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are found, and they are found almost everywhere, they operate as a social poison ; and, though they contrive to embitter the enjoyments of everybody about them, they perpetually assume that themselves are the only aggrieved persons, and with such art, as to be believed, till thoroughly known. They have often some excellent qualities, and the appearance of many amiable ones; but rank selfishness is their chief characteristic, accompanied by inordinate pride and vanity. They have a habit of laying the consequences of their own sins, whether of omission or of commission, upon others; and, covered with faults, they flatter themselves they “walk blameless.” Where their selfishness, pride, or vanity are interested, they exhibit signs of boundless zeal, attention, and affection, to which those, who are not aware of their motives, are the dupes; but the very moment their predominant feelings are offended, they change from April to December. They have smiles and tears at command for their holiday humour ; but in the winter of their discontent," there is no safety from the bitterest blasts. Their grievances are seldom real, or if real, are grossly exaggerated, and are generally attributable to themselves; for, absorbed in their own feelings, they are wonderful losers of opportunities. In conclusion, I think it would be for their advantage, as it certainly would be for that of the rest of the world, if they were made subject to some severe discipline; and I would suggest for the first, second, and third offence, bread and water and the tread-mill, for one, two, and three months, respectively; for the fourth offence, transportation for seven years to Boothia Felix, or some such climate ; and any subsequent delinquency I would make capital, and cause the criminal to be shut
with some offender in equal degree, there to grumble each other to death.
Published also monthly with the Periodicals, stitched in a wrapper.
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WEDNESDAY, AUG. 26, 1835. [PRICE 3d.
Art of Travelling.
Economy of Labour,
ART OF TRAVELLING.
In my first number, I promised to make some observations on the art of travelling, which promise I shall now perform, not professing to offer a complete set of rules, but only such as occur to me at a considerable distance from actual experience, and such as I do not recollect to have seen elsewhere. Travelling may be said to be a state of great pleasure, mixed with great annoyance; but by management the former may be much increased, and the latter proportionably diminished. In whatever way you travel, I particularly recommend you to guard against the cravings of hunger, both for sake, and in order the better to preserve placidity of temper, which, with every precaution, is exposed to frequent disturbance. When your mind is ruffled, you can neither see with pleasure nor profit, and the natives are pretty sure to revenge themselves for your ill humour by imposing upon you. On setting out on the last long journey I made, which was in a private carriage with one companion, I bought a small basket, and caused it to be filled with cold provisions, bread, and fruit, and I kept it constantly replenished during ten months, whenever we were upon the road, to which circumstance I mainly attribute the fact that we never had the shadow of a disagreement or an uncomfort. There is nothing like a basket of this sort for diminishing the dreadful tediousness of uncertain distances at the end of a long day, and it is a great consolation in case of accidental stoppages. In aid of it, I purchased two clasp knives, and forks attached, a couple of tumblers, and a snuff-box, with an almanack on the lid, by way of saltcellar. A quarto French dictionary served for a table, and so equipped we almost defied fortune. At the inns where we slept, I always made special mention of the basket over-night, and the consequence was, it was frequently specially filled, particularly with excellent game, which, with bread, and grapes, or figs, we found extremely palatable and wholesome. Where the wine was good, we generally carried off a bottle or two; but wine, and indeed any liquid, ought to be sparingly used on such occasions, and an hour or two after eating: otherwise the motion of the carriage prevents digestion, and induces feverishness. The fruit, taken by way of vegetables, supplies in a great measure the place of liquids. The proper and most agreeable mode of refreshing is in small quantities, and frequently; and the only thing to be guarded against is, to leave sufficient appetite for the meals tend to take where you stop, and this sometimes requires a little judgment and resolution. Some people have a habit, and rather make a boast of it, of travelling long distances without taking anything; but I strongly recommend the basket system, having tried both plans. In public conveyances, I think a sandwich-box might be convenient. I shall conclude this part of my observations, with referring my reader to the article on health in my eighth number, in which I
One of the greatest annoyances in travelling, is continual exposure to imposition ; but this may, by good management, be frequently avoided, either altogether or in part, as by bad management it may be greatly increased. There are four kinds of imposers. The first are downright rogues, who make a point of taking advantage whenever they have the power; but even they have degrees of extortion, according to the behaviour of their victims. The second are a sort of good-tempered, easy imposers, who impose as a matter of course, but whom a little good management almost immediately turns from their purpose. They are willing to impose upon you, if you are willing to be imposed upon, but otherwise
On remonstrance they will pretend they have made a mistake, or that if you are not satisfied, they do not wish to have any dispute. The third will not attempt imposition, unless they are encouraged to it by some foolish display or swagger; nor the fourth, until they are provoked by unreasonableness or discourtesy. My observation tells me there is no preventive against these different kinds of imposition, so sure as a certain quiet, composed bearing, indicative at once of self-respect and of consideration for others. I have made many experiments in the matter under various circumstances, both in this country and abroad, and the result seems to me to be, that by such behaviour you ensure greater attention at a lower cost than by any other course; and having adopted such a course, I think that on the continent you may still be exposed, when actually travelling, to imposition to the extent of about ten per cent. upon your expenditure, to which, for comfort's sake, and to avoid the chance of being wrong, which frequently happens in small matters, it is wise to submitwithout keeping yourself in a constant fever, and state of distraction from the objects only worthy of attention.
In all my
speaking now of those who have no, or but little, experience ; others will be able to protect themselves to a greater extent.
One of the most desirable qualities in travelling is punctuality, or readiness. Without it there is but small satisfaction, either to yourself, or those with you. journies I was always ready in time, but often with a good deal of bustling and hurry, till one morning in Switzerland I looked out of my window as I was dressing, and saw a gentleman who had just joined the party, pacing backwards and forwards before the inn with a degree of composure, which made me determine to imitate. what he told me was his constant rule, to be ready at least a quarter of an hour before the time. I adopted the practice thenceforward, and found the greatest advantage from it. One of the benefits of habitual punctuality is the confidence it inspires; the uncertainty of uppunctuality is a continual drawback to enjoyment. It hangs over one like a cloud.
The quickest mode of acquiring a good idea of any place is to take the earliest opportunity of ascending some tower, or eminence, from which there is a commanding view, with some person who can point out the most remarkable objects. If this is followed up by wandering about without a guide, and trusting solely to your own observation, you will be as well acquainted with the localities in a few hours, as the generality of travellers would be in a week, or perhaps better, because your impressions would be stronger. I do not mean by this to supersede the employment of guides in sight-seeing, for they are very useful in saving time. The first day I arrived at Rome I met a classical friend, who had been there some time, and who had made himself completely master of the place. He took me to the top of the tower in the capitol, and pointed out every thing remarkable, so that from the very beginning I acquired a sort of familiar acquaintance with the city and its environs, and was never at a loss afterwards.