1);

No more; I have too much on't,

Too much by you, you whetters of my follies,

Ye angel-formers of my sins, but devils!
Where is your cunning now?

Which, pr. (Lord's Prayer). Commonly used for the relative
who, applied to persons: A. S. hwilc, O. H. G. huëlîh, Mœso-
Goth. hveleiks or hvileiks, literally who-like. The G. welch and
Sc. whilk are other forms of the word.

And al alone, save oonly a squyer,

That knew his pryvyté and all his cas,
Which was disgysed povrely as he was.

Whosoever loveth God, will

made after the image of God.

Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 1414.

love his neighbour, which is Latimer, Serm. p. 338.

While, sỏ. Time; A. S. hwil. Of the Seventy, our Translators say,

They did many things well, as learned men; but yet as men they stumbled and fell, one while through oversight, another while through ignorance. The Translators to the Reader, p. cix.

All dinner-while he talked of these affaires: but I and diuers others marked with what appetite those that sate at the table dined. Philip de Commines, trans. Danett, p. 176.

Season your admiration for a while

With an attent ear.

While as (Heb. ix. 8). While.

Shakespeare, Ham. 1. 2. 192.

While as the silly owner of the goods

Weeps over them and wrings his hapless hands.

Shakespeare, 2 Hen. VI. 1. 1. 225.

Whiles, adv. (Matt. v. 25). While. It is the genitive sing. of while, which was originally a substantive, used adverbially. Compare needs and others. In Gothic -is is a common adverbial termination, and in Icelandic also the genitive expresses an adverbial sense (Rask, Icel. Gr. p. 165, tr. Dasent). So also -is is the common termination of adverbs formed from nouns. The wonded knyghte hym downe sett, And for his wyfe fulle sare he grett, Whils he thaire schipe myghte see.

Sir Isumbras, 357.

Look round about you, and whiles you quake at the plagues so natural to our neighbours, bless your own safety and our God for it. Adams, Devil's Banquet, p. 248.

Such men as he be never at heart's ease,

Whiles they behold a greater than themselves.

Shakespeare, Jul. Cæs. 1. 2. 209.

Whirlpool, sẻ. (Job xli. 1 m). Perhaps the cachalot or spermwhale, which is distinguished from its congeners by its peculiar manner of blowing.

The .vii. daye of October [1551] were two great fyshes taken at Grauesend, which were called whirlepooles, they were afterwarde drawen vp aboue the bridge. Stow, Summarie, fol. 219 a.

Great whirlpooles, which all

fishes make to flee. Spenser, F. Q. II. 12, § 23.

The fish also called Musculus Marinus, which goeth before the Whale or Whirlpoole as his guide, hath no teeth at all. Holland's Pliny, XI. 37 (vol. I. p. 337).

The Indian sea breedeth the most and the biggest fishes that are among which, the Whales and Whirlepooles called Balænæ, take up in length as much as foure acres or arpens of land. Ibid. IX. 3.

In the French ocean there is discovered a mightie fish called Physeter, [i. a whirle-poole] rising up aloft out of the sea in manner of a columne or pillar. Ibid. IX. 4.

To conclude, Whales, Whirlepooles, and Seales nourish their young with their udder and teats. Ibid. XI. 40 (I. p. 348).

Tinet: m. The Whall tearmed a Horlepoole, or Whirlepoole. Cotgrave, Fr. Dict.

Whisperer, sẻ. (Prov. xvi. 28, xviii. 8 m; Rom. i. 29). A secret informer, talebearer, as the Hebrew word is elsewhere rendered.

Now this Doeg being there at that time, what doeth he? Like a whisperer, or man-pleaser, goeth to Saul the king, and told him how the priest had refreshed David in his journey, and had given unto him the sword of Goliath. Latimer, Serm. p. 486.

But yet their trust towards them, hath rather beene as to good spialls, and good whisperers; then good magistrates, and officers. Bacon, Ess. XLIV. p. 179.

Whispering, sb. (2 Cor. xii. 20). Secret and malicious information.

Whit, sỏ. (I Sam. iii. 18 ; John vii. 23, xiii. Io ; 2 Cor. xi. 5). A. S. wiht, literally, thing. The word enters into the composition of aught (O. H. G. éowiht, A. S. âwiht) and naught, A. S. ná-wiht. What in somewhat is the same, and is used by itself in Wiclif (John vi. 7); 'that eche man take a litil what? Sir T. More (Works, p. 37ƒ) uses 'muche what?

Frende and foo was muche what indifferēt.

One garmente wyl serue a man mooste commenlye .ij. yeares. For whie shoulde he desyre moo? seinge yf he had thē, he should not be the better hapte or couered from colde, neither in his apparel anye whitte the comlyer. Sir T. More, Utopia, trans. Robynson, fol. 62 b.

And what other thing doth stir him to call us to him when we be strayed from him, to suffer us patiently, to win us to repentance, but only his singular goodness, no whit of our deserving? Homilies, p. 473, 1. 31.

Nether do I see or perceyue ony whitte at all, what laude or prayse I shall gete by this my laboure. Erasmus, On the Creed, Eng. tr., Pref.

Mahomet cald the hill to come to him, againe, and againe ; and when the hill stood still, he was never a whit abashed, but said; If the hill will not come to Mahomet, Mahomet wil go to the hil. Bacon, Ess. XII. p. 45.

Whit is used adverbially like A. S. wihte, at all.

White, v. t. (Matt. xxiii. 27 ; Mark ix. 3). To whiten. 'Whited' is the A. S. hwítod from hwítian, or hwíted from hwitan.

Whited: appareled in white. Albatus.....λeλevkwpévos. Vestu de blanc. Baret, Alvearie, s. v.

Blanchi; m. ie: f. Blanched, whited, whitened. Cotgrave, Fr. Dict.

Who, used as an indefinite pronoun, like the Latin quis.

So the first Christened for his labour the name Pupillus, as who would say, a wasteful Prince, that had need of a guardian, or overseer. The Translators to the

Reader, p. cvi.

She hath hem in such wise daunted,
That they were, as who saith, enchaunted.
Gower, Conf. Am. 1. p. 285.

As who should say, here no cost can be too great.
Serm. p. 37.


There is neither mean nor measure in making new holidays, as who should say, this one thing is serving of God, to make this law, that no man may work. Ibid. p. 52.

And speaking it, he wistly look'd on me;

As who should say, 'I would thou wert the man
That would divorce this terror from my heart.'

Shakespeare, Rich. II. v. 4. 8. Compare the use of 'what' in Shakespeare (Wint. Tale, I. 2. 44):

I love thee not a jar o' the clock behind

What lady she her lord.

Who (Acts xxi. 37). The construction in this passage is archaic. Compare the following:

The Lacedæmonians wished for him often when he was gone, and sent diuers and many a time to call him home: who thought their Kings had but the honour and title of Kings, and not the vertue or maiestie of a prince, wherby they did excell the common people. North's Plutarch, Lycurgus, p. 46.

About this time Sir Iohn Froisart Chanon of Chimay in the Earledome of Heynault, as himselfe reporteth, came into England, he demaunded of Sir William Lisle (who had been with the King in Ireland) the manner of the hole that in Ireland is called Saint Patrikes Purgatory, if it were true that was said of it, or not: who answered, that such a hole there was, and that himselfe and another knight had been there while the king lay at Dubline. Stow, Annals, p. 499.

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