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JUVENILE COURT RECORD
The Juvenile Court Movement at the present time needs friends to protect it from self-seekers more than it did to start the movement in the beginning. The world
was ready for the Juvenile Court at the time it was first T. D. HURLEY, Editor.
established in Illinois in 1899. The movement having 637 Unity Bldg., Chicago, Ill.
been firmly established, it becomes the duty of its friends
to protect it so as to meet with the approval of the various ASSOCIATE EDITORS.
Supreme Courts. The fact is that few, if any, of the Hon. B. B. Lindsey, Judge Juvenile Court, Denver, Colorado. Supreme Courts have affirmed the various laws, and in Thomas D. Walsh, Asst. Secretary New York Society for the the opinions that have been written there has been more Prevention of Cruelty to Children, 297 4th Ave., New York.
or less indirect criticism of the methods by which the
laws have been administered. The clearest opinion that DAVID R. BLYTH, Business Manager.
has been written on the law is that of the Utah Supreme Publication Office, 637 Unity Building, Chicago, Ill. Court (88 Pacific Reporter, p. 609). In that opinion Eastern Office, 1416 Broadway, New York.
the Supreme Court, in holding part of the law unconsti
tutional, blamed not the law so much as it did the judge, Boston Office, 71 Kilby Street, Boston, Mass.
Willis Brown, who was defendant in the case. The
Court in its opinion used the following pertinent lanThe Juvenile Court Record is published monthly except in the month of July. Single copies, 10 cents. Subscription
guage: price, $1 per year. Entered at Postoffice, Chicago, as second
"From an inspection of the record in this case, meager class matter.
as it is, we are forced to the conclusion that the difficulties complained of are due far more to the respondent
(Willis Brown, then presiding Judge of the Utah JuNew Subscriptions can commence with current number. venile Court) than to the law. To administer juvenile
Change of Address.-Always give both your old and your laws in accordance with the true spirit and intent renew address when you ask us to change.
quires a man of broad mind, of almost infinite patience, Payments for the Paper, when sent by mail, should be made and one who is the possessor of great faith in humanity, in a postoffice money order, bank check or draft, or an express and thoroughly imbued with that spirit. The judge of money order. When neither of these can be procured, send any court, and especially a judge of a Juvenille Court
, 2-cent United States postage stamps; only this kind can be received.
should, therefore, be willing at all times, not only to
respect, but to maintain and preserve the legal and natLetters should be addressed and checks and drafts made pay- ural rights of men and children alike. *
* * Reable to Juvenile Court Record, 637 Unity Bldg., Chicago.
spondent, as this record discloses, either has no regard Advertising Rates made known on application.
for or is uninformed in respect to the rules that experience of past generations has evolved for the purpose of
safeguarding the rights of all. Like most laymen, but EDITORIAL
seemingly without their good judgment, respondent seems to regard these rules as mere technicalities to be
brushed aside as obstructions in the pathway of what is. Juvenile Court Fakers.
usually termed 'common sense justice.' He seems to be
a willing convert to the theory that he is better, if not The JUVENILE COURT RECORD with this issue starts a wiser, than both law and rules of procedure, and that he new year. The past year has been successful in every may thus disergard either or both at pleasure. While respect. The tone of the paper has improved to such ducted as Criminal or other courts usually are, the judge
Juvenile Courts cannot and are not expected to be conan extent that we are now in receipt of communications should still not wholly disregard all wholesome rules in daily from all parts of the world for past and current an attempt to establish guilt, which he suspects, or, worse Juvenile Court information. This is caused because yet, merely imagines. * Care must be exercised of the many self-seekers that are trying to force them in both the selection of a judge and the administration selves on the Juvenile Court movement in the various
of the law. When this is done, we have no doubt that
most of the things complained of and as they appear from parts of the country.
the record will be obviated. The Juvenile Court of this Our motto in the past has been "A Juvenile Court Law State is of too much importance to be hampered or set for every State in the Union.” This should be supple- aside for trivial or avoidable causes.' mented with a further statement that while we want laws,
Yet this same man is lecturing throughout the New it is not “quantity” but “quality.” It is far better to have England States as the exponent of the entire Juvenile
Court Movement. one good, broad, comprehensive law in each State that
We have been able to not only build up the paper and will protect the rights of the parents and relatives as improve its appearance, but at the same time have well as the child, and that this law should be properly financed it without calling for any contributions from its and constitutionally administered, than that the various friends. courts should be run under ordinances and laws that at
We are very thankful to our friends for the liberal
patronage they have extended to us throughout the year, best are questionable. In the future we will advocate
In the future we will advocate and trust that we will improve the paper and continue to "quality" as to laws and "quality" as to the administra- render in the future that assistance that we have rention of the laws more than "quantity."
dered to the Juvenile Court Movement in the past.
