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chief physician of said institution, to perform
No surgeon performing an operation under
4. The record taken upon the examination of every such inmate, signed by said Board of Examiners, shall be preserved in the institution where such inmate is confined, and a copy thereof filed with the Commissioner of
Charities and Corrections, and one year after the performing of the operation the superintendent or other administrative officer of the institution wherein such inmate is confined shall report to the Board of Examiners the condition of the inmate and the effect of such operation upon such inmate. A copy of the report shall be filed with the record of the examination.
5. There shall be paid, out of the funds appropriated for maintenance of such institution, to each physician of said Board of Examiners, a compensation of not more than ten (10) dollars per diem for each day actually given to such work of examination, and his actual and necessary expenses in going to, holding and returning from such examination.
When, in the judgment of the Board of Examiners, it is necessary to secure the assistance of a surgeon outside the medical staff of the institution to perform or assist in said operation, the necessary expenses of such surgeon shall be paid from the maintenance account of such institution.
6. If any provisions of this act shall be questioned in any court, and the provisions of this act with reference to any class of persons enumerated therein shall be held to be unconstitutional and void, such determination shall not be deemed to invalidate the entire act, but only such provisions thereof with reference to the class in questions as are specifically under review and particularly passed upon by the decision of the Court.
7. This act shall take effect immediately. Approved April 21, 1911.
The Big Brother Movement
By BERT HALL.
One of the most important steps for- offenders against the law were thrown ward in philanthropic endeavor in the into jail and punished for their offenses past ten years has resulted in the Big just as severely as adult criminals were Brother movement. It is important be punished. To the shame of the Americause Big Brother energy is always ex- can people, that is still the practice in pended in constructive work-in build- some localities, but thank God they are ing up the little brothers.
rapidly growing fewer and Children's The principles of the organization
Courts are rapidly increasing. are simplicity itself: “One wholesome The most ardent friend of the Juadult friend for each boy who needs venile Court and the humane methods such a friend.” All the Big Brother is of caring for the unfortunate boys ad asked to give the little brother is love, girls of our urban communities has ever friendship and a chance for a square contended that a Juvenile Court can deal.
supply all that is necessary in directing Like several other child welfare the lives of children along the right movements, the Big Brothers sprang paths. from the Juvenile Court idea. It seems It was Ernest K. Coulter, a clerk in unbelievable that fifteen years ago child the Children's Court of New York City,
who saw the great need of an influence ties take up the work as promptly as that could not be supplied by the court possible. or probation officer. Boys who were The work has so many angles they constantly under the downward pull of
could not all be enumerated in the bad environments were not going to
space of one short article. Mr. Coulter pull up very rapidly unless a he:ping of New York had a fine farm of 320 hand was extended, with love and
acres near Trenton, N. J., given to him friendship as the incentive. The best
last year. Here he shelters the home
less boy that comes under his care and probation officer is handicapped by his
by special training fits him to enter a very title. That word “Officer” calls up
well regulated home. In Illinois and in the minds of many boys a deep lying Wisconsin, Mr. Colby and Mr. Hall hatred. Haven't the officers' been
find big hearted farmers who will take looked upon by a large class of city their raw boys direct from the slums boys as the arch enemy of the rights into their homes and give them the of boyhood?
pecessary training. Mr. Coulter expressed his thoughts During the summer of 1911 the Wis. one evening at a men's club in a Pres- consin Big Brothers found places for byterian Church. The idea of being 315 boys between 12 and 16 years of Big Brothers to the boys who came be- age to work for wages. All of these fore the children's court appeaied to
boys were poor and needed to earn his hearers and a number pledged during the vacation if they were to rethemselves to act if Mr. Coulter would
turn to school in September. The lads steer the lads over to them. This Mr.
were required to deposit in the bank Coulter did and this great movement
one-half their wages. The amount there was started. That was in 1904. To
saved amounted in 1911 to $4,625.00, in day more than fifty cities have organ
itself quite a tidy sum for poor boys ized to do this great work and last year
to lay away. more than ten thousand children re
This department will deal with the ceived the benefits that nothing but
progress of the Big Brother and the Big
Sister movement. The editor will be glad Big Brothers can give.
to hear from anyone interested and will be Among the leading cities to take up
glad to answer any questions that may be
asked pertaining to the organization and the work after New York, were Chi- maintenance of Big Brother leagues. All cago, Milwaukee, Philadelphia and Los
communications should be addressed care Angeles.
of THE CHILD. Last year Mr. Coulter's society in New York City cared for 2,195 boys,
Whether or not the cause is the "godMilwaukee was second with 2,018 boys
less" public schools, as he declares, one and girls, for here the work for girls feels the truth of what Father Vaughn is carried on under the direction of the
said in an address at Carnegie Hall: "In same management as the work for
this great republic, instead of raising an boys. The Children's Home Society of
army, you are arming a mob. Already Wisconsin and of Illinois have welded
I hear ne clash of arms and the cry of this new work on to their former work
rebellion against things as they are." of finding childless homes for homeless children, the two lines of work being Homeless children do not belong to sc similar in their general object. Both some other race, nor are they a different lines of work seek to prevent children kind of people.
kind of people. They are simply the from becoming burdens on the general children of our neighbors who are unforpublic. This branching out by these tunate or have gone wrong. societies has met with the approval of the National Federation of Children's It is said that boys' work, and work for Home Societies and resolutions were boys, is better organized and farther adpassed in June, 1910, recommending vanced in New Hampshire than in any that each of the thirty-two state socie- other State.
