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Shakespeare, Henry V. iv. 2

'And their poor jades lob down their heads." Cf. Dan. lubben, gross; Ger. lappe.

110. Lothe, loath; A.-S. lath. -- Swynke. See ver. 42.

111. Copes, A.-S. cappa and caeppe, a cap, a hood. See § 46 (2). 112. Ben, old inf. and 3 plu. of to be. -Othere, others, plu. of other. 113. Shopen, made, plu. past tense of shape; A.-S. scap an or sceop an. See ver. 3.

115. Fond, found; A.-S. fand. See ver. 34. - Freres, friars or brothers; Fr. freres, Lat. fratr es. The word was spelled in the sixteenth century friere. It seems to have become a regular dissyllable, and the accent being drawn back by the analogy of the language, the i, a mere supposititious element in the word, came to appear as a true primitive in it, and took its long usual sound at the end of an accented syllable. The four orders of friars were the Franciscans, Augustines, Dominicans, and Carmelites.

117. Peple, people, here dat. plu.; Fr. peuple, Lat. popul us. Wycliffe wrote puple, Luke iii. 7; Rom. x. 21, xi. 1; Chaucer, peple; Gower, writing more under Influence of French literature, people. Hume, in his "Grammar," 1617, censures this spelling, people. "For peple, they write people, I trow because it comes from populus; but if that be a reason, I wold understand a reason quhy they speak not soe alsoe."

118. Hemselve, themselves. Cf. hem, ver. 39. The e final is sign of plural. 119. Glosed, interpreted, glozed. "A gloss," says Hallam, "properly meant a word from a foreign language, or an obsolete or poetical word, or whatever requires interpretation. It was afterwards used for the interpretation itself." "Literature of Europe," chap. i. 69. The modern word gloze has been lowered to an unfavorable sense, meaning misinterpret. The s was phthongal by rule, § 19, and is now rightly written z.

120. Hem, to them, dat. plu. — Liked, seemed; A.-S. lic, a form or shape. It is used impersonally, like thinks in methinks, ver. 330.

121. Covetise, covetous desire. Spenser, F. Q. III. iv. 7, uses the noun covetize. Old Fr. covetise, from Lat. cupid us. Cf. Wycliffe, 1 John ii. 16, "Coveitise of fleisch and coveitise of izen."

122. Construwed, construed; Lat. con-struo.

123. Maistre, master; Lat. magister.

125. Moneie, money; Old Fr. moneie, Lat. moneta, A.-S. mynet, from myn an to remember, to mean, a coin. A piece of money was thus something meant or marked for a special use; mint is from the same source. Vossius derives moneta from moneo, 66 quia nota inscripta monet nos autoris et valoris." - Marchandize, Fr. marchand, a merchant; Lat. mercans, from mercari, to traffic.

126. Marchen, march, travel; Fr. marcher. The primitive stem is found in A.-S. mearc or marc, a mark, ence a boundary. To march meant to go to the boundaries for defense, hence applied to an army. - Togideres, together, an old gen. form. Cf. towards, A.-S. to wardes.

127. Sith, afterwards, late, adv. from A.-S. sith, a path, a movement, time. Hence sith than and sith thans, after that, since. - Charite, Fr. charitè, Lat. caritas. Chapman. See ver. 61.

128. Shryve, shrive; A.-S. scrif an. Hence scrift, shrift, confession

129. Ferlies. See ver. 11.

130. Yeres, years; A.-S. gear and year.

131. But, unless; Versions, 6.- Hii, they. See ver. 39. The final i is orthographic merely.

133. Mooste, most; A.-S. maest. The second o is orthographic; the final e, Inflectional. - Meschief, mischief; Old Fr. meschef. — Molde, earth; A.-S. mold.

The meaning is: unless Holy Church and they hold together better, the greatest mischief on earth increases very fast.

138. Seles, seals; A.-S. sigel, the sun, anything that glitters, a jewel, a seal. Spelled seel, ver. 157.

139. Myghte, was able; A.-S. mihte, past tense of mag an, to be able.

140. Assoillen, absolve; Old Fr. assoile, Lat. absolvere.

141. Falshede, falsehood, from false and suffix head or hood. Falsehede of fastynge is breaking of fasting.

142. Avowes, vows, from Norman Fr. Cf. Fr. voeu; Lat. vo tum, vov ere. --Y-broken. The prefix y is for ge, part. prefix, § 44 (2).

