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(THE JUVENILE COURT RECORD endeavors to bring
together both children of this class and mediums through
which they are aided to become normal, self-supporting and
useful citizens. We aim and desire to help the children and
all that concerns and assists child welfare.
We therefore solicit correspondence from all persons know-
ing such children that need either help or protection. All
correspondence of this character will receive our immediate
attention and thorough investigation through proper channels.
Persons making complaints will please sign their names and
addresses in full, as we must refuse to pay any attention to
correspondence of any anonymous nature. Address all cor-
respondence to THE JUVENILE COURT RECORD, 23 S.
Clinton St., Chicago.
(THE JUVENILE COURT RECORD will carry on a cam-
paign of publicity in newspapers throughout the United States,
with a view of opening permanent family homes for Handi-
capped and Dependent Children.
(YOUR PATRONAGE of this publication, either as a sub-
scription at one dollar or a single copy at ten cents, will enable
us to carry out the above to a successful termination of all
cases coming to our notice.

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A distinguished German authority ex- protection of children. Hungary presses a very favorable opinion of the is the only country in which the legal Hungarian organization: “One country right of every child, which is in need of in Europe has developed a system of child protection without reference to his- edged.”

care, to enjoy State care, is acknowl

1 torical precedents, on the basis of practical experience, and this organization be fully conscious of the value of its

The Hungarian government seems to a

achievement and satisfied with the exthat is Hungary. This nation has founded a State administration of child periment.” Passing by the general measprotection and established the legal right

1. Dr. Keller, Kinderpflege-Lehrbuch, 1911, of the child to care. .. ungary at pres

See also Keller: "Sauglingsfulsorgó ent over 50,000 children under fifteen

in Ungarn. years of age are under State protection,

2. "Le Drelt de l'Enfant abandonno et le and not less than seven millions of systeme Gongrois de Protection, de l'Enfance.

par Zoltan de Bosnyak ot Cto L Edolsholmcrowns are annually disbursed for State

Gyulal. Budapest, 1909.

p. 127.

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ures of social politics we do not yet find ternal grandparents are required to sup.
the most advanced direct measures of port them. It may be observed in pass-
protecting working women by factory ing that this provision of law tends to
legislation and maternal insurance. The make parents more careful in watching
Hungarian law, however, is far in ad- over their daughters, and also gives them
vance of American legislation, for it in- a pecuniary incentive to discover the
sures factory working women and pro- father. It is hoped that the asylum di-
vides indemnity for six weeks after con- rectors will be able to enforce the rights
finement. This law does not yet extend of the child in relation to the fathers,
its benefits to women engaged in agri- in case of abandonment.
cultural or domestic employment. Hun- The State has made itself the guardian
gary recognizes the fact that it is vicious of all dependent and neglected children
to prohibit working women from con- up to the fifteenth year of age. About
tinuing in employment at the sacrifice of one-half of these are illegitimate. All
the children and of themselves, unless an children in Hungary have a legally de-
insurance fund makes good the needed fined right to the protection of the State;
wages lost.

considerations as to their origin have no Midwives.

weight. A child in need is admitted inDr. Edelmann, in

g an account of stantly and without question to the shelhis school of hygiene for midwives, ex

ter and care of the State institutions; the plains their social importance in Hun- investigation comes afterwards. Life is gary. The explanation has value for

not endangered by red tape. The proAmerican cities, because the Hungarian tection of nurslings is at the charge of immigrants bring with them the customs the general government, so that the igand beliefs of their fatherland. “The

norance and petty parsimony of local midwife is the counsellor of the future officials will not raise difficulties and mother; she can act everywhere, where

cause fatal delay. The nursling is althere is no doctor, in the most humble

ways kept with the mother at home; if villages. She is always present at births.

