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that parents should feed, clothe, shelter, defend and JUVENILE COURT RECORD educate the life that they bring into the world. The

very fact of birth determines such duty upon the T. D. HURLEY, Editor.

part of the parents. To fail in this fundamental 637 Unity Bldg., Chicago, Ill.

duty without good reason is to be dishonest. UnASSOCIATE EDITORS.

fortunately there is nothing so common today in our Hon. B. B. Lindsey. Judge Juvenile Court, Denver, Colorado.

large cities as family desertion and nonsupport, and Thomas D. Walsh, Superintendent New York Society for the the misery of it all is that it is caused not so much Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 297 4th Ave., New York.

by lack of work or other economic conditions as by DAVID R. BLYTH, Business Manager.

addiction to drink, fickleness and infidelity and a Publication Office, 637 Unity Building, Chicago, Ill. Eastern Office, 1416 Broadway, New York.

moral obtuseness to the parents' duty to the chilBoston Office, 71 Kilby Street, Boston, Mass.

dren. A law was drafted, known as the model nonThe Juvenile Court Record is published monthly except in

support law, by Mr. William H. Baldwin, one of the mo.ith of July. Single copies. 10 cents. Subscription

the board of managers of the Associated Charities price, $1 per year. Entered at Postoffice, Chicago, as secondclass matter.

of the District of Columbia. This law became New Subscriptions can commence with current number.

effective on March 23, 1906, by act of Congress for Change of Address.-Always give both your old and your the District of Columbia. It may be found in Volnew address when you ask us to change. Payments for the Paper, when sent by mail, should be made

ume 34, United States Statutes, at large, at page 82 in a postoffice money order, bank check or draft, or an express -a volume that is distributed to all public libraries. money order. When neither of these can be procured, send

Other jurisdictions have since copied the law." 2-cent United States postage stamps; only this kind can be received.

In enforcing this law during the past year, the Judge Letters should be addressed and checks and drafts made pay.

states that: able to Juvenile Court Record, 637 Unity Bldg., Chicago. Advertising Rates made known on application.

“There were 899 cases of nonsupport; 147 were

dismissed, 106 were sent to the workhouse, most of EDITORIAL

whom were subsequently paroled. Thirty-eight

were reconciled by the court and resumed with reFAMILY DESERTION AND NONSUPPORT

newed hope their domestic relations. Six hundred One of the hardest and most intricate problems con

and eight were placed upon probation and paid

$38,319.65 of their earnings in the manner above fronting Juvenile Court judges is that of parents who desert their children, or through one cause or another

indicated. An excellent provision in the law authorfail to contribute to the support of their families. Such

izes the payment for the benefit of the family of

fifty cents for each day's labor performed by a prisparents, as a rule, are addicted to drink and thus dissipate their incomes. Various measures have been resorted to

oner sent to the workhouse under the nonsupport from time to time to remedy this condition of affairs.

law. Last year such prisoners thus earned $2,340. The bread-earner of the family has on occasions been sent

Since the establishment of the Juvenile Court of to prison, but such drastic remedies have proven of no

Washington, D. C., on July 1, 1906, these delinquent benefit to the family, as the earnings of the bread-earner

husbands and fathers have themselves earned $80,in prison were not in any way given to the family for its

979.01, and paid thus through the clerk of the court maintenance. Charitable organizations have come for

for the support of their families without any deducward from time to time and assisted the deserted family,

tion for costs or otherwise. During the same period but this course in many instances has been the first step

the workhouse has had to pay only $3,602 to famwhich finally resulted in pauperizing the entire family.

ilies for the labor of incarcerated fathers." The individual members of such a family supported by A parent thus compelled to support his family soon charitable agencies find it so easy to procure the neces realizes that it is far better to be at liberty, where he can saries of life by calling on such agencies that they do not earn far more than when confined in prison, returns to think it necessary to obtain work to support themselves. his family, and under the direction of the Court performs The various Juvenile Court Laws throughout the country his duty. Naturally enough the entire family is benefited have empowered the Court to order the parents to sup where the father is at home, sober and industrious. The port their children and, failing to do so, punish them for JUVENILE COURT RECORD has at all times advocated a contempt of court. In such cases the only remedy, if similar measure. It commends the work of Judge Deremedy it could be called, is to commit the parent to jail Lacy to his fellow Juvenile Court Judges throughout the until he has purged himself of contempt. This he could country. We are inclined to confine our efforts to the not do so long as he was confined in jail. The question in individual child. This, however, is not the cardinal pringreat measure has been solved by Judge William H. De