The Fresh Air School Room
The officials of the Mary Crane Nursery, Chicago, are experimenting along new lines with the theory of the benefits derived from cold air. The accompanying illustration shows a class room in session, with the pupils and teachers dressed in arctic clothing, owing to the extremely cold weather. The walls of the class room are of canvas, and the atmosphere practically the same as the prevailing temperature outdoors. The advocates of the fresh air school are of the opinion that it will have a tendency to lessen many ills that children are subject to, and that the plan is very favorable to those with weak lungs, inflamed mucous membrane, and of tubercular tendencies. Several people have criticised the idea, claiming the treatment to be a trifle too drastic, while others are in favor of installing ths system in all of the schools. It is a much mooted question, however, whether the children themselves like the idea of the pursuit of knowledge in a frigid school-room. It may appeal to some as a novelty, but novelties are generally of short duration with the youthful mind.
Excellent Advice For the Boys
Judge E. W. Maier, of the Juvenile Court of Troy, Ohio, rules is the only safety. has issued a very striking card containing the following rules
EBERHART W. MAIER, of the court relative to delinquents on probation.
Judge of Miami County Juvenile Court, Troy, Ohio. First-You cannot during the probation period leave the
P. S.—The probationer must consider the probation officer County or State until notice be given to the probation officer
his friend. and his approval is obtained. Second-If the fine or costs are to be paid at stated periods
And remember too: as a condition of the probation, the terms of payment must 1. Speak the Truthbe STRICTLY complied with or report be made to the pro (1) It is the best way always; bate oñcer oi a satisfactory reason for the failure.
(2) It is the only right way; Thiru-lou must abstain from evil associates, remaining on
(3) It is most honorable; the streets at night after 9 o'clock, without a satisfactory
(4). It is the bravest act. reason, the visiting of saloons, and the use of intoxicating
2. Do Rightliquors and cigarettes.
(1) It is the way you want others to do; Fourth-You must obey the law.
(2) It is the way we expect you to do; Fifth—You shall furnish to the probation officer all infor
(3) Shoulder your own faults; mation desired at any time, and reply promptly by letter or
(4) Let no other boy be blamed for your fault. personal appearance if required.
3. Be HonestSixth–If residence is changed the probation officer must be (1) It wins; notified immediately.
(2) It's right; Seventh—The probationer, under the age of 14 years, must
(3) You like it; attend school regularly and bring to the probation officer
(4) So do we. every week a written statement from the teacher regarding 4. Be Pure-Mindedattendance, application to study and conduct.
(1) Keep clean in body and mind; Eighth—A person on probation is liable to be taken into (2) Keep your courage; custody at any time by the probation officer, or other officer, (3) Keep on top of the very best, and upon the order of the court, and STRICT observance of all (4) Keep smiling.
North East West South
NEW YORK CITY.
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI. Miss Emily Hungtington, well-known in the charitable cir Starting with the new year, owing to the reassignment of cles of this country, and especially so in New York City, is Circuit judges effective at that time, Judge Shield will return dead. She recently became ill and went to Windham, Conn., to the civil division and Judge Grimm will be in charge of where she died, at the age of 61 years.
the juvenile court. The judges reappointed Roger N. BaldFor twenty years she conducted the Wilson Industrial win as chief probation officer. Mrs. Catherine R. Dunn, who School for Girls at Tompkins Square and Eighth street. This qualified as probation officer, will be given a deputyship. was the first institution of the kind in this country, or perhaps in the world. Here she made several pioneer ventures in in
DALLAS, TEXAS. dustrial and charitable education, which spread rapidly The officers of the juvenile court are approving the work of throughout the United States and foreign countries as well. the curfew committee of the City Federation of Women's The Boys' Club, with which the late E. H. Harriman was Clubs. Members of the committee are in favor of nine identified, was organized by her, and from that center radiated o'clock as the curfew hour, and of fixing the age limit at either the system of establishing centers for teaching cookery to 12 or 15 years. The probation officers believe the curfew children, particularly children of the poor.