this is impossible they go elsewhere toEven in the most secret births her aid gether. The right of a babe to its is involved. She is the physician in com

mother's breast and care is fixed by law. munes where there are no doctors, and

Unlike the law in Roumania countries, where an infant is dangerously ill she

that of Hungary insists on the responsiis called in." The education of mid- bility of the mother and of her parents

, wives is therefore important. We are

and finds the father of the illegitimate not informed how far the example of child, if possible. A confessed weakness Dr. Edelmann has been followed; but of the law is that after the fifteenth year the colony system itself must have an parents may take back their children. It educational influence over wide areas,

is proposed to correct this error and give for it distributes specialists over the

the state institutions control up to makingdom.

jority, and so prevent unfit parents from For the care of women at home in con

destroying the good previously accomfinement the National Society for the plished. Protection of Mothers provides a certain

These legal rights are at the basis of amount of help. The provision for preg

a well considered plan of supervision and nant women is made by voluntary chari

care which facilitates the instant admisty, and the official report does not tell us

sion of abandoned children. that it is adequate.

tions are asked, the first minutes being It is in the direct care of dependent critical when a tender infant is conand imperilled children that the pride of cerned. The proper officials make the Hungary seems justified. Their legal necessary inquiries after the child is in rights have been amply recognized. safe care. Whenever it is possible the The rights of illegitimate infants are the mother is required to remain with her insame as those of the legitimate, so far fant. This enforcement of maternal as protection is concerned. They belong duty does not keep the mothers írom to the family of the mother; their ma- coming. The number increases, and



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abandonment is becoming more rare. as wet nurses, and physicians instruct
But along with compulsion is public re- them.
lief; the mother is made free from all The asylum, during the nursing period,
anxiety about support and becomes re- often places mother and infant in a col-
sponsible for the child's maintenance and ony with honest families who receive
education up to the fifteenth year.

an indemnity for the support of the The mother is given a home with her mother.

mother. This method often developes babe; gradually she takes deeper interest parental feeling for the waif. The rein it; she is made better. physically and port claims that the placement of the morally; establishes relations with her nursling with the mother in a family is family; is more apt to be upright after- a Hungarian innovation. Some mothers wards. She works at light tasks in the

become attached to the foster nursling asylum, cares for her baby, reads, learns

committed to her, take pity on it, and some lucrative occupation. She is under are willing to be placed with two infants the direction of a physician who teaches in a country home. In these cases fourher infant feeding and hygiene. When teen crowns are paid each month, eight a mother leaves the asylum she knows for the nurse and six for the family how to teach other young women the

where they are boarded. These families better way. If sick or feeble while in are grouped in colonies so that medicai the asylum she may rest and recuperate inspection is more effective and economi

cal. The central institution, at Budapest,

A mother whose infant is feeble may has the character of a hospital for infants, where they can be placed under keep her babe longer than the usual pe

riod of nursing, about twelve months. observation and treated before being sent out. Mothers who have little milk are

The child is clothed by the asylum and given a vigorous nursling to stimulate

treated by the doctor of the colony. secretion of milk, often with marked suc

Medicines are paid out of the national

fund for relief of the sick.
cess. Many mothers nurse two babes-
their own and one of some mother who

Each colony is under a director. in

chief who is a physician; he is aided by has no milk, or who has died, or who has abandoned her baby. These receive

the necessary medical assistants and pay for the extra service, fourteen

women inspectors. A colony committee, crowns a month. Artificial' feeding is composed of men and women, act as a

council, The system of inspection is rare; only siphilitics without mothers and those who have already been bottle thorough. A card is kept for the hisfed have artificial food. Mixed feeding tory, of each child. In case of need a is used for children several months old, child may be returned to the asylum for

treatment. Inspection of infants dewhose mothers have insufficient milk. A few women nurse three infants; prived of mothers is especially careful,

nurse three infants; since their danger is greatest. weighing prevents danger of insufficient

It is becoming more difficult to secure nourishment. The most difficult task is to care for tends to replace it.

