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She said: “I cannot bear to have my little one buried without a ilar efforts brought a like confession from the neighbor. The two word of prayer.” She also said: “I shall always be a better men were reconciled; the one purchased a farm for his son in a woman for little David.” She testified her gratitude repeatedly western state; the other contributed to stocking the farm and by sending gifts to the Society.

furnishing the house. The young people were married and are In cases where it is necessary for the mother to be separated living happily with their little one in a community where their from the child, it is often beneficial to encourage her to provide history is not known. for the expense of the handling and placing of the child rather If the father of the child is unwilling to be married, or if, as than to throw it into the arms of the charitable public. But this is often the case, the circumstances are such that a marriage is is a delicate matter, for it tends to create the impression that impracticable, he should be compelled to make such provision as illegitimate children can be disposed of for a financial considera

his means will allow, both for the mother and the child. But in tion and to justify the nefarious traffic of the baby farms in

practice comparatively few fathers are brought to make such prohuman flesh. For this reason some of the best child-placing or vision. The mother is deterred from taking legal steps, someganizations refuse to receive money with such children. If they times on account of affection for the father, more often on receive them at all, it is without compensation from the mother account of her unwillingness to subject her own name and that or her friends.

of her family to the ignominy which attends bastardy proceedings. It is the practice of the Illinois Children's Home and Aid So

The very name of these proceedings carries a bitter stigma, ciety, first, to determine the question whether it ought to receive both to herself and to her child. The young father often, through the child, independent of the question whether any money is to friends or through some lawyer, proposes a nominal settlement be paid or not; secondly, to ascertain whether the mother, father whereby she receives perhaps $20 or $50 instead of the $550 to or other friends desire to or are able to provide for the expense which the law entitles her. of receiving and placing the child. Many mothers are unwilling In such cases the mother should be advised to secure the counto make their child an object of charity and are desirous to meet sel and assistance of some good lawyer of mature years. Such a the expense, as a matter of self-respect. While the Society en lawyer, by the use of vigorous pressure, can often secure some courages parents to meet the expense, if practicable it will receive adequate provision for the mother and child without the necessity a child just as readily without money as with it, and will refuse for public court proceedings. Under the vigorous handling of a child which ought not to be received just as promptly when

such a lawyer the young man can be made to bear some small money is offered as when it is not.

share of the suffering which is incident to his wrongdoing. It is impossible to lay down arbitrary rules to govern the treat If the father cannot be reached by this method, then, if possiment of these young mothers. When you deal with human souls, ble, he should be made to feel the strong arm of the law. The they must be dealt with individually according to the best light mother and her friends often owe it as a duty to the community that can be obtained in each individual case.

to prosecute the offender. This is true especially where he is We have no right to deal harshly with those who are already known to have debauched other young girls or in cases where he under the Divine discipline; neither have we the right to inter has sought to escape the consequences of his wrongdoing by marfere lightly with the Creator's methods of training and redeem riage with another woman. ing his erring children.

It may be laid down as a general principle not only that the The third party to be considered is the father of the child. It man in the case deserves punishment, but that his punishment is is almost a universal rule that while he is the chief offender, he one of the most hopeful methods of preventing the multiplication suffers least of all. It is surprising how readily his friends lend of these sad cases. themselves to efforts to relieve him of his obligation and just The fourth party to be considered is the community, including penalty. These efforts are ably seconded by the friends of the the parents and friends of the offenders and the multitudes of mother with the physician, hospital authorities and nurses, who, other young people who are exposed to like temptation. It is in their anxiety to protect the good name of the mother, con- peculiarly true of this form of wrongdoing that the innocent suftribute at the same time to shield the father. These conditions fer with the guilty. The parents whose good name is dragged are still further aided by the practice of the community, which in the dust and who suffer, not only shame, but agonies of anxiety condones the offense of the man, allowing him to maintain his for their children, are much to be pitied; yet it must be rememplace in society notwithstanding his cruel abandonment of the bered that in many cases they have a large responsibility for the child and mother, who ought to be the objects of his penitent results which they discover with such astonishment. Fathers who solicitude.

neglect to instruct their sons as to the responsibilities and dangers Those who have to do with the illegitimate child fail lament- of young manhood; mothers who allow their daughters to go ably of their duty unless an earnest effort is made to bring the about with young men of whom they know nothing and who fail father to account.

to maintain the confidence and sympathy of their daughters ought In many cases a marriage should take place, even though the not to be too much surprised at the natural result of their shortyoung people should not live together. It is as little reparation comings. as can be offered for a man to give his name to his own child and Be this as it may, parents have no right to turn their daughters to its mother.