will be of great assistance to them, as many boys are roaming Her "Kitchen Garden," which had a wide vogue, was pub the streets of Dallas until very late at night, and getting into lished in 1878. Other books of hers were "Child's Kitchen il sorts of mischief. Garden Primer,” (1884), “Introductory Cooking Lessons," "Little Housekeeper," and "How to Teach Kitchen Garden,"
KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI. (1903). Under her administration of the Wilson Mission, A closing order for the shoe shining parlors, as stringent any poor boy could come to the Boys' Club, and poor girls and to be enforced as the police board's regulation of saloons, could come to the Kitchen Garden, and any poor mother has been promulgated by Judge E. E. Porterfield of the could bring her infant for care, while she was working.
juvenile court. Hereafter shining parlors cannot remain open after eight o'clock in the evening, and on Sunday they must
close promptly at two o'clock in the afternoon. Proprietors ROCHESTER, NEW YORK.
who disobey this order will be prosecuted under the Sunday Representing the Russel Sage Foundation Fund -a fund closing and child labor laws. of $10,000,000 given by Mrs. Russel Sage in the interests of education and charity-Florence L. Lattimore appeared be
DENVER, COLORADO. fore a meeting of the Volunteer Probation Officers and pro Co-operation between employers of children and the juvenile posed that the Rochester Juvenile Court be made a model for court has become all the word implies, in Denver. At a the United States. She states that the idea is sanctioned by recent meeting held between the Employer's Mutual Aid Governor Hughes, and suggests bringing Dr. Hastings H. association and Judge Lindsey and his probation officers, enHart and Homer Folks, of New York City, and Bernard thusiastic reports were made as to the condition of the chilFlexner, of Louisville, Ky., to thoroughly explain the work dren. All of the great corporation, department stores and of the court. It seems improbable that all three of these men messenger service companies were represented, and displayed could come to Rochester for the above purpose, owing to great interest in the plans for co-operation. Under this systheir many other duties.
tem, women are placed in all of the large stores to look after
the welfare of children employed there. The judge is thus CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
able to go to them as he would to a principal of a school Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, president of the Juvenile Protective
when in search of information regarding any employed child. Association, at a recent meeting of the Association of Com
This system does away with children idling on the streets, as merce, advocated the establishment of municipal dance halls. they are either sent to school, or positions are secured for "We can't keep children out of the city. The only thing
them by the association. Idleness and juvenile delinquency to do is to make the city fit for them to grow up in,” said Mrs.
are very ably taken care of by this co-operation system, and
the plan is worthy of consideration in other cities, by the Bowen. "The girls and boys crave amusement. They must have it. It is a natural want. The taxpayers would get a
truant and probation officers, and juvenile improvement asgreat deal more return for the money they put into school
sociations. building if they were not closed seventeen hours out of the twenty-four. The Juvenile Protective Association is strong
The dutifulness of children is the foundation of all virtues. ly in favor of their being thrown open at night, so the young -Cicero. people can have music and dancing in them and general good Let nothing foul to either eye or ear reach those doors times.
within which dwells a boy.—Juvenal. “The public dance halls where liquor is sold to adults and It is better to keep children to their duty by a sense of minors alike are the places from which the majority of ruined honor and by kindness than by fear.—Terence. girls can date their downfall. A girl who has been on her "Beware," said Lavater, "of him who hates the laugh of feet eleven or twelve hours in a factory is too tired to resist a child." "I love God and little children," was the simple temptation. She craves a little amusement."
yet sublime sentiment of Richter.—Mrs. Sigourney.
