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(THE JUVENILE COURT RECORD endeavors to bring
A distinguished German authority ex- protection of children. Hungary presses a very favorable opinion of the is the only country in which the legal Hungarian organization: “One country right of every child, which is in need of in Europe has developed a system of child protection without reference to his- edged.”
care, to enjoy State care, is acknowl
1 torical precedents, on the basis of practical experience, and this organization be fully conscious of the value of its
The Hungarian government seems to a
achievement and satisfied with the exthat is Hungary. This nation has founded a State administration of child periment.” Passing by the general measprotection and established the legal right
1. Dr. Keller, Kinderpflege-Lehrbuch, 1911, of the child to care. .. ungary at pres
See also Keller: "Sauglingsfulsorgó ent over 50,000 children under fifteen
in Ungarn. years of age are under State protection,
2. "Le Drelt de l'Enfant abandonno et le and not less than seven millions of systeme Gongrois de Protection, de l'Enfance.
par Zoltan de Bosnyak ot Cto L Edolsholmcrowns are annually disbursed for State
Gyulal. Budapest, 1909.
ures of social politics we do not yet find ternal grandparents are required to sup.
considerations as to their origin have no Midwives.
weight. A child in need is admitted inDr. Edelmann, in
g an account of stantly and without question to the shelhis school of hygiene for midwives, ex
ter and care of the State institutions; the plains their social importance in Hun- investigation comes afterwards. Life is gary. The explanation has value for
not endangered by red tape. The proAmerican cities, because the Hungarian tection of nurslings is at the charge of immigrants bring with them the customs the general government, so that the igand beliefs of their fatherland. “The
norance and petty parsimony of local midwife is the counsellor of the future officials will not raise difficulties and mother; she can act everywhere, where
cause fatal delay. The nursling is althere is no doctor, in the most humble
ways kept with the mother at home; if villages. She is always present at births.
this is impossible they go elsewhere toEven in the most secret births her aid gether. The right of a babe to its is involved. She is the physician in com
mother's breast and care is fixed by law. munes where there are no doctors, and
Unlike the law in Roumania countries, where an infant is dangerously ill she
that of Hungary insists on the responsiis called in." The education of mid- bility of the mother and of her parents
, wives is therefore important. We are
and finds the father of the illegitimate not informed how far the example of child, if possible. A confessed weakness Dr. Edelmann has been followed; but of the law is that after the fifteenth year the colony system itself must have an parents may take back their children. It educational influence over wide areas,
is proposed to correct this error and give for it distributes specialists over the
the state institutions control up to makingdom.
jority, and so prevent unfit parents from For the care of women at home in con
destroying the good previously accomfinement the National Society for the plished. Protection of Mothers provides a certain
These legal rights are at the basis of amount of help. The provision for preg
a well considered plan of supervision and nant women is made by voluntary chari
care which facilitates the instant admisty, and the official report does not tell us
sion of abandoned children. that it is adequate.
tions are asked, the first minutes being It is in the direct care of dependent critical when a tender infant is conand imperilled children that the pride of cerned. The proper officials make the Hungary seems justified. Their legal necessary inquiries after the child is in rights have been amply recognized. safe care. Whenever it is possible the The rights of illegitimate infants are the mother is required to remain with her insame as those of the legitimate, so far fant. This enforcement of maternal as protection is concerned. They belong duty does not keep the mothers írom to the family of the mother; their ma- coming. The number increases, and
abandonment is becoming more rare. as wet nurses, and physicians instruct
an indemnity for the support of the The mother is given a home with her mother.
mother. This method often developes babe; gradually she takes deeper interest parental feeling for the waif. The rein it; she is made better. physically and port claims that the placement of the morally; establishes relations with her nursling with the mother in a family is family; is more apt to be upright after- a Hungarian innovation. Some mothers wards. She works at light tasks in the
become attached to the foster nursling asylum, cares for her baby, reads, learns
committed to her, take pity on it, and some lucrative occupation. She is under are willing to be placed with two infants the direction of a physician who teaches in a country home. In these cases fourher infant feeding and hygiene. When teen crowns are paid each month, eight a mother leaves the asylum she knows for the nurse and six for the family how to teach other young women the
where they are boarded. These families better way. If sick or feeble while in are grouped in colonies so that medicai the asylum she may rest and recuperate inspection is more effective and economi
cal. The central institution, at Budapest,
A mother whose infant is feeble may has the character of a hospital for infants, where they can be placed under keep her babe longer than the usual pe
riod of nursing, about twelve months. observation and treated before being sent out. Mothers who have little milk are
The child is clothed by the asylum and given a vigorous nursling to stimulate
treated by the doctor of the colony. secretion of milk, often with marked suc
Medicines are paid out of the national
fund for relief of the sick.
