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headache or general uneasiness, because it does not endanger life; a fall on any muscular part of the body is followed either with no pain, or with only a slight indisposition, for the reason that it is not seriously injurious to life; but when a leg or arm is broken, the pain is intensely severe, because the bones of these limbs stand high in the scale of utility to man.

11. The human body is so framed that it may fall nine times and suffer little damage, but the tenth time a limb may be broken, which will entail a painful chastisement. By this arrangement the mind is kept alive to danger to such an extent as to insure general safety, while at the same time it is not overwhelmed with terror by punishments too severe and too frequently repeated. In particular states of the body a slight wound may be followed by inflammation and death; but these are the results not simply of the wound, but of a previous derangement of health, occasioned by departures from the organic laws.

12. On the whole, therefore, no adequate reason appears for regarding the consequences of physical accidents in any other light than as direct punishments for infringement of the natural laws, and indirectly as a means of accomplishing moral and religious improvement.

13. In the preceding chapters we have obtained glimpses of some of the sanctions of the moral law, which may be briefly recapitulated. If we obey it, inany desirable results ensue. In the first place, we enjoy the highest gratifications of which our nature is susceptible, in habitual and sustained activity of our noblest faculties. Secondly, We become objects of esteem and affection to our fellow-men, and enjoy exalted social pleasure. Thirdly, Whatever we undertake, being projected in harmony with the course of nature, will prosper.

14. Fourthly, by observing the moral law, we shall place ourselves in the most favorable condition for obeying the organic law, and then enjoy health of body and buoyancy of mind. Fifihly, by obeying the moral, intellectual, and organic laws, we shall place ourselves in the best condition for observing the physical laws, and thereby reap countless benefits conferred by them.

11. What arrangements give us sufficient prudence without overwhelming us with terror? Why is a slight wound sometimes followed by inflammation and death?

12. In what light should we regard the consequences of physical accidents ? Of what are they the means ?

13, 14. What follows the obedience of the moral law '.

15. To perceive, on the other hand, the penalties by which the Creator punishes infringements of the moral law, we need only to reverse the picture. There is denial of that elevated, refined, and steady enjoyment, which springs from the supreme activity of the moral sentiments and intellect, and from the perception of the harmony between them and the institutions of creation. By infringing the moral law we become objects of dislike and aversion to our fellow-men; and this carries denial of gratification to many of our social faculties.

16. Whatever we undertake in opposition to the moral law, being an enterprise against the course of nature, can not succeed; and its fruits must therefore be disappointment and vexation. Inattention to the moral and intellectual law incapacitates us for obedience to the organic and physical laws; and sickness, pain, and poverty overtake us. The whole scheme of creation, then, appears constituted for the purpose of enforcing obedience to the moral law; virtue, religion, and happiness seem to be founded in the inherent constitution of the human faculties, and the adaptation of the external world to them, and not to depend on the will, the fancies, or the desires of man.

15. What are the consequences of infringement of the moral law?

16. Why does not success attend opposition to the moral law? What is the grand intention of the whole scheme of creation? In what do virtue, religion, and happiness scem to be founded ?

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BLUMENBACH divides mankind into five leading classes or races, each distinguished by such peculiarities in the skin, hair, eyes, and shape of the head, as to stand apart from the rest. They are named the Caucasian, MALAY, MONGOLIAN, AMERICAN, and ETHIOPIC.


1. The Caucasian race is widely spread on the face of the globe, and is remarkable for the highest order of physical beauty and intellectual eminence. The skin of this race is generally fair ; the hair is fine, long, and of various colors; the skull is large, rounded, and oval, and the forehead large and elevated. The face is relatively small and well proportioned, the nose arched, the chin full, and the teeth vertical.

In this variety or race of men we find the furthest remove from the animal in brain, features, and hair, with a superiority of intellectual and moral power, love of the arts, science, and poetry. The progress of the human family seems to be made wholly through this race. The chief families of the Caucasian variety are the Caucasians proper, the Germanic branch, the Celtic, the Arabian, the Libyan, the Nilotie, and the Hindostanic.


2. Borneo, Java, Sumatra, the Philippine Islands, New Zealand, and a part of Madagascar and various Polynesian Islands, are inhabited by the Malay race. They have tawny or dark brown skins, coarse, black hair, large mouths, broad, short noses, seeming as if broken at the root, projecting upper jaws, and protruding teeth. The forehead is broad and low, the crown of the head high. The moral character of the Malays is of an inferior order. They are active, ingenious, and fond of maritime pursuits, and exhibit considerable intellectual capacity. Yet this race is constantly giving way before European civilization. They have faded from Van Dieman's Land, and New Holland will ultimately follow-large as it is, it must obey the destiny of the weaker races.


3. The Mongolian variety, in numbers and extent of the earth's surface which they inhabit, is a family of vast importance. They are the Mongol Tartars, the Turks, the Chinese and Polar races. There is considerable difference in the physical characteristics of the Mongolians. The skin is commonly of an olive tint, the hair is black, long, and straight, beard scanty, the eye black, the nose broad and short, the cheek-bones broad and flat; the skull is oblong, but flattened at the sides, so as to give an appearance of squareness, and the forehead is low. They lack originality and power of mind, are more imitative than inventive. Their moral character is decidedly low.


4. This variety of mankind originally occupied nearly the whole of North and South America, south of the sixtieth degree of north latitude. They are of a reddish brown complexion, have long, straight, black hair, deficient beard, eyes deep set and black, prominent brow, receding forehead, high cheekbones, prominent aquiline nose, small skull, rising high at the crown, and the back part flat; large mouth, hard, rough features, with fine, straight, symmetrical frames. They are averse to cultivation, and slow in acquiring knowledge, sedate, proud, restless, sly, revengeful, fond of war, and wholly destitute of maritime adventure. The American race is tending to extinction before the march of the Caucasian, and such is the fate of every other variety, when they are brought in contact. The superior swallows up the inferior.

This subject is one of fruitful inquiry, and is attracting the attention of naturalists every where. The phrenologist readily detects the mental differences in the races, and can predict with great certainty the destiny of each family of mankind, keeping in view the great law of nature that the greater will overgrow the less, and gradually obliterate them from the earth.

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