Shall Sense or Sentiment Prevail in the Treat
ment of Our Juvenile Offenders?
By PAUL WIEBE,
There are quite a few institutions in While I firmly believe that the public the United States given over to the refor- is eniitled to know all about its correcmation of juvenile delinquents. The tive and penal institutions, yet it is neither State of New York alone has more than fair or just to the institutions nor to the five of such Reform Schools. These in public that a paper should present to its stitutions are known generally as “State readers glowing articles telling of supSchool for Boys," "Industrial School for posed cruelties towards inmates, or the Boys,” “State Training School,” or inefficiency of this or that Superinten"Houses of Refuge." It is the intention dent. Only too often these articles are and purpose of these schools to reform absolutely unreliable and the assertions and to train youthful offenders who have have not been substantiated. Sometimes violated the laws, or have been found in- one article will follow the other and each corrigible. Nowadays, however, until one tells of more severe and shocking various other methods have first been brutal punishments meted out in the intried, such as a warning and reprimand stitution which happens to be under disfrom the court or a term of probation cussion, until the people are really led to and after these milder and more persua
believe that a lot of brutes are having sive measures have proved useless, the charge of the inmates of our Reform boy is then finally sent to a Juvenile Re- schools whose only amusement is to cause form School, where he may be under su- suffering to the boys under their charge. pervision while at the same time he is af- Having been connected as an officer forded the opportunity to learn a trade, with three different types of American to improve his physical make-up, and Juvenile Reform Schools, I am in a powhere he may learn obedience and respect sition to speak from experience. I am for law and order. While heretofore he also impartial and unbiased in this matcould perhaps run about as he pleased ter for I will admit that it happens somenow he must learn to obey rules and reg- times that the Superintendents of one of ulations. Of course the boy who has these institutions are deceived when emcome to a school of this kind on account ploying a subordinate officer, and some of. unhappy circumstances without being of these men, later on, prove by their depraved or vicious, will not find it hard actions that they should never have been to get along in such an institution, for he entrusted with the care of boys. For will try to obey the rules and show a various reasons are some men out of genial disposition. Punishments in such place in such institutions and can never institutions do not descend, like the rain, hope to attain a success in working with upon the just and the unjust, but only boys and gaining their confidence and upon those who are disobedient and vi- friendship. Some officers are found to cious. Every institution of this kind is be addicted to the use of liquors to such striving to be the best and the most hu- an extent that the boys under their charge mane in its treatment of the boys. The cannot fail but notice it and comment majority of people, however, do not re- upon it. Such men are a good deal worse alize what a thankless and trying position than useless in a Boys' School, for those it is to be Superintendent of one of these officers cause disrespect among the inJuvenile Reform Schools. Of late the mates not only towards the guilty men newspapers in various states of the Union but also towards those men who are contain articles condemning this or that blameless, and thereby the standard of institution or its management.
the institution's efficiency is very con
siderably lowered. Then again there are of discipline would invite serious trouble, men employed sometimes, having charge we must grant that the institution in such of boys in these institutions who are un- cases has to mete out stringent punishfit for the position for the reason that ment of some kind. Punishment is necthey are apt to lose their temper too essary when admonition fails. Lawquickly in dealing with the boys. But breakers, old and young, will resort 10 these are matters which can only be as- falsehood to justify themselves. They certained after the man has been em- are more apt to act from malicious moployed for some time when these faults tives than are the officers whose duty it may be brought to light. It is only is to deal with these boys. All the innatural, however, to suppose that every mates of these Juvenile Reform Schools Superintendent will try his very best to are there because of evil heredity, parenemploy only men whom he has reason to tal neglect or degrading environment. believe to be loyal, faithful and capable. While all are to be pitied, it is foolish for the Superintendent is invariably the to suppose that those, who have been acresponsible head of the institution and customed to do evil will immediately any untoward acts on the part of his learn to do well. Saying to those boys, subordinate officers will reflect upon his "Don't, dear," is not always sufficient to own reputation.