ciple of the Juvenile Court. It is the family and through Lacy, Judge of the Juvenile Court of Washington, D. C. the family the child. It is far better to assist one family Commenting on the question, the Judge says:

than to commit a great number of children to institutions. "If the child be fed in the home he will not go One family thus assisted will in turn benefit an entire into the streets' to beg or steal. Eighty-five per cent neighborhood. This was the thought and idea that was of the children brought into the Juvenile Court are in the minds of the individual members of the committee there by reason of defective home conditions. The that drafted the first Juvenile Court Law. It is to be two greatest evils in such homes are immorality and hoped that similar laws will be made in every State in the nonsupport of the family. Everyone recognizes Union.


East West

KANSAS CITY, MO. Judge Porterfield and Chief Probation Officer Mathias are on the alert at all times to make the Kansas City Juvenile Court a juvenile court in the true sense of the word. The auxliary tranches of their court, such as boys' clubs, fresh air amps, etc., have been very successful in the past. Now they have adopted a real Big Brother Movement, a practical method of helping boys who were started wrong in their earlier years, little chaps who were chucked into life on the seamy side and little chaps who were chucked into life on the seamy side and who have found it hard traveling, even when following the lines of least resistance. Judge E. E. Porterfield is the president of the Kansas City Big Brothers, and assures us, "that it will be a big success because I know there aren't fewer than three hundred men in Kansas City at the present time who will be ready to act as Big Brothers for the little chaps who need a lift."

There are about three hundred boys, ranging in age from ten to sixteen years, now on parol. An ida of punishment is conceived by the boy who is compelled to report to an officer of the court, the very idea that should be eliminated from the work of the juvenile court. The advantages of the Big Brother system will be that instead of reporting to probation officers, at stated intervals the boy will go to his Big Brother, possibly in some big handsome office or comfortable, refined home, where he will be treated with respect, courtesy and consideration. In this respect the boy will realize that he amounts to something, that he is somebody, and that there is a reason for his improving, because somebody really cares.

The Big Brother Movement will also aid boys in many other ways, such as securing positions in suitable places for them, thus enabling them to maintain themselves properly. This can be easily accomplished where men of business affairs are interested in the boy's welfare. Many now successful business men have started out in life under the most adverse circumstances, and will be glad to help any youngster along who chances to be placed in the same position. ,

INDIANAPOLIS. Many complaints have been made during the past few months to Juvenile Court officers by parents and teachers, who say that tobacco is being sold promiscuously by Indianapolis dealers, druggists and grocers to young boys who want to learn to smoke. Affidavits have been made against local dealers by boys, and a vigorous campaign against selling tobacco to minors is promised.

Speaking of the law, Judge George W. Stubbs of the Juvenile Court said:

"If the law is being disobeyed by tobacco dealers in Indianapolis it should to stopped. The law is not a trivial thing, to be treated with disdain, and if it is being disregarded steps should be taken to remedy that condition.

"Sec. 569 of the statutes provides that it shall constitute a public offense for any one to give or sell, directly or indirectly, any tobacco to any child less than 16 years old. Neither may tobacco be sold to any one who it is known will give it to children. The penalty for this offense shall be a fine of $10 to $100,


to which may be added imprisonment in the County jail for from ten to thirty days.

“There seems to be a widespread impression among the people of Indiana that the cigarette laws have been so amended as to make them valueless, but the truth of the matter is that they are more stringent now than they have ever been before. It is unlawful for any one to give or sell cigarettes or cigarette wrappers to minors or to keep them for sale to minors.

"Under the old law the penalty was a fine of from $10 to $25. Under the amended law the lowest fine is $25, and from that up to $100, to which is added costs of prosecution and, if necessary, confinement in the County Jail until they have been paid. For the second and all subsequent offenses the lawbreaker may be fined in any amount from $100 to $500 and imprisoned in the Courty Jail for from thirty days to six months.”

BROOKLYN. Dr. Max G. Schlapp, of Cornell University, a specialist in brain diseases, has interested himself in the case of Max Jaffe, 15 years old, of 168 Powell street, Brownsville, who was recently a prisoner in the Children's Court, charged with stealing $5.50 from his employer. Max was arrested once before on a less serious charge, and his father, Barnett Jaffe, says he has been very wayward.

