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out that a child's life does not consist in not only the pleasure of these stolen bread alone and that the poor neighbor hours to be stored away for future joy, who takes an unfortunate child into but also the salutary family discipline her heart, who lets it run with her own which followed and the long, long children, half clothed and half starved thoughts of youth as it sought to adjust it may be, but warmed and fed with itself to the strange conditions of life. mother love and care, is far wiser as well Every child is a Saint George meetas far kinder than we.

ing the dragon-which must be subdued But though even a poor home is bet- or it will destroy him. Alas for him ter than the best kind of an institution even though he has the sword of sound for children it is not possible for us instruction in his hand if he has a parawith our present imperfect organization' ized arm back of it. Since the one all to place all dependent children in fami- important business of the world is the lies. Thousands are now in institutions making of men and women and the spe

and thousands more will have to spend cial business of the children's institutions
a longer or shorter period in them. It is the nurture and fostering care of chil-
becomes necessary then to make our in- dren who do not seem to have a fair
stitutional life as nearly normal and chance to grow, it is surely worth while
homelike as the artificial conditions per- for us to inquire whether our methods
mit. We must do this not only for the of child culture are likely to produce the
children's happiness, but for their actual best results.
growth in mind and body. If we had We shall not need a very exhaustive
studied children with half the serious- study of the subject in order to see that
ness with which fancy stock raisers study next to mothers, play is the one thing
cattle or good farmers study soils, we in institutional child life noticeable for
should have found certain marks of de- its absence. Yet we may think a long
generation in those who have been long time before we consider this apparently
in institutions. No one who has ob- simple omission the chief cause of our
served these children with intelligent and failure to produce forceful men and
unprejudiced eyes can believe that they women out of the perfectly good ma-
enter life as well equipped as do children terial in our hands. Not until we have
from family homes, even though the re- seen with the child's eyes and felt with
ports state truly that they have been the child's heart do we realize that in
given a good start in some employment play alone is he an active creative per-
or vocation. We know that something son, and in play alone is he a social being.
is lacking and that they do not average Play to a child is not an interlude, a
up to our unconscious standards. Insti recess between more serious affairs. It
tutional children are usually amiable and is serious self-expression as truly as the
obedient. They are often responsive and building of a bridge or the writing of
affectionate and may be quite conscien- a book is to a man. If the man had
tious also but they lack the most essen never learned through play he could not
tial element in character, that is, a prop- build the bridge or write the book.
erly self-directing will. So long as their Children are never frivolous when they
path is marked out for them they can are playing. They may fool with one
walk evenly and with careful exactness, another in the class room or when thev
but they are helpless without the voice should be at work but that is mere idle-
of authority. The thoroughly institu- ness, it is not play. The child who plays
tionalized child, who has risen and eaten at all plays with his whole heart and
and exercised and studied and worked mind and strength until he is tired out

. for years at the tap of a bell must lose Many a mother and teacher has wished something in initiative. He has not that half the energy and hard work known what it meant to take forty winks which she thought wasted on a snow fort too many in the morning or to put off or a ball game might be put into tasks learning his lessons on account of a game which she planned instead for the boy. of baseball. He has not forgotten to When we remember the intensity and the fill the wood box because all the boys variety of children's games and plays we were out skating. And he has missed

And he has missed can answer nearly all who are ready to

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education to the three R's and put the children in vile air to pray and make pot-hooks. Can we accept that idea of education ? Hardly-so long as the scholastics quarreled as to how many angels could stand on the point of a needle it might do, but at the present it is not disembodied citizens that are doing the work of the world and we have to build bodies. This means air, seven hundred quarts per hour per child, and that air with a humidity above fifty,—not thirty-eight as it comes from an over-heated furnace,--and not over-heated or under-heated.

2. Cleanliness. That we should not impose on the child any dust-born disease or dust-developed irritation. Soap and labor are expensive; school boards must be educated to the fact that they are necessities. One witty educator writes that so long as Boston spends one thousand dollars a year for feather dusters her citizens cannot be considered reformers. It must be hot water, soap, and elbow-grease that build the proper environment for the American of the future.

3. Drinking-cups must be individual or of a type that will .not transmit any form of disease.

4. Playgrounds. As the natural physical and mental development of the child depends so largely on play, there must be adequate outdoor playgrounds. The child playing jack-stones on the dusty basement floor is neither storing up physical stamina nor learning the team work that will make for effectiveness. The children must be out having supervised play that not only recreates from the bad air and fatigue of the school-room, but creates rounded men and women.

5. Light must be supervised. Forty children facing huge windows will not fulfil the negative responsibility of the state; that kind of arrangement will injure eyes, and if we allow it we are responsible.

Not only must these purely material matters be attended to, but some standards of treatment must be imposed on the teacher. I know a school where the children are made to run up two long flights to music, and four per cent of the children in that school, so far as I have examined, have organic heart trouble. The hours for mental work must be cut down till some reasonable amount of concentration can be secured, and till, during the developing years, some nutrition can be obtained for the rapidly-growing reproductive system.

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On Our
Twilight
Good By
When T
If All th
She Was
Good 01
Zaamee.
Sunbear
In Clove
My Orit
Tell Me

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