wet nurses; the system of freres de lait infants deprived of their mothers. If an unnatural mother refuses to give included in this system. Dr. Edelmann

Some categories of infants are not yet nurse she is required to make the at

and others demand the enactment of a tempt and no available means to induce

law like the loi Roussel in France, by her are neglected. Wet nurses

which all children who are not reared sought, but their infants are carefully by their own mothers shall be brought protected. Married women whose babies

under the same inspection. The success have died, and who are free from con

of the system of placement in colonies tagious diseases, are sometimes hired

depends largely on the condition of the


dwelling 3. Dr. Edelman says that in the asylum under his direction at Nagy varad, of 70 babes admitted without the mothers in 1907, 25

Certainly individual instances occur in (35.71 per cent) died; in 1908, of 98 babes the United States and elsewhere. thus admitted, 32 (32.65 per cent) died; about gary this form of placement is systematically the average in the other Hungarian asylums. employed.

In Hun

Teaching Sex Hygiene in Public Schools


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Instruction in sex hygiene in public and functions of reproduction. The life schools has passed the experimental stage of plants, the growth of flowers, fertilizaboth in this country and across the water tion, formation of seed, reproduction of and is in scarcely any quarter regarded species, can be studied in any school, and with doubt. Certain well-defined prin- if the parent was informed, in any home. ciples have been accepted and methods Prof. Charles R. Henderson says: "If of instruction outlined.

any schol authorities determine to keep No other subject of equal importance

the discussion of sex out of their school has been so long or so grossly neglected. they must simply refuse to introduce Through ignorance or false modesty modern biology and to resist the moveparents and teachers have failed to do ment in favor of scientific instruction their duty.

which has done so much for modern edIt remained for the medical men, with

ucation.” When the sacred facts of sex their knowledge of immorality and prev

relation are taught in a scientific manner alence of venereal diseases among the

there is no shock to the sensitiveness of

the child, for, observed and studied, nayoung, to sound a note of alarm and

ture teaches its own facts. organize themselves for effective reme

The modern method by competent dial measures in prophylaxis and hygiene, and the movement for general in

teachers in teaching botany and zoology

is not from a text book. The entire plant struction is on. This movement is in

or animal lies on the table and is caretelligent, sane, scientific and moral, and

fully examined with the aid of lenses and recognizes that development of life in the family and state depends upon true

microscope. Is it possible that the child

will observe the organs of digestion and knowledge of the physiology of sex.

circulation, motion and co-ordination, and The logic of the matter is while the

not have an honest inquiry about the schools have been teaching physiology,

form and functions of the organs which they have missed the vital point of the

secure the perpetuation of the species? functions of the body in its social rela

Indeed, if the facts are before him, he tion to sex and reproduction. Boys and

will, in a rational way, draw his own congirls have grown up in ignorance or have

clusions from these lower forms to the obtained information only partly true in

human species without going into too a clandestine way.

Investigation of

much detail. It is a tremendous advantwenty-five of our most progressive cities

tage for him to obtain right knowledge revealed that teachers were anxiously

from right sources than imperfect and alive to the need of sex instruction among wrong impressions from wrong sources. their pupils.

The great advantage of this method is The general agreement in the better that it puts the matter of sex hygiene on high schools is that scientific foundation

a level with all other facts in nature and for knowledge of the sex relation is fur- brings it within the realm of legitimate nished in the study of biology, botany, knowledge. In the lower grades the zoology, physiology and domestic science. child's first questionings regarding the Knowledge of the body and its func- beginnigs of life are satisfied. All curitions is given in a degree and manner ous inquiries are answered and to a large suitable to the child's age and increased degree the subject is removed from the as he develops in mateurity up to the fifth realm of mystery. The average child's and probably to the eighth grade.

mind will have a feeling of respect for In nature study the child may uncon- such knowledge as sacred and modest sciously be accustomed to a precise and unless debased by outside influences. dignified vocabulary about the organs Urgency in the matter of elementary

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