restrain those who are young
in years, After having myself been an officer in but old in the ways of vice. three different State Reform Schools and If parents would do their duty as rehaving visited about a dozen others, I gards their children and the public, there can with all sincerity say that the great would be fewer in our State Reform majority of officers in our Juvenile Re- Schools. form Schools are doing good work. They Now, when the parents have failed, the are trying their best to gain the confi- State steps in and takes those incorrigible dence and respect of the boys under their and delinquent children and tries to make charge. Most of the men are treating men and women out of them, if possible their boys fairly and try to befriend them worthy citizens. One must not think and teach them the better ways in life. that after a boy's parents have failed with A good explanation of the purpose of a love and pleadings and, perhaps, the Reform School is the following:
strap, that these boys can be handled by "It persuades the willing,
strangers without the use of some stern It compels the wilful,
measures to uphold the discipline. The It punishes the obdurate.”
number of officers who would punish Let us for a moment try to understand boys for the glory of it is very small inwith just what kind of boys we have to deed. deal in the institutions under discussion. The word discipline is used with varWe must remember that these schools do ious meanings, “A method of keeping not, as a rule, deal with ordinary or aver- order," or "a method whereby a number age boys, but in too many cases with the of people are enabled to co-operate for most vicious and depraved boys in the a common end.” We have to remember State—boys who have been given up by that discipline for these boys must seek all other agencies and are committed to to supply what is wanting in an individual the school as a last resort. A good many from lack of good home influences, good of the offenses committed by inmates in neighborhood, industrial and wider sothese State Schools are nasty, disgusting cial influences. and in some instances murderous. Any Look into the antecedents of some of fair minded man who could actually these boys, and two reasons for their beknow of some of these atrocities would ing in the institution will nearly cover all. feel that the perpetrators of such offenses First, some of these boys were “mother's fully deserve some kind of punishment. darlings," too good to be corrected, conWhen we have to deal with such revolt- sequently went where and when they ing offenses of which some of these boys pleased. Second, the other class of boys are guilty and where too great a laxity were whipped at home, went cold and
hungry and were forced to find food and ter of routine by any means. Only the shelter wherever they could and were
Superintendent should be empowered to often wholly neglected by worthless and have it administered under his direct perdrunken fathers and often drunken sonal supervision, and after he has himmothers. Now then, what shall be done self thoroughly investigated the boy's with those boys who will not conform to conduct. Discipline is necessary in any the rules, who continue to lie and steal,
institution but especially in a reform refuse to obey their officers, to maltreat school. When a boy continually shows a and corrupt with vices, so filthy as to be spirit of rebellion and a sullen and obunprintable, those who are younger and
stinate disposition some punishment of weaker than themselves, to defy author- a more or less severe nature is necessary ity, and who would endanger the lives of and it thus only becomes a question, when those officers whose duty it is to prevent punishment is to be inflicted whether it their escape ? More children in these shall be corporal punishment or solitary days are spoiled by a sickly sentiment confinement. Inquiries last spring were and an overindulgence than by severity. sent to forty-two State School SuperinSympathetic people are apt to forget that, tendents in various parts of the Union although a mother's love is the greatest and thirty-eight (38) replied that corthing in the world, it takes good judgment poral punishment was in use in their inand considerable firmness mixed with it
stitutions. Four Superintendents claimed to train a child in the way it should go. that corporal punishment was not reObedience to rightful authority should be sorted to in their schools, but solitary learned early, and that lesson most of the confinement sometimes. The State of inmates of our Juvenile Reform Schools Niassachusetts which has preferred solidid not learn in their homes. To such tary confinement to whipping in its State fellows the rules, which in an institution School, adopted corporal punishment reof some few hundred boys are necessary cently after a boy had hung himself in to maintain discipline, seem irksome. his cell while undergoing the punishment They find it somewhat hard to rise and known as solitary confinement. If the eat and work and study and even play institution is managed properly and the at regular times. They do not know the Superintendent is a man of integrity arid worth of the habit of punctuality and his subordinate officers men who like regularity; of neatness and industry, of boys, who are earnestly interested in repoliteness and respect for law. These claiming them, and who sympathize with habits they can only form by constant boys, corporal punishment or solitary practice.
confinement will very seldom become Some people believe that corporal pun- necessary but when a stringent mode of ishment brings better results as a method punishment is advised, the former, I beof enforcing obedience in a reform school lieve, is the more humane and certainly for boys when persuasion and milder the more efficient method. The followpunishments, such as the withdrawal of ing is an abstract from the rules estabcertain privileges, etc., have failed, than lished by the Board of Control of the solitary confinement. Corporal punish- State of Minnesota only recently for the ment (or spanking), is speedier than State School of that State, as regards solitary confinement, which deprives the corporal punishment and confinement, boy of natural exercises, gives him a both of which are allowed in that school: chance to get rid of work and to become (1) “Corporal punishment or confinestubborn and obstinate. Either one of ment shall be administered on the writthese, however, constitute the most strin- ten order of the Superintendent, based gent form of punishment in any of these upon the written report of an officer and institutions. Both have their disadvan- after a full hearing of the matter at tages, but I believe that corporal punish- which the inmate shall be present and ment in some cases is the very best thing, shall be permitted to offer such explanahowever it should not be used as a mat- tion and defense as he may see fit.