Dr. Schlapp will treat Max with a view of curing him of any criminal tendency. He secured his parole from Justice Wilkin and the boy's father's consent for the experiment. The doctor has had much success in treating similar cases.

MEXICO CITY, MEXICO. In view of the circular which the department of justice has sent to the judges of the penal courts instructing them to transfer all cases in which minors were involved to the judge of first instance at Tlalpam, the above mentioned judges recently held a meeting, and unanimously resolved to call the attention of the department to the fact that the order was impracticable in the majority of the cases.

This is because it frequently happened that minors are concerned in offenses in which are involved persons of full age whom the law would send to the general prison, or to the general hospital, or to the military prison of Santiago, while the minors would go to the correctional school in Tlalpam, and under these conditions the case could not be finished in the short space of seventy-two hours. Moreover, if the minors were to be tried in Tlalpam, and the elder criminals in Mexico, though both might have been concerned in the same offense, the impossible state of affairs would result that the same case would be tried by two judges at the same time.

It was therefore resolved to name a committee of three judges of the courts of instruction, and three of the correctional courts, to lay the opinions of the judges before the sub-secretary of justice, Lic. Novoa."

Lic. Novoa received the committee, and, on being convinced that the scheme was not feasible, directed that the judges should select certain of their number to study the question and endeavor to find a way out of the difficulty. Some plan for a juvenile court may result.

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Probably many of the readers of this article know more of boys : That you had to win the championship, or you would not the game of baseball, the game which is to us all, the national feel that you were doing yourself proud. game; the game, above all others, that we would rather see; a Did any of you that day stop to realize that in that game of game which appeals to the best there is in us and makes us all baseball and on that field that day, with all your previous prepbetter men and better citizens, than I do.

aration, you were being taught personal responsibility, self reIn the game of baseball, nine men are pitted against nine men, liance and moral cleanliness. Perhaps some of you may laugh and the best team wins. You have a pitcher, catcher, first, and say “no," "we were not being so taught.” Let us see. second and third baseman, a right, left and outfielder, and a Was anyone set to watch the shortstop that day. No indeed; shortstop, and one of the aforementioned men is the captain of you do not play the game of baseball that way. The shortstop the team, which the above men form.

realizes his responsibility, not only to the rest of the team, to When the game is called, someone has been selected to decide the people on the side lines, to his fellow townsmen and to the the knotty questions of who is right and who is wrong, for that state at large, although he may not be conscious of such a reis what it amounts to, and, you always feel like abiding by his sponsibility; but, most of all, he realizes his personal responsidecision, even though you feel that he is wrong.

bility. He knows that if the game is lost through any error of The game is called, the visiting team is at the bat and you his own, no matter how excusable that error might have been, are all in your places waiting, perhaps feverishly, for the first or no matter how unavoidable, that he would never be able to ball to go over the plate, for this game means either defeat, or excuse himself; that many a time afterwards he would see that the championship of the state. On the bleachers and side lines play, even in his dreams, and realize that if he had only done are the crowds waiting to cheer you on, or to call out at you in just so, he might have saved the game. That, my dear boys, is derision at your costly errors; still farther removed from you, due to his personal responsibility; that, which has raised him out but still more or less interested in what you are doing, are your from among the ordinary players and has given him the right fellow townsmen, and the people of your state. They will not to occupy a position on your team. Coupled with this feeling pass immediate judgment on your plays because they are not of personal responsibility is his feeling of responsibility toward present to see your work; but, you can rest assured, that, as you, the knowledge of how you will be concerned if the loss they sit quietly and comfortably by their firesides, and read their of the game is laid at his door. Thus, I might go on, but will morning or evening papers, you are going to be closely scanned leave this thought for the moment and possibly recur to it later and strictly judged. Even the best of a reputation as a baseball player will hardly excuse you from criticism for errors.

Coupled with this feeling of personal responsibility and closely The ball leaves the pitcher's hand like an arrow fleeting to interwoven with it is the idea of self reliance. All during your its mark. Your tension is relieved by the cry of "One Strike." boyhood days, in this game of baseball, the question of your Again, and the ball shoots down to shortstop, is cut off and ultimate success or failure was whether or not you could rely reaches the first base just before the plucky batsman, who is on yourself. You cannot sit idly by on the side lines and watch declared to be out. Thus the game goes on, until the final score the game go on and learn to rely on yourself when you see the of two to one in your favor, and you feel that your cup of ball come speeding your way. You have to be up and doing; happiness is running full to overflowing. You leave the field you have to be watching with keen eyes every move that is and in a few short weeks you say and probably think no more made; you have to almost know whether the man at the bat has about that game.

sized you up as the weak spot on the team and is going to send But, my dear boys and friends, is it not worthy of just a few the ball clear through you, and, most of all, you have to now moments of our consideration, and will you not permit me to whether or not you can rely on yourself to stop that ball when make a short analization of it; perhaps, from a view point that the time and opportunity is yours. How foolish you would conhas not suggested itself to you, and then, I want to try and sider it, if, when the ball was pounded down toward shortstop, bring home to you why this analysis is made.

and just as you thought he was about to make a brilliant play, When you went to the field for that final game, was that he deliberately walked over to the pitcher and asked him if it the first day that season, or, in your lifetime, that you had was proper for him to stop the ball and what he should do with played the game of baseball. Did you have to be shown the it after he had stopped it. Such a shortstop would either be various places on the field that you were to occupy; did you mobbed by the crowds and strung to the nearest telephone pole. have to have someone stationed on the side lines telling you or he would be running yet. Still, if he had not thoroughly what a strike was, what a curve was, telling you which way or developed his bump of self reliance, is not this just what he direction to run after you had landed the ball clear out beyond might do? Without this spirit of self reliance, you might as the outfielder with three men on bases? No, you do not play well play baseball in dress suits. If this spirit of self reliance baseball that way. Many of you can hardly remember when which enables you to strike the ball with three men on bases, you first began to take an interest in the game of baseball, can nothing less. Without it, you could not play baseball. hardly remember the first team that you played on, or, of how Also, my dear friends, you all know that your team was just proud you were when you won your first game. You went out as strong as the weakest member. You know that the other to the field that day, after having been practising faithfully all fellows would be looking for that weak spot and would pound the season, after having met foes worthy of your steel, after you to pieces when they found it. By the weakest member, I do having studied carefully all the rules of the game, after having not necessarily mean the poorest player, for, strange to say, he weeded out any whom you considered weakened the team as a is not always the weakest member. That member of the team whole, and always with the same end in view. What end, my that you cannot depend upon at all times to give you the best

there is in him is the weakest member, and, no matter how good How much more important this idea is in a business sense of the a player he may be, if he is one who may be looking at the word. And, again, I say, I care not what position you may bleachers just as the ball comes his way, of what use is he to occupy in life, unless you have developed your spirit of self reyou. Give me the boy who, when he plays ball, plays ball, and liance, you are unwittingly preventing yourself from being adI will bank my all on him'as against that boy, 'who, while play- 'vanced to'places of responsibility. 'How strange it would seem ing ball, is thinking about a sleigh ride he is going to take with to you if nine men were placed on the side lines to see that you his best girl.

did your duty in the game of baseball. How much more strange Possibly some of you may think it strange that I should it ought to be to have your employer placing a man to see that claim that moral cleanliness was in any remote way an asset you did your duty. Are you going to make it a point to learn toward good baseball playing. Is it so remotely connected, my the business of your employer well enough so that when anydear friends? What good would any of the team be to you, if thing comes up in the line of your duty, you may be able to take they came upon the field under the influence of liquor; what care of it without having to lean on someone else. Well and good would they be to you, if they had caroused the night be- good, but let me impress on you that this is not enough; this is fore and their nerves were all unstrung. No need for me to not developing your bump of self reliance to the sticking point. tell you, for you all know that unless you had someone to fill After you have found that you can rely on yourself as to those their places, the game would be a forfeit. No boy would ever things that have been placed on your shoulders, begin to look dare to go out to the field under the influence of liquor or suffer- around and find what would be needed of you if you were placed ing from the effects of a carousal and ever feel like meeting just one step farther up. Do not figure that your salary is only his teammates again. The brain must be clear to play the game Ten Dollars a week, and that that is all that you have to give successfully, and, in order that the brain shall be clear, nothing to your employer in energy. Your salary is what you make it, must be done to undermine the body; for when you do, you and, if your employer does not see that you are worth more to take away that spirit of self reliance and of personal responsi- him, you are gradually improving yourself to your own advantage bility.

