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He wolden sowen som difficultee

Or springen cockle in our clene corne.

Chaucer, Shipman's Prol. 14404.

Barclay, Eclogue v. p. xxxvii.

Why growe the wedes and cokyll in the corne?

They haue purged their Comedyes of wanton speaches, yet the Corne whiche they sell, is full of Cockle.

Gosson, The Schoole of Abuse (ed. Arber), p. 37. Cogitations, sb. (Dan. vii. 28). Thoughts, reflections; Lat. cogitationes.

For first of all, wanton and vain cogitations, which always lie wide open to the inspirations of Satan and talk of naughty men, are plagues to the word of God. Bullinger, Decades, 1. 66.

For there is no power on earth which setteth up a throne or chair of estate in the spirits and souls of men, and in their cogitations, imaginations, opinions, and beliefs, but knowledge and learning. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, 1. 8, § 3, p. 70.

My desire is to make this cause so manifest, that if it were possible, no doubt or scruple concerning the same might remain in any man's cogitation. Hooker, Ecclesiastical Polity, II. 4, § 6. Collops, sb. (Job xv. 27). Lumps or slices of meat; still used in Yorkshire, but generally applied to rashers of bacon, whence the Monday before Ash Wednesday is there called Collop Monday. According to Mr Wedgwood's ingenious etymology, it is an imitative word 'from clop or colp, representing the sound of a lump of something soft thrown on a flat surface.' He connects it with Du. klop, It. colpo, a blow, and compares the similar words dab, pat, in which both significations are combined. To these may be added slab and slap.

A morcell, gobbet, or peece of flesh, a steake or collop, or any like peece. Offa. Baret, Alvearie.

God knows thou art a collop of my flesh. Shakespeare, I Hen. VI. v. 4. 18. Colour, sẻ. (Acts xxvii. 30). Pretext; Lat. color in the same


I fere, lest those that haue not letted to put them in duresse with out colour, wil let as lytle to procure their distruccion without cause. Sir T. More, Rich. III. Works, p. 49g.

Under a colour to make sport and set the companie a laughing, but indeed to mocke Gegania the mistresse of the house. Holland's Pliny, XXXIV. 3.

When he [Pompey] was chosen consul alone, as never any was, yet he could make no great matter of it, because men understood him not; but was fain in the end to go the beaten track of getting arms into his hands, by colour of the doubt of Cæsar's designs, Bacon, Advancement of Learning, II. 23 § 36, p. 241.

Notwithstanding his royal heart was not daunted or discouraged for this or that colour, but stood resolute.

lators to the Reader, p. cvii.

The Trans

Colt, sb. (Gen. xxxii. 15; Zech. ix. 9, &c.). A. S. colt. Applied to the male young of the ass and camel, but now only to a young male horse. The Swedish kult denotes both a

young boar and a boy.

a Colte: a fole: a chicken: the yong of everything. Pullus. Baret, Alvearie.

Combustion, so. Burning, conflagration.

Was Catiline therefore an honest man, or a good patriot, that sought to bring it to a combustion? The Translators to the Reader, p. cxiii.

And prophesying with accents terrible

Of dire combustion and confused events.

Shakespeare, Macbeth, 11. 3. 63.

There was a haberdasher's wife of small wit near him, that railed upon me till her pinked porringer fell off her head, for kindling such a combustion in the state.

Id. Henry VIII. v. 4. 51.

Two stage players, Percennius and Vibulenus, who by their faculty of playing put the Pannonian armies into an extreme tumult and combustion. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, II. 19 § 2, p. 184.

Come at, v. t. (Num. vi. 6; Dan. vi. 24). To come near.

If I therefore beynge a yonge simple scholer myghte be so bolde, I wolde aske an auncient, wyse, and well learned doctor of diuinitie, whych cometh not at his benefice, whether he were bounde to fede hys flocke in teachynge of goddes worde, and kepyng hospitalitie or no? Lever, Sermons (ed. Arber), p. 30. Madam, he hath not slept to-night; commanded None should come at him.

Shakespeare, Wint. Tale, II. 3. 32. Come by, v. t. (Acts xxvii. 16). To get possession of. Still used colloquially.

This office he committed to him, that he might the more



easely by him, as by a faithful messenger, releue the necessitie and misery of poore nedie people, such as him selfe happely coulde not come by the knowlage of. Sir T. More, Life of Picus;

Works, p. 6d.

But how I caught it, found it, or came by it,
What stuff 'tis made of, whereof it is born,
I am to learn.

Shakespeare, M. of Venice, 1. 1. 3. Translation it is...that removeth the cover of the well, that we may come by the water. The Translators to the Reader, p. cviii.

Comeliness, sb. (Is. liii. 2; Ezek. xvi. 14). Beauty, grace.

To be short, her body was not much better then her minde: yet her good grace and comelynesse, and the force of her beautie was not altogether defaced. North's Plutarch, Antonius, p. 1007. Comelinesse: seemelinesse. Decentia...condecentia. Baret,


When youth with comeliness plucked all gaze his way. Shakespeare, Coriol. 1. 3. 7. Comely, adj. (Ps. xxxiii. 1; Eccl. v. 18). Becoming, graceful, from A. S. cymlíc; like the Lat. decens. It is now only applied to external grace or beauty, but had once a moral sense.

Meseems it were more comely for my lord (if it were comely for me to say so), to be a preacher himself. Latimer, Rem. p. 328.

O, what a world is this, when what is comely
Envenoms him that bears it!

Shakespeare, As You Like It, II. 3. 14. The root of the word is connected with the A. S. cweman, to please, and G. bequem.

Comfort, v. t. Fr. comforter; ecclesiastical Latin conforto, from Lat. fortis 'strong.' Properly 'to strengthen.' The Hebrew word thus rendered in Job ix. 27; x. 20, is elsewhere translated to recover strength' (Ps. xxxix. 13) and 'strengthen' (Am. v. 9). In 1 Kings xix. c, Elijah 'is comforted by an angel;' that is, refreshed, strengthened. The idea of strengthening and supporting has been lost sight of in the modern usage of the word, which now signifies 'to console;' and the substantive ' comfort,' when employed in a material sense, does not convey the idea of needful support so much as of that which is merely accessory. In the 7th art. of the truce between England and

Scotland in the reign of Rich. III. it was provided that neither of the kings 'shall maintayne, fauour, ayde, or comfort any rebell or treytour' (Hall, Rich. III. fol. 19a). And shortly after we read, 'King Charles promised him aide and comfort, & bad him to be of good courage & make good chere' (fol. 23 a).

Lord Campbell, in his 'Essay on Shakespeare's legal acquirements' (p. 82), comments upon the passage in K. Lear, III. 5, 21, 'If I find him comforting the king, it will stuff his suspicion more fully ;' "The indictment against an accessary after the fact, for treason, charges that the accessary 'comforted' the principal traitor after knowledge of the treason." But the most striking passage of all is in Wiclif's translation of Is. xli. 7: 'And he coumfortide hym with nailes, that it shulde not be moued.' (A. V. 'fastened'). And again, in Phil. iv. 13, the earlier version has, 'I may alle thingis in him that comfortith me.'

For as water, whether it be the dew of heaven, or the springs of the earth, doth scatter and leese itself in the ground, except it be collected into some receptacle, where it may by union comfort and sustain this excellent liquor of knowledge ...would soon perish and vanish to oblivion, if it were not preserved in books, traditions, conferences, and places appointed, as universities, colleges, and schools, for the receipt and comforting of the same. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, II. I § 3, p. 77.

Hence the late Bishop Hinds, in his Scripture and the Authorized Version of Scripture, p. 132, remarked, ' Comforter was, therefore, when employed by the Translators, a much more accurate rendering of the word which it represents than it now is: for that word, πapákλŋros, like Advocate, (which is accordingly one of the renderings,) means, etymologically, one called in,―viz. for any purpose of need, whether to strengthen, to console, to guide, to instruct, to plead and intercede for, or otherwise to aid. So also the word comfortless, in its present restricted meaning, no longer expresses the sense of the original word, which is rendered by it, as fully as it once did.'

Comfortable, adj. (Ps. liv. 6, Pr.-Bk.; Communion Service). Comforting, consoling, strengthening. Thus Latimer, describing Bilney's agony of mind (Serm. 222); 'As for the comfortable places of scripture, to bring them unto him it was as though

a man would run him through the heart with a sword.' And Chapman (Preface to Homer, Il. I. p. lxiv. ed. Hooper) in his noble defence of Poetry, says;

To all sciences, therefore, I must still......prefer it as having a perpetual commerce with the Divine Majesty, embracing and illustrating all His most holy precepts, and enjoying continual discourse with His thrice perfect and most comfortable Spirit.

Manna, which, though it were celestial, yet seemed less nutritive and comfortable. Bacon, Advancement of Learning, II. 12 § 2, p. 148.

Commandment, sb. (z Kings xviii. 36). Command, bidding. Euen those fayle me, and at my commaundemente wyll do nothyng for me. Sir T. More, Rich. III.; Works, p. 67 h.

Sextilius went to doe his commaundement, but he was compelled to fight. North's Plutarch, Lucullus, p. 558. Commandment, to give in (Ex. xxxiv. 32). To command.

Whence it is, that in suche cases, Phisicians geue in commaundement to feele the pulce of the passionate partie, rehearsing, and remembryng the names of many, and among theim the partie also beloued. The Foreste or Collection of Histories, trans. Fortescue, fol. 131 a (ed. 1571).

Commend, v. t. (Acts xiv. 23). From Lat. commendo, lit. ‘to commit to one's charge;' used several times in the sense in which recommend' is now common. Thus in Shakespeare (Two Gent. of Ver. 1. 3. 42);

Are journeying to salute the emperor

And to commend their service to his will.

I commend rather, some diet, for certaine seasons, then frequent use of physicke. Bacon, Ess. xxx. p. 132.

And in the sense of 'commit' simply:

His glittering arms he will commend to rust.

Shakespeare, Rich. II. 111. 3. 116. Commendation, sẻ. (2 Cor. iii. 1). Recommendation. Epistles of commendation mentioned in the above passage, and in early Canons, were letters commendatory, by which the bearers, when leaving their own congregations, were recommended to distant churches, as guarantees of character (Blunt, Hist. of the First Three Centuries, p. 25). As commend above is used for 'recommend,' so 'recommendation' in modern usage takes the place of commendation.

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