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ures of social politics we do not yet find ternal grandparents are required to sup-
the most advanced direct measures of port them. It may be observed in pass-
protecting working women by factory ing that this provision of law tends to
legislation and maternal insurance. The make parents more careful in watching
Hungarian law, however, is far in ad over their daughters, and also gives them
vance of American legislation, for it in a pecuniary incentive to discover the
sures factory working women and pro father. It is hoped that the asylum di-
vides indemnity for six weeks after con rectors will be able to enforce the rights
finement. This law does not yet extend of the child in reiation to the fathers,
its benefits to women engaged in agri- in case of abandonment.
cultural or domestic employment. Hun The State has made itself the guardian
gary recognizes the fact that it is vicious of all dependent and neglected children
to prohibit working women from con- up to the fifteenth year of age. About
tinuing in employment at the sacrifice of one-half of these are illegitimate. All
the children and of themselves, unless an children in Hungary have a legally de-
insurance fund makes good the needed fined right to the protection of the State;
wages lost.

considerations as to their origin have no Midwives.

weight. A child in need is admitted inDr. Edelmann, in g an account of stantly and without question to the shelhis school of hygiene for midwives, ex

ter and care of the State institutions; the plains their social importance in Hun- investigation comes afterwards. Life is gary. The explanation has value for not endangered by red tape. The proAmerican cities, because the Hungarian tection of nurslings is at the charge of immigrants bring with them the customs

the general government, so that the igand beliefs of their fatherland. “The norance and petty parsimony of local midwife is the counsellor of the future officials will not raise difficulties and mother; she can act everywhere, where cause fatal delay. The nursling is althere is no doctor, in the most humble ways kept with the mother at home; if villages. She is always present at births. this is impossible they go elsewhere toEven in the most secret births her aid gether. The right of a babe to its is involved. She is the physician in com- mother's breast and care is fixed by law. munes where there are no doctors, and Unlike the law in Roumania countries, where an infant is dangerously ill she that of Hungary insists on the responsiis called in.” The education of mid-bility of the mother and of her parents

, wives is therefore important. We

and finds the father of the illegitimate not informed how far the example of child, if possible. A confessed weakness Dr. Edelmann has been followed; but of the law is that after the fifteenth year the colony system itself must have an parents may take back their children. It educational influence over wide areas, is proposed to correct this error and give for it distributes specialists over the the state institutions control up to makingdom.

jority, and so prevent unfit parents from For the care of women at home in con- destroying the good previously accomfinement the National Society for the plished. Protection of Mothers provides a certain These legal rights are at the basis of amount of help. The provision for preg- a well considered plan of supervision and nant women is made by voluntary chari- care which facilitates the instant admisty, and the official report does not tell us sion of abandoned children. No questhat it is adequate.

tions are asked, the first minutes being It is in the direct care of dependent critical when a tender infant is conand imperilled children that the pride of cerned. The proper officials make the Hungary seems justified. Their legal necessary inquiries after the child is in rights have been amply recognized. safe care. Whenever it is possible the The rights of illegitimate infants are the mother is required to remain with her insame as those of the legitimate, so far fant. This enforcement of maternal as protection is concerned. They belong duty does not keep the mothers from to the family of the mother; their ma- coming. The number increases, and



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abandonment is becoming more rare. as wet nurses, and physicians instruct But along with compulsion is public re them. lief; the mother is made free from all The asylum, during the nursing period, anxiety about support and becomes re often places mother and infant in a colsponsible for the child's maintenance and ony with honest families who receive education up to the fifteenth year. an indemnity for the support of the

The mother is given a home with her mother. This method often developes babe; gradually she takes deeper interest parental feeling for the waif. The rein it; she is made better, physically and port claims that the placement of the morally; establishes relations with her nursling with the mother in a family is family; is more apt to be upright after- a Hungarian innovation. Some mothers wards. She works at light tasks in the become attached to the foster nursling asylum, cares for her baby, reads, learns committed to her, take pity on it, and some lucrative occupation. She is under are willing to be placed with two infants the direction of a physician who teaches in a country home. In these cases fourher infant feeding and hygiene. When teen crowns are paid each month, eight a mother leaves the asylum she knows for the nurse and six for the family how to teach other young women the where they are boarded. These families better way. If sick or feeble while in are grouped in colonies so that medicai the asylum she may rest and recuperate. inspection is more effective and economiThe central institution, at Budapest,

cal. has the character of a hospital for in

A mother whose infant is feeble may fants, where they can be placed under keep her babe longer than the usual peobservation and treated before being sent riod of nursing, about twelve months.

The child is clothed by the asylum and out. Mothers who have little milk are given a vigorous nursling to stimulate treated by the doctor of the colony. secretion of milk, often with marked suc

Medicines are paid out of the national cess. Many mothers nurse two babes fund for relief of the sick. their own and one of some mother who

Each colony is under a director in has no milk, or who has died, or who chief who is a physician; he is aided by has abandoned her baby. These receive the necessary medical assistants and pay for the extra service, fourteen

women inspectors. A colony committee, crowns a month. Artificial feeding is composed of men and women, act as a

council. The system of inspection is rare; only siphilities without mothers and those who have already been bottle thorough. A card is kept for the his

In case of need a fed have artificial food. Mixed feeding tory, of each child. is used for children several months old, child may be returned to the asylum for whose mothers have insufficient milk. treatment. Inspection of infants deA few women nurse three infants;

prived of mothers is especially careful, weighing prevents danger of insufficient since their danger is greatest. nourishment.

It is becoming more difficult to secure The most difficult task is to care for wet nurses; the system of freres de lait

tends to replace it. infants deprived of their mothers. If an unnatural mother refuses to give included in this system. Dr. Edelmann

Some categories of infants are not yet nurse she is required to make the at

and others demand the enactment of a tempt and no available means to induce law like the loi Roussel in France, by her are neglected. Wet nurses are which all children who are not reared sought, but their infants are carefully by their own mothers shall be brought protected. Married women whose babies under the same inspection. The success have died, and who are free from con- of the system of placement in colonies tagious diseases, are sometimes hired depends largely on the condition of the 3. Dr. Edelman says that in the asylum

dwelling. under his direction at Nagyvarad, of 70 babes admitted without the mothers in 1907, 25 4. Certainly individual instances occur in (35.71 per cent) died; in 1908, of 98 babes the United States and elsewhere. In Hunthus admitted, 32 (32.65 per cent) died; about gary this form of placement is systematically the average in the other Hungarian asylums.


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