and preparing yourself for what may come your way. In other Now, my dear boys and friends, this little talk on baseball words, if you are developing yourself, you are not wasting your has been with a purpose in view. I want to now try and unfold time; but, when you waste the time of your employer, you are to you what I have had in mind and to try and give you a few not only cheating him, but, you are also cheating yourself. You thoughts on what might tend to be of some assistance to you

are losing the opportunity placed at your disposal of improving in that other game upon which you are just about to enter. yourself. That game in which you will have to take your place and a game Now, my dear boys, is not moral cleanliness nothing more which will occupy all the balance of your lifetime.

nor less than personal responsibility coupled with self reliance. It is the game of life; and the game of baseball is only one If you are not morally clean, do you know positively that you of the many preparatory branches which we study in order to fit can rely on yourself at a time when you will be needed the most; ourselves to take up greater responsibilities later on.

can you feel any sense of personal responsibility at all, if you are In this game of life, you will find that the sense of personal

inclined to go out and have what is commonly termed “a good

time." When we speak of boys, we think of youth, and the misresponsibility taught you in the game of baseball will be one

takes you make today may cause anguish to someone coming of the biggest assets at your command. I do not care what po

into this world one hundred years froin today. One occupying sition you hold in life, whether it be in a factory, in an office or mercantile establishment, or whatever it may be, unless you

a position like mine has this impressed on him almost every feel toward yourself that sense of personal responsibility, you

day, and, it was only just the other day, in sending a young will remain among the class who have to build "air castles” of

man to an asylum for the insane, that one of the doctors rewhat they might have been, for the reason that they are never

marked: "Is he suffering for his own sins or the sins of some

of his ancestors." able "to be.” What good would you be to your employer un

Summing up what we have just said about moral cleanliness, less you felt toward him that measure of responsibility which

self reliance and personal responsibility, can you not understand makes him feel that he can rely always on your having the good

and appreciate how necessary they all are to your ultimate sucof the firm at heart. Having this responsibility toward him,

cess in life. Can you understand and appreciate that your opporthose who were dealing with him, through you, can and will

tunity, the opportunity which may be the making of you may always feel that what you tell them and what you sell them, they can always rely on. But, of what use would all your re

come to you any day, and the question is: "Are you going to be

prepared to take it?" Opportunity always puts me in mind of sponsibility toward your employer and his customers be, if you

a greased pig in an alley with both ends of the alley open. lacked toward yourself that sense of personal responsibility, that

What a hard job you would have to keep that pig from getting balance wheel of judgment which would permit you to take

out of the alley. Just when you think you have the pig, it slips yourself to task and call yourself to account, even though no

througr your fingers and is gone. It does not run very fast mortal being know that you were in the wrong. My dear boys, I may be a little old-fashioned in this, and I have no intention

and you go after it again, and this time successfully catch it,

only to find that it has wriggled itself loose and is gone again. to sermonize, but I firmly believe that he who builds without If you had been prepared and had provided gates at each end God, builds on sand. And I want to say further that the best,

of the alley, how easy it would have been to have closed the the strongest incentive to a good life and to a sense of personal

gates and kept the pig in the alley. Thus, my boys, with opresponsibility here is a belief in immortality and a personal portunity. Nothing is more slippery, more elusive; nothing is responsibility beyond the grave.

harder to hold when you have once gotten possession of it. And as I have said before, one cannot think of personal re

Do not stand by and say "so and so" was lucky. He was not. sponsibility without the mind reaching out, unconsciously, toward He had the capacity or he could not have held the job or pothe element of "self reliance." We have seen what an important sition down after it came his way. Like the greased pig, it wuold element it was toward the perfect working out of a game of slip from his arms and be gone before he realized it and he baseball; how, while each member of the team relied on ecah

would be reading the "want" columns again. and every other member and on the team as a whole, each one

As one of our famous generals once said: “We will win, if it had to have self reliance, or they could not work as a whole. takes all summer.” You can win boys; it is up to you.

The Washington Juvenile Court


DOCUMENT that children are apt to develop conduct out of the ordinary. 2nd Session.