Western Probation Officer Discusses the
Eastern Juvenile Courts
Wm. G. Leeman, Dallas, Texas, Explains Court Systems |
Something of the juvenile courts, detention homes, and stat "Within the last few years representatives of nearly every utory provisions for the protection of children in the East civilized country in the world have visited the Children's Court and North is related by Probation Officer William G. Leeman, in New York City for the purpose of studying its methods. who has recently returned from a trip to Washington and New As a result separate courts for children have been established York. To these places he went as a special guard. Mr. Lee- in Great Britain, France, Austria, Hungary, Germany, Italy and man said:
many others. Germany alone has eighty-six separate chil"The demonstration of the value of children's courts as res dren's courts. cue stations and as institutions for civic betterment is com
THINGS DALLAS NEEDS. manding more attention each year of their existence. The eco "In this city we are sadly in need of a detention home and nomic worth of the children's courts is a kind beyond the pos school, a place where a juvenile can be taken when apprehended sibility of estimate in dollars and cents and is rather to be and held during the investigation and trial. New York was reckoned with the future citizenship. This I cannot empha the first city to have a detention school, though today they are size too strongly after my visit to the larger cities of the East located in many of the cities throughout the United States. and North.
The history of the detention home dates back to 1880, when "The juvenile or children's court is still a new institution. Hon. Elbridge T. Gerry, then at the head of the New York With its importance as a municipal asset rapidly taking firm Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, began to hold on the public mind expressions of wonder are now wide house some children taken into custody by the authorities, and spread that the community was slow to awaken to the injus since April 19, 1893, no child under the age of 16 years has, tice of the old system, by which children were arraigned at so far as known, been confined in a station house, prison or the same bar with vicious adult offenders. To those thoroughly jail pending a disposition of his case in court. familiar with the situation this is almost as startling as the "After thorough study of methods and procedure and carethought that slavery was once sanctioned in the United States. fully going over the court records for the last six years, I
"The statutes providing for juvenile courts, as have most of found in New York City that during that time 59,226 children the laws for the protection of children, originated in this coun were arraigned. The offenses charged range from homicide and try. There has been considerable discussion recently as to what attempts at self-destruction to truancy and trifling misdemeancity had the first children's court, and what cities are making ors growing out of street play. The only offense in which the the most progress. In the cities I have visited in the North and court does not have final jurisdiction is that of homicide. By East they not only have laws, but institutions and homes in which a wise provision of the law, offenses, which if committed by every kind of case of juvenile delinquency or juvenile depend persons over the age of 16 years would amount to felonies, ency can be treated.
are in the Children's Court prosecuted as misdemeanors. "Our laws in Dallas can be improved to some extent, but as Recognition of these underlying principles has induced the legthey are, and for two years, with no place provided by law islature to attempt to bring the outward forms of law into harfor the proper care and maintenance of juvenile offenders, our mony with the court's purpose. The penal law has been reports on file in New York show this city to be far in ad amended so that a child within the jurisdiction of the Chilvance of many other cities of its size and a leader in the dren's Court will no longer be convicted of crime; but if it movement in the Southwest.
has committed an act which in an adult would be a crime, OFFICERS' JUDGMENT GOOD.
shall be deemed guilty of juvenile delinquency only. This amend"Much of this credit is due, however, to the efforts made ment was effective Sept. 1 of the present year. Where comby the police and sheriff's department in their manner and way mitment is necessary children are not sent to prisons or jails, of handling juvenile offenders before they come to the court. but to juvenile reformatories and charitable institutions. Every Many cases have never come before the court for hearing as effort is made to save the child to the home and to accomplish the result of timely appearance and good judgment used by his salvation without commitment the primary object of the these officers while on and off duty. The police matron, too, court being preventive rather than punitive. This accounts for has made a record for herself, as has the court who spends a the fact that out of the 59,226 children arraigned in the period good part of his time personally investigating cases that come mentioned, only 11,181 have been committed. In the final before him. All of this and the hearty support of the club analysis it would be found in the great majority of these cases, women of the city has given Dallas a record, according to the irrespective of the charge, that the commitment had been made statistics in New York, that will be hard to defeat.
necessary because of incompetent or unfit parents. "While New York was not the first city to have a perma
ABOUT PROBATION SYSTEM, nent court for children, its Children's Court was the first in "This now brings us to the probation system as applied in the world to hold its sessions in a building of its own, and it New York and other large cities. This system, which is also has, from the start, dealt with the largest number of children's carried out in Dallas, has meant a salvage to the State of New cases annually of any similar tribunal in the world. Since this York of thousands of lives to future usefulness and, from the later and real awakening to the need for separate courts for standpoint of financial economy, a present saving to the municchildren began less than ten years ago, legislation on the sub- ipality of thousands of dollars, a future saying of millions, ject has read rapidly until today the majority of the states when it is remembered that the careers that were changed that have made som provision for such courts—at least in the larger had started in the roads that fill reformatories, almshouses, cities. Foreign countries have been quick to follow our lead. asylums and prisons.
