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The duke hath offered him letters of commendations to the king. Shakespeare, All's Well, IV. 3. 92.

Under the Feudal System Commendation had a technical signification. "The vassal was said to commend himself to the person whom he selected for his lord." (Craik, English of Shakespeare, 279.)

Commination, sb. (Pr.-Bk.).

Lat. comminatio, literally a threatening, from minari, to threaten; hence applied to the recital of God's threatenings to be used on certain days, of which the first day of Lent is one.

Common, adj. Used by all, serving for all. Thus, the 'Book of Common Prayer,' as distinguished from private or family prayer. Latimer, in his first Sermon on the Lord's Prayer, makes the same distinction;

I told you the diversity of prayer, namely, of the common prayer, and the private. Serm. p. 326.

In the prayer of St Chrysostom, ' common supplications' are supplications in which all join. In like manner we read; 'the believers had all things common (Acts ii. 44), and in the phrases 'common faith' (Tit. i. 4), and 'common salvation' (Jude 3), the word is used in the same sense, which is not altogether obsolete. Other instances are found in Shakespeare (Tim. of Ath. xv. 3. 177);

Common mother, thou,

Whose womb unmeasurable, and infinite breast,

Teems, and feeds all.

And in Bacon (Ess. xv. p. 55); 'Princes, that ought to be common parents.' 'Common,' in the technical sense of 'profane' or 'polluted,' as defined by the ceremonial laws of the Jews, is usea (Acts x. 14, 15; Deut. xxviii. 30 m) and Jer. xxxi. 5.

There is a curious use of this word in the phrase 'common sense,' which is now taken almost universally to mean such sense as men of the most ordinary intellect may be supposed to be endowed with, but Archbishop Trench (Select Gloss. p. 42) has pointed out that it is a technical term, derived from the Greek metaphysicians, meaning an inward sense, which is the common bond of all the outward senses; as if the latter merely acted as channels to convey information to the 'common sense.'

Thus comyn wytte worketh wonderly,
Upon the v. gates whyche are receptatyve
Of every thynge for to take inwardly,
By the comyn wytte to be affyrmatyve
Or by decernynge to be negatyve;
The comyn wytte, the fyrst of wyttes all,
Is to decerne all thinges in generall.

Hawes, Pastime of Pleas. cap. 24.

Commonweal, sb. Commonwealth.

In some commonweals it was made a capital crime, once to motion the making of a new law for the abrogating of an old. The Translators to the Reader, p. cv.

The king and commonweal

Are deeply indebted for this piece of pains.

Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI. 1. 4. 46.

Commune, v.i. (Gen. xxiii. 8; 1 K. x. 2; Luke vi. 11; xxii. 4, &c.). In accordance with its derivation from Lat. communis, common, 'to commune with' originally signified 'to share in,' as for instance;

Laertes, I must commune with your grief,
Or you deny me right.

Shakespeare, Haml. IV. 5. 202. And hence 'to commune' acquired the meaning which it most frequently has, 'to share with another in the communication of ideas, to converse, consult.'

And when we had commoned a litle concernynge her sonne. Hall, Rich. III. fol. 11 a.

For when I am come home, I muste commen with my wife, chatte with my children, and talke wyth my seruauntes. More, Utopia, p. 22 (ed. Arber).

Communicate, Lat. communico, from the same root as the preceding word. It is used both transitively in the sense of 'to impart' to others (Gal. ii. 2), and intransitively 'to share,' 'participate' (Phil. iv. 14; 2 Macc. v. 20), and in a technical sense in the Rubrics and Exhortation to the Communion office, 'to partake of the Lord's Supper.' In the sense of 'to share' it occurs in Shakespeare (Com. of Err. II. 2. 178);

Thou art an elm, my husband, I a vine,

Whose weakness, married to thy stronger state,
Makes me with thy strength to communicate.

The cittie was in great expectation of the sequele and issue: and according to the event that should fall out, good or bad in this journey, they were to judge, whether they had done well or amisse to communicate these dignities with the Commons. Holland's Livy, VII. p. 253 C.

Communication, sb. (Luke xxiv. 17; Eph. iv. 29). Conversation, talk. Sir Thomas More (Utopia, ed. Arber, p. 36) says of Cardinal Morton,

In his face did shine such an amiable reuerence, as was pleasaunte to beholde, Gentill in communication, yet earnest, and sage.

Communing, sẻ. (Ps. xxxv. 20, Pr.-Bk.). Talk, conversation.

Compact, pp. (Ps. cxxii. 3). Firmly united, strongly built; Lat. compactus, which has the same meaning. The form 'compacted' occurs in Eph. iv. 16.

The cœlestiall bodies, which make and frame the world, and in that frame are compact and knit together, have an immortall nature. Holland's Pliny, II. 8.