No. 201. There were 359 cases remaining over from the preceding year, SENATE.

so that 1,056 children were on probation during the past fiscal OPERATIONS OF THE JUVENILE COURT. year. Of this number, 470 were yet on probation June 30, 1909. MESSAGE FROM the President of the United States, trans These probationers are divided into two classes-school chilmitting The Third Annual Report of the Operations of the

dren and the workers. Two Saturday afternoons each month Juvenile Court of the District of Columbia.

the school children come to the court-house to see me. In DECEMBER 10, 1909.-Read; referred to the Committee on the

order that they may lose no time from their employment and District of Columbia and ordered to be printed. may not incur the displeasure of their employers, I see on two

Sundays of each month the working children. At these meetTo the Senate and House of Representatives :

ings, that have come to be called "good-citizenship meetings," I transmit herewith fo rthe information of the Congress the the children are instructed by the probation officers and the Third Annual Report of the Operations of the Juvenile Court

judge in what constitutes and will promote good conduct, of the District of Columbia.

cleanliness, good citizenship. This is not all. These children are

WM. H. TAFT. visited each month in their homes by the probation officers, and THE WHITE HOUSE, December 10, 1909.

when the occasion would seem to demand it, by the judge.

It is difficult to overestimate the value of such visitation into JUVENILE COURT OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA,

the homes by tactful and intelligent probation officers, ready Washington, August 6, 1909.

and willing to assist the families to better living. Rev. Zed H. THE PRESIDENT:

Copp, chief probation officer, reports that "families out of active I have the honor to submit the Third Annual Report of the

touch with their churches were encouraged and helped to renew Operations of the Juvenile Court of the District of Columbia,

such association, medical and other aid was secured for the the only tribunal of the kind established under federal authority.

needy, agents induced to make house repairs, employment seThe appended statement of the clerk of the court shows that

cured, and often strained domestic relations improved." there were 4,720 causes in the court during the fiscal year ended

Mr. John R. Dillon, probation officer, reports that he has June 30, 1909, many of which, being of a felonious character, himself, in cases of small wounds, "removed filthy bandages of were offenses against the Unted States.

varicolored material, of itself sufficient to produce gangrene, Two thousand five hundred and forty-six juvenile offenders

and replaced such bandages with sterile dressings, giving inpassed through the court in the time specified, 1,245 petitions

struction at the same time how to clean the sore and directing for privileges for children under the child-labor law were dis

how to obtain an antiseptic remedy." posed of, and 929 adult cases were heard and determined. These adult cases were for cruelty to children, contributing to the

The probationers are encouraged to acquire the entertaining

and useful habit of reading good books. To this end, a library wrongdoing of children, violations of the child-labor law, but by far the greater number for non-support of family.

of juvenile literature was established at the court-house. While Ninety-nine adults were charged with the nonsupport of

they are under the control of the court, the children are per

suaded to enroll at the Carnegie Library and obtain book cards, children only, 286 adults were charged with nonsupport of wives in destitute and necessitous circumstances, 514 adults were

so that the newly acquired habit of reading may persist and charged with the nonsupport of wives and children; making a

continue. Miss Herbert, of the Carnegie Library, who genertotal of 899 nonsupport cases.

ously gives of her time for the selection of reading matter for There were 10 cases involving violations of the child-labor law.

the probationers, tells me of her gratification at the selections

in solid reading matter made by these boys and girls on probaThirteen adults were charged with contributing to the de

tion. Mrs. Gertrude B. Darwin, probation officer, details the linquency of children. Four hundred and twenty-one petitions were filed for labor

interest shown by the probationers in the library at the coutt. permits for children between 12 and 14 years of age, of which

The most popular book seems to be The Boys of 1745. She 409 were granted, but 145 of these grants were restricted to

says: the time outside of school hours, so that the education of the

"The books about the Brownies are always in demand. One child might proceed where possible. One hundred and fifty little chap reads nothing but fairy stories and has taken out aleight permits were issued that children might be employed as

most every one of Andrew Lang's red, blue, pink, yellow, orange messengers or errand boys, the other permits granted being and violet fairy books. quite evenly divided between the street trades and indoor em “One colored boy, charged with larceny, has taken as many ploymnt. In addition, upon the recommendation of the super as 12 volumes. He did well upon probation until he moved intendent of schools, in the cases of 822 children the schooling away from home. He has not returned the last book taken, certificate contemplated by the law was waived, and of these but I do not think he meant to steal it. It was probably lost in 19 children were under 12 years of age.

the moving At any rate he has not come again before the Of the 2,546 juvenile offenders, 697 were placed upon proba court for a second offense. Another very prepossessing little tion, of whom 265 were white boys and 4 were white girls; colored boy read 16 books before it finally became necessary to colored boys were 363; colored girls, 65. The average age of transplant him from his poor alley home, because his mother all the children was about 13 years. It is at or about puberty had been sent to jail. He also has never come back to court

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