***Of the 8,248 children who were placed on probation during the last six years, 7,111 have been finally discharged. In other words, almost 86 per cent of the entire number of children on
PERSONALITIES probation have been placed safely in the way that leads to good citizenship. The court, however, has been particularly fortunate in having the invaluable aid of the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in its probation work. E. Fellows Jenkins, superintendent of the society, and
Smoking who for more than thirty years has been most active in the
buil field of child rescue, has had direct supervision of the investigation in these probation cases.
"In the probation work the court has availed itself of the services of trained investigators of the society who are peace officers. In the reports of these officers which are made regularly to the court, suggestions are given by the officers which are not only for the best interests of the child, but the community as well.
HELP NEEDED IN DALLAS. "In Dallas as well as New York help is needed to carry on this work. A great part of the work there, however, is carried on through the big brother's plan. The Protestants as well as the Catholics have taken charge. Within the last two years the Hebrews, recoginzing the great advantages in the individual work in the big brother's plan, have organized a big brother's movement of their own, in which one suitable man of good will takes an interest in one boy who has been a victim of bad environment and sees that he gets a chance in life. A capable representative is always in the courtroom to note cases needing such help. This association also looks after boys who come out of institutions to which they had been committed. The girls, too, carry on this line of work with their own sex.
"The need for a suitable building to be known as a detention school for juveniles has been demonstrated during the last year. From the report it will be seen that a total of 364 cases came to the attention of the court for the fiscal year ending Dec. 1. Of this number many were held in either the city or county jail pending an investigation and trial.
“Despite the fact that every effort has been made by the city and the county to provide separate rooms in these buildings
JOHN L. WHITMAN. and every effort was made by the officers in charge of these
The above portrait is the man well-known to those familiar buildings to keep the juveniles as far from the adult prison- with the problem of the delinquent boy. In his official capaciers as possible, there is still that sting about the place which ty of Superintendent of the Chicago House of Correction, either gives the boy a boasting power, or leaves him depressed and while formerly jailer for Cook County, Mr. Whitman has Few ever come out with that natural state of mind. In this
made a special study of the boy as a delinquent. connection I can tell of a number of cases which I have personally investigated.
He has also, from time to time, written several clever ar
ticles on the same subject, which are very interesting, com"For a detention home it should be a building creditable to this great city of the Southland, and should be equipped in himself.
ing as they do from one in so close a touch with the bad boy a manner to make the work most effective on its physical as well as moral side. There should be a sufficient number of Worthy School, which handles the male offenders from the
Affiliated with the Chicago House of Correction is the John rooms so considerable discretion could be exercised in the sep- Juvenile Court that are under sixteen years of age. aration of children held.”
In a recent report, Mr. Whitman recommends that the
John Worthy School be abolished, and that the inmates either A NEW DEFINITION OF PHILANTHROPY. be placed on probation in homes, or sent to the St. Charles or Irvin S. Cobb, of the New York World's staff of come other schools of a like nature. He further states that twentydians, is responsible for the following:
five per cent of the boys are not so bad but what they could “Somebody said once, a few years back, that a philan- be placed in homes. During the year of 1909 the per capita thropist was a party who persuaded you to give your own
cost of keeping the boys in the school was seventy-five money to somebody that didn't want it. But our new school cents daily. Mr. Whitman suggests that each boy costs of philanthropists have that scheme whittled to a splinter. about $275 per year to keep, and as there are about 200 boys, The two dollars they hand back to you makes nineteen times the city could save considerable by placing the boys out, and as much noise as the twenty they take away from you. The using the school building for adult prisoners. two-spot sounds like a minstrel band marching down Main As evident from the sign on Mr. Whitman's desk in the Street, but the twenty goes hence as silently as a trained above picture, he does not agree with the manufacturers of nurse with her shoes off, pouring soothing syrup into a rub- cigarettes as to their harmlessness. This sign applies to the ber spoon.”
adults as well as the boys.