out of doors or to send them to a distant lying-in hospital, to be Not long ago an agent of the Children's Home and Aid Society subjected to maltreatment of charlatans or knaves, or perhaps to was consulted by a young man, a son of a well-to-do-farmer. He sacrifice their lives in criminal efforts to escape the consequences said: “I want you to provide for a child three months old. I of wrongdoing. Still less is it right for parents to shield a son want to have it well provided for, and will cheerfully pay into and dissuade or prevent him from following the right instinct the society treasury $200 in consideration of that service.” On which urges him to do a manly part toward the partner of his inquiry the agent learned that the farmer was the grandfather of fault. the child. Owing to a land dispute a feud had grown up between Physicians have a grave responsibility, which they often fail to him and a neighbor. The son of one family loved the daughter meet. It is the physician whose advice is sought and usually of the other, but the angry parents would not consent to the mar taken. It is the physician who arranges to send the girl away. It riage. Their opposition gave rise to an illicit relation from which is the physician who explains how the child can be easily disposed came the child. The agent was a wise and conscientious man. of. It is the physician who pervents the young mother from He labored with the grandfather nearly all one night, until he nursing her child, and who perhaps prevents her from seeing it was brought to acknowledge that he had been in the wrong. Sim lest she should have a mother's feeling for it. It is the physician

who persuades the mother to board the child in a baby farm, cough and tired feeling, prescribed bitters made of alcohol, where it will be starved and neglected, in order to accept a place water and gentian. This gave her false strength for a while, for as wet nurse at $10 or $12 per week. Thousands of babies have it checked out her little reserve. When hemorrhage occurred, she been sacrificed in order that children of wealth might enjoy the and all her neighbors knew she had consumption and the doctor mother's milk which properly belonged to them. This wrong. should have known it and told her months before. doing is particularly heartless because experience has shown that Now she wrote to the State Board of Health and said: “I a healthy mother can furnish milk enough for her own child and am told that consumption in its early stages can be cured by that of another without risk to either; the lack in quantity being outdoor life,.continued rest, and plenty of plain, good food. I supplied by cow's milk. The sacrifice of the natural child thus do not want to die. I want to live and raise my children to becomes a matter of convenience and cannot possibly be excused. make them good citizens. Where can I go to get well?” The

It is freely admitted that this whole subject is one beset by reply was: “The great Christian state of Indiana has not yet difficulties and one which taxes the wisdom and conscience of the risen to the mighty economy of saving the lives of little mothers wisest social student; but it rightly demands our careful study from consumption. At present the only place where you can and the faithful performance of our obligation. When one con go is a grave. However, the state will care for your children templates the multitude of young women, timid, inexperienced in an orphan asylum after you are dead, and then in a few shamefaced, driven into the maelstrom of this great city by the years a special officer will be paid to find a home for them. But coldness of their friends and the hostility of their native com save your life-never. That is a cranky idea, for a member on munity when one considers the sufferings through which they the floor of the Sixty-first Assembly said so. 'Besides,' said he, pass, alone and forsaken; the perils to which they are exposed it isn't business. The state can't afford it.' So the little mother with no sufficient counselor; the perpetual stream of these poor died of the preventable and curable disease, the home was creatures pouring into the houses of prostitution to become broken up and the children were taken to the orphan asylum." bondwomen, doomed to a brief life of misery and an early and A big fat hog one morning found he had a pain in his belly. forgotten grave, his heart is stirred with a desire to do some He squealed loudly and the farmer came out of his house to see small part in redeeming them from their sad fate and restoring what was the matter. "He's got the hog cholera,” said the hired them to a happy and womanly life.

man. So the farmer telegraphed Secretary Wilson of the United When one has to deal with numbers of little children who have States Agricultural Department, (who said that day he had come into life handicapped by an ill name, a weak physique, and 3,000 experts in animal and plant disease), and the reply was: an inherited weakness of character, he feels that it is worthy of "Cert., I will send you a man right away." Sure enough the the best effort of the best science to secure for these innocent and

He said he was a D. V. S., and he was, too. He unfortunate children those safeguards and benefits which are en had a governnient syringe and a bottle of government medicine joyed by their little neighbors who are so fortunate as to be more in his handbag, and he went for the hog. It got well. It wasn't happily born.

cranky for the government to do this, and it could afford the expense, for the hog could be turned into ham, sausage, lard

and bacon. Any boy, even a fool, can see it would be cranky Human Life in Kentucky for the state to save the life of a little mother, and it could not

afford it, either. Is It as Valuable as That of a Hog?

Moral: Be a hog and be worth saving.-Mayville (Ky.) Bulletin.

man came.

The Kentucky Legislature failed to pass a measure providing a State Sanatorium for persons suffering from tuberculosis in Kentucky, though the State Board of Health estimates that there are probably 30,000 cases of this disease now existing in Kentucky and has shown that, in spite of the large amount of money annually being spent because of it, the death rate has not decreased and Kentucky stands now among the two or three greatest sufferers in the Union from the disease. The Legislature passed, but the Governor vetoed, an appropriation for aiding private tuberculosis sanatoria.

The Legislature passed, however, and the Governor did not veto, bills appropriating $2,000 annually to provide a hog cholera serum, and $5,000 annually to prevent the spread of communicable diseases among animals.

This record makes the following used in Indiana some time back seem most appropriate:

Young Mother and Fat Hog; Not a Fable; Simply Straight Goods.

One time a little mother, who was only twenty-five years old, began to feel tired all the time. Her appetite had failed her for weeks before the tired feeling came. Her three little girls, once a joy in her life, became a burden to her. It was "mamma, mamma," all day long. She never had noticed these appeals until the tired feeling came. The little mother also had red spots on her cheeks and a slight cough. One day, when dragging herself around, forcing her weary body to work, she felt a slight but sharp pain in her chest, her head grew dizzy and suddenly her mouth filled with blood. The hemorrhage was not severe, but it left her very weak. The doctor she had consulted for the

He Dug
He wanted a job and, like everyone else,

He wanted a good one, you know;
Where his clothes would not soil and his hands would

keep clean,
And the salary musn't be low.
He asked for a pen but they gave him a spade

And he half turned away with a shrug,
But he altered his mind and, seizing the spade—he lug!
He worked with a will that is bound to succeed,

And the months and the years went along.
The way it was rough and the labor was hard

But his heart he kept filled with a song.
Some jeered him and sneered at the task, but he

plugged
Just as hard as he ever could plug;
Their words never seemed to disturb him a bit-as

he dug.
The day came at last when they called for the spade

And gave him a pen in its place.
The joy of achievement was sweet to his taste

And victory shone on his face.
We can't always get what we hope for at first,

Success cuts many queer jigs,
But one thing is sure--a man will succeed—if he digs.

--Louis E. Thayer.

The Italian Child and the Juvenile Court

Four Other Nationalities Supercede the Italian Children in Number.

Chicago, like all other large cities whose inhabitants are of a The police nets are stretched and sometimes hundreds of the cosmopolitan character, has a large proportion of Italians within residents of the Italian quarter, known as “Little Italy,” are its gates. From the wealthy families of Italian bankers and rounded up to be searched and questioned by the officers of the merchants to the poorest laboring classes who live in the Italian law. These campaigns, against the secret society methods of Quarter, all go to make up the proportion of Italian residents of the Sicilian avail but little, and the police are generally no wiser Chicago.

after the roundup than before. Many of us seem to have the impression that the Italian is of One wonders that these constant agitations in the Italian disa lawless nature, especially so of those who have but lately come trict do not cause and stimulate more delinquency upon the part to our country from the south of Italy and Sicily. The same of the children of the district than they do. The Italian youngidea prevails as to the children but this impression is erroneous. ster hears talks of vendettas, feuds, and secret organizations from Close inspection will show that the Italian children who live in babyhood up but still he does not become what we would justly our country are not as bad as we believe them to be.

term a bad boy, as a class. The chiid: en of the Italian immigrant are far ahead of those Altogether, the children of the Italians, regardless of their of other nationalities who have migrated to America for better national class distinction, are a well disciplined, thrifty and amor worse. The last annual report of the Chicago Juvenile Court bitious lot of youngsters. shows that out of a total of 1,252 delinquent boys but 102 were Italian; of a total of 464 delinquent girls but 16 were Italian. During the year, counting both delinquent and dependent children' there were 3,335 children in court, and of this total but 191 were Italian.

Among the different nationalities recorded, 623 were American, 476 German and 525 Polish the Italian being but fifth on the list. One would infer from the sensational stories printed by the newspapers that the Italians were lawless, in fact very undesirable. Of course it is true that some of them do not comprehend our mode of government and ofttimes take the execution of the law in their own hands.

Chicago has had its quota of so-called “Black Hand outrages.”

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Detained as “Black Hand” Suspects

Old Man Darby Says:

the comets, but as the kids was here furst, let's wait on them

furst." “If sum peepul would pay as much attention to their kids as they do aworryin' over this here comet of Mr. Halley's, I reckon the fellows that run these juvenile korts would have to be put

There's a gift that is almost a blow, and there is a kind word on half salary fer want of work. Carin' for our kids is more that is municence; so much in the way of doing things. important than dodgin' shootin' stars, and when you git right Children generally hate to be idle. All the care then should be, down to bisnuss, its a danged sight lot more fun. Anyway, that their busy humor should be constantly employed in somethese taily stars of Mr. Halley's only pop up about every seventy- thing that is of use to them.-Locke. five years, and kids pop up every few minutes in this age of The interests of childhood are the interests of mankind. progression. It ain't any use tryin' to dodge either the kids or

-Janes.

Juvenile Idleness and Vagabondage

By George Honnorat
Chief of Police, Paris, France.

Idleness is the mother of all vice. If we consider only the mind should be instructed, and the conscience and the heart as effect of idleness on the children of a city the field is large well should be trained. enough. Who has not been saddened by seeing the boys and After school age the best thing would be apprenticeship to a girls wandering through the streets, playing truant, hanging trade if possible; otherwise there should be professional and round the shops, begging for pennies or stealing from the stalls, industrial courses, for this is the most dangerous transition pushing against each other and against the passers-by, crowding period, between going to school and finding permanent work for the book stalls and looking at obscene pictures, insulting women, life. Later, in the mixed shops, where old and young work picking pockets and boasting of it? Vagabondage, begging, together, there should be a special arrangement of hours accordstealing, prostitution, are only the first steps on the fatal road of ing to each category of workers. idleness. As the child grows he becomes the adult criminal. When parents forfeit their parental rights so that they let the

The chief cause of idleness and vagabondage in children is children drift into lives of vagabondage, idleness and vice the the lack of moral training in the home, the relaxing of family children should be taken away and sent to industrial schools, ties and want of proper parental supervision. Another cause is having no penal character, where they can be taught to earn the neglect of schooling. In most civilized countries parents are their living. compelled by law to keep their children in school a certain num It may be added that the police should exercise a more strict ber of years. But in our larger cities there are not schools and careful guardianship on the streets and not allow children enough and where there are schools the law does not deal se to form bands of idle loafers. Other persons also might be verely enough with parents who keep their children out of empowered to see that such children are looked after according school. Again, the schools close too early in the day. The chil to proper regulations, and perhaps it may be necessary to estabdren are freed from them at four o'clock, while the parents do lish special courts for them. not get home from work till 7 or 8 in the evening. In that Conclusions: The way to meet idleness and vagobondage in interval what are the children doing? They are running the the large cities then is twofold: preventive and repressive. In street with all the evil consequences of that sort of life.

the first group the means are educative and moral, with patience. Then there are too many school holidays, when the children They may be costly, but it is true economy. are turned loose though their parents are away at their daily As to the means by repression it should be by more active work. Such days give great opportunity for vagabondage. surveillance on the part of the police, charitable institutions and

Still another reason is that the teachers sometimes forget that persons delegated to act in cases where society has to act in something besides scientific teaching is nécessary.. Is it not this place of the family. fault in education which explains why we find in the young gen

The following recommendations may be made : eration so many young people who have no moral curb, who Multiply the schools. respect no authority and who have an eye for nothing but an

Give a large place to moral education. opportunity to gratify their own desires and caprices? Thus; Punish severely parents who break school obligations. being defrauded of proper guidance from parents and teachers,

Multiply professional courses. they are easily perverted, especially those born of parents who

Modify child labor laws in such a way as to secure apprenare alcoholic, syphilitic, consumptive or with a 'feeble brain.

ticeship. Another cause of idleness is the cupidity of parents who want

Deal energetically with parents who forfeit their parental rights. to get their children into shops and factories as early as possible,

Create reform schools for vicious children for their own sake that they may bring in a little money. In such shops and fac

and to save the contamination of the community. tories the work iš monotonous and the pay small and the children

Have the police keep better watch of the streets and secure desert them for the street. And if they accept the new life of aids to them in this through private institutions. Let such agents industry in the factory. they are often laid off in the dull seasons

question the children and when necessary bring them before the

public authorities. against their will and so fall into a life of idleness." The very measures to protect child-laborers, especially in i

Create, if necessary, special courts for children. regard to hours of labor, have had the annoying and unexpected result of throwing them out of industry. Certain laws, like the French legislation, having decided that where minors and adults work together the hours for the latter must not be longer than for the former, employers have refused to hire juvenile workers at all, and so they are thrown out a prey to the idle life.

Each of these causes demands a remedy. One of the first is to provide a sufficient number of schools for all the children of school age, and where necessary guardian classes that shall keep those children whose parents are at work till their return. And little girls should be escorted to their homes when their parents can not come for them. Holidays should be reduced in number. Special classes for backward children should be formed. School colonies in the country should be organized, or by the sea, for delicate children. And finally the school should be not only a place for mental instruction, but for moral training; where the

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