Each colony is under a director. in
chief who is a physician; he is aided by has no milk, or who has died, or who has abandoned her baby. These receive
the necessary medical assistants and pay for the extra service, fourteen
women inspectors. A colony committee, crowns a month. Artificial' feeding is composed of men and women, act as a
council, The system of inspection is rare; only siphilitics without mothers and those who have already been bottle thorough. A card is kept for the hisfed have artificial food. Mixed feeding tory, of each child. In case of need a is used for children several months old, child may be returned to the asylum for
treatment. Inspection of infants dewhose mothers have insufficient milk. A few women nurse three infants; prived of mothers is especially careful,
nurse three infants; since their danger is greatest. weighing prevents danger of insufficient
It is becoming more difficult to secure nourishment. The most difficult task is to care for tends to replace it.
wet nurses; the system of freres de lait infants deprived of their mothers. If an unnatural mother refuses to give included in this system. Dr. Edelmann
Some categories of infants are not yet nurse she is required to make the at
and others demand the enactment of a tempt and no available means to induce
law like the loi Roussel in France, by her are neglected. Wet nurses
which all children who are not reared sought, but their infants are carefully by their own mothers shall be brought protected. Married women whose babies
under the same inspection. The success have died, and who are free from con
of the system of placement in colonies tagious diseases, are sometimes hired
depends largely on the condition of the
dwelling 3. Dr. Edelman says that in the asylum under his direction at Nagy varad, of 70 babes admitted without the mothers in 1907, 25
Certainly individual instances occur in (35.71 per cent) died; in 1908, of 98 babes the United States and elsewhere. thus admitted, 32 (32.65 per cent) died; about gary this form of placement is systematically the average in the other Hungarian asylums. employed.
Teaching Sex Hygiene in Public Schools
By S. W. DICKINSON.
Instruction in sex hygiene in public and functions of reproduction. The life schools has passed the experimental stage of plants, the growth of flowers, fertilizaboth in this country and across the water tion, formation of seed, reproduction of and is in scarcely any quarter regarded species, can be studied in any school, and with doubt. Certain well-defined prin- if the parent was informed, in any home. ciples have been accepted and methods Prof. Charles R. Henderson says: "If of instruction outlined.
any schol authorities determine to keep No other subject of equal importance
the discussion of sex out of their school has been so long or so grossly neglected. they must simply refuse to introduce Through ignorance or false modesty modern biology and to resist the moveparents and teachers have failed to do ment in favor of scientific instruction their duty.
which has done so much for modern edIt remained for the medical men, with
ucation.” When the sacred facts of sex their knowledge of immorality and prev
relation are taught in a scientific manner alence of venereal diseases among the
there is no shock to the sensitiveness of
the child, for, observed and studied, nayoung, to sound a note of alarm and
ture teaches its own facts. organize themselves for effective reme
The modern method by competent dial measures in prophylaxis and hygiene, and the movement for general in
teachers in teaching botany and zoology
is not from a text book. The entire plant struction is on. This movement is in
or animal lies on the table and is caretelligent, sane, scientific and moral, and
fully examined with the aid of lenses and recognizes that development of life in the family and state depends upon true
microscope. Is it possible that the child
will observe the organs of digestion and knowledge of the physiology of sex.
circulation, motion and co-ordination, and The logic of the matter is while the
not have an honest inquiry about the schools have been teaching physiology,
form and functions of the organs which they have missed the vital point of the
secure the perpetuation of the species? functions of the body in its social rela
Indeed, if the facts are before him, he tion to sex and reproduction. Boys and
will, in a rational way, draw his own congirls have grown up in ignorance or have
clusions from these lower forms to the obtained information only partly true in
human species without going into too a clandestine way.
much detail. It is a tremendous advantwenty-five of our most progressive cities
tage for him to obtain right knowledge revealed that teachers were anxiously
from right sources than imperfect and alive to the need of sex instruction among wrong impressions from wrong sources. their pupils.
The great advantage of this method is The general agreement in the better that it puts the matter of sex hygiene on high schools is that scientific foundation
a level with all other facts in nature and for knowledge of the sex relation is fur- brings it within the realm of legitimate nished in the study of biology, botany, knowledge. In the lower grades the zoology, physiology and domestic science. child's first questionings regarding the Knowledge of the body and its func- beginnigs of life are satisfied. All curitions is given in a degree and manner ous inquiries are answered and to a large suitable to the child's age and increased degree the subject is removed from the as he develops in mateurity up to the fifth realm of mystery. The average child's and probably to the eighth grade.
mind will have a feeling of respect for In nature study the child may uncon- such knowledge as sacred and modest sciously be accustomed to a precise and unless debased by outside influences. dignified vocabulary about the organs Urgency in the matter of elementary