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Vivien Ng
"Laws that promoted morality were legal innovations intended to effect social change."
pp. 60-61 "The state-sponsored cult of chastity undoubtedly accounted for the Qing insistence that rape victims resist their assailants throughout the entire ordeal, at the risk of their own lives"
pp. 63 Xue Yunsheng "was especially critical of the notion that sexual assault could begin with force and end with mutual consent. He recognized that such a mistaken notion would only force victims of rape to commit suicide in order to prove their chastity." in his commentary on Qing laws, Xue included a lengthy excerpt from another work which in his opinion argued his case very succinctly (1970:1080)
p. 64 "a woman's failure to defend her chastity vigorously was in effect made a punishable offense. This distinction made between
married and unmarried women is also noteworthy. "Qing officials would demand stringent proof of rape--so as to be sure that the woman was not actually a jilted temptress--and would accept the idea that a rape victim would actually enjoy the sexual attack."
p. 66 More significantly, the Qing remained unwilling to absolve women who died after being raped by only one assailant. The attitude remained that a woman who was confronted by only one rapist should be able to defend her chastity successfully, even if it entalied getting herself killed in the process. It is also significant that, for a woman to be honored, she had to be dead. Women who survived their ordeal were utterly disgraced.
The subject of homosexual male rape was officially broached for the first time in 1679. A series of recommendations were subsequently forwarded, and a substatute for male rape was formulated in 1740. This basic law was later amended twice, in 1819 and 1852. (Xue 1970:1082)
 

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