The French King willed his Chauncellor or other minister to repeate and say ouer Fraunce as many times as the other had recited the severall dominions, intending it was equivalent with them all, & beside more compacted and united. Bacon, Colours of Good and Evil, 5. p. 255.

Love is a spirit all compact of fire.

Shakespeare, Ven. and Ad. 149.

The lunatic, the lover, and the poet
Are of imagination all compact.

Id. Mid. N.'s Dr. v. 1. 8.

Company, v. i. The etymology of this word has given rise to many conjectures. The noun companion (Fr. compagnon, It. compagno) has been variously derived from Med. Lat. compaganus, 'one of the same village,' or companis, 'a messmate,' whence companium, 'an association,' 'in analogy with O. H. G. gi-mazo or gi-leip, board-fellow, from mazo, meat, or leip, bread' (Wedgwood). Webster suggests another origin for company, 'from cum and pannus, cloth, Teutonic fahne, or vaan a flag. The word denotes a band or number of men under one flag or standard.' But companis is the true ancestor of the

word. 'To company with' (Acts i. 21; 1 Cor. v. 9) in the sense of 'to associate with,' occurs in Latimer (Serm. p. 63);

How many such prelates, how many such bishops, Lord, for thy mercy, are there now in England! And what shall we in this case do? Shall we company with them?

So master Latimer, with master Bilney, after this, continued yet in Cambridge a certain space, where he with the said Bilney used much to confer and company together, insomuch that the place where they most used to walk in the fields, was called long after, the Heretics'-hill. Foxe, Acts and Monuments, ed. Cattley, VII. 452.

Compass. Fr. compas, It. compasso, a compass, circle; compasser to compass, encircle; from Lat. cum-passus. The word is used both as (1) a noun and (2) a verb. 1. In the sense of 'circumference' (Ex. xxvii. 5; xxxviii. 4); 'circuit' (2 Sam. v. 23; 2 Kings iii. 9; Acts xxviii. 13). In the latter passages 'to fetch a compass' is simply 'to make a circuit,' 'to go round.' The phrase was formerly common. Thus in Greene's Groatsworth of Wit; 'And from thence fetch a winding compasse of a mile about' (Sig. C 4 rev.). And Heywood (Fair Maid of the Exchange, II. 3),

For 'tis his custom, like a sneaking fool;

To fetch a compass of a mile about,
And creep where he would be.

Which fetching about a circuite or compasse of v.c. Miles, do fassion ye whole Iland like to ye new mone. More, Utopia (ed.

Arber), p. 72.

For hee seeing the right wing discomfited, had fet a compasse about, and ridden to the fortifications and munitions of the enemies. Holland's Livy, B. VII. p. 259 C.

The word occurs as a noun in Chaucer in the literal sense 'circle.' In describing the amphitheatre built by Theseus, he says,

of a

Round was the schap, in maner of compaas.

Knight's Tale, 1891.

Bacon uses it for 'border,' 'circumference;'

Most of the kingdomes of Europe, are not meerely inland, but girt with the sea, most part of their compasse. Ess. XXIX. p. 129.

2. The verb to 'compass' is used for the modern 'encompass,' to surround, go round; as in Shakespeare (Mid. N.'s Dr. IV. I. 102),

We the globe can compass soon

Swifter than the wand'ring moon.

The rest compassed him in round about a horsebacke, with songs of victory and great rushing of their harnesse. North's Plutarch, Brut. p. 1073.

In 2 Sam. xxiv. 2, marg. it is used in the sense of 'traverse' or 'go through;' and in Jer. xxxi. 39, to 'compass about' is to go round.

In the phrase 'compass the doing of so weighty a work,' which occurs in The Ordering of Priests, it is easy to see how, from the original sense of surrounding, 'compass' came to mean to bring about, effect, attain to.

How now shall this be compassed?

Shakespeare, Temp. 111. 2. 66.

You judge it straight a thing impossible
To compass wonders but by help of devils.

Id. 1 Hen. VI. v. 4. 48.

Compel, v. t. (1 Sam. xxviii. 23). To press, urge; as the same Hebrew word is rendered in 2 Sam. xiii. 25, 27; 2 Kings v. 23.

Compose, v. t. To settle, arrange, as quarrels, &c.; Lat. componere.

Demaratus of Corinth advised a great King, before he talked of the dissensions among the Grecians, to compose his domestick broils. The Translators to the Reader, p. cxv.

Compound, pp. (Ex. xxx. 25). Compounded.

Comprehend, v. t. (Is. xl. 12). In its literal sense, to take in, include; Lat. comprehendere.

Moses, who, at God's commandment, did in writing comprehend the history and traditions of the holy fathers. Bullinger, Decades, I. 56.

Charity, which is excellently called the bond of perfection, because it comprehendeth and fasteneth all virtues together. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, II. 22 § 15, p. 214. Conceit, v. i. To conceive, imagine; formed from the substantive conceit, Lat. conceptum.

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