148. Lewed men, men of the laity, not ecclesiastics; A.-S. laewede, laical, belonging to the laity, from laew ian, to mislead, betray. The worse sense has prevailed in the modern use of the word. - Leved, believed. See ver. 68.

145. Comen, plu. form. See ver. 39 on putten. - Knelynge, probably from Dan. knael e, to kneel, A.-S. cneow ian. The stem is kn. Cf. Gr. yóvu; Lat. gen u.

147. Bouched hem, stopped their mouths. Cf. Fr. bouche, mouth. Another reading is: He blessed hem; and still another: bunchith hem, beats, or pushes them.

148. Blered, bleared. Of doubtful etymology, perhaps connected with blur.— Eighen, eyes, A.-S. eah and eage. The presence of the guttural, as characteristic element of the stem represented by y in eye, is noticeable in Lat. oculus, Gr. õk os, Ger. auge, Icelandic auga.

149. Raughte, reached, old past tense of to reach, A.-S. racc an; past tense, rahte. - Rageman. Nares says this word stands for the devil. Ragman's roll, that is, devil's roll, was "a collection of those deeds by which the nobility and gentry of Scotland were tyrannically constrained to subscribe allegiance to Edward I. of England, in 1296."-Jamieson. Afterwards ragman came to mean a writing or scroll. Rigmarole is a corruption of ragman's roll. The meaning here seems to be: the pardoner drew up rings and brooches with his scroll.

150. Broches, broaches; Fr. broche, a spit. In P. P. 11,857 it means something that is easily ignited. The original meaning was probably a splinter, hence, a sharp stick, a spit, a bodkin, an ornament of which a slender, splinter-like piece, as a pin, was a characteristic part. It is spelled broach, brooch, broche, but pronounced the same way in all the three spellings.

153. Leveth, believe. See ver. 68. - Losels, vagabonds, profligates, from A.-S. leos an and leor an, to lose, to wander away. It is akin to lorn, which is a participle of the same verb. If lorel be a different word from losel, as some insist it should be regarded, it is of the same origin, and has the same import.

155, 156. This passage is very obscure. If the text be correct, the meaning would seem to be: If the bishop were in bliss, and it should come to his full hearing. — Worth, happen, become; A.-S. weorth an, to be, become. Cf. Ezek. xxx. 2, "Wo worth the day;" wo happen, come to the day. -Eris, ears; A.-S. eare. Cf. Dan. öre; Ger. ohr, the h here being orthographic; Lat. aur is; Gr. ous. Eris is dative, remote object of worth.

157. Seel, seal. See ver. 138. — Sholde, should, A.-S. sceolde, past tense of sceal, shall. Noght, not. See ver. 57.

160. Boy. Cf. Dan. pog; Fr. page, Lat. pu er. P. P. uses this word in connection with "beggeres," as, ver. 6,962: "No beggere ne boye amonges us;" and "To beggeres and to boyes that loth ben to worcke."

161. Parisshe, parish; Fr. paroisse, Lat. parochia, Gr. napoɩkía, from #apà, by, and oikos. - Preest, priest; A.-S. preost, Lat. presbyter, Gr. #peσßútepos,


163. Poraille, poor, a collective, or rather a mass noun; Norman Fr. pour Mod. Fr. pauvre; Lat. pauper.


166. Pleyned hem, bewailed themselves; Fr. plaindre, Lat. pangere "And to himself thus plained."-Milton, " Par. Lost," bk. iv. 504. The prefix com in complain is intensive; and the stronger word has crowded out of use the weaker which was in frequent use by the earlier English writers.

167. Povere, poor; Fr. pauvre.

168. The pestilence, the great plague of 1349-50.- Sith. See ver. 127. 269. In order to have leave to dwell at London.

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175. Cure, charge. Lat. cur a. - Crist. The chi (x) of the Greek was often represented in Latin and derived languages by the unaspirated guttural.

181. Liggen, lie; A.-S. licg an and ligg an, to lie down. The A.-S. of lie, to deceive, was leog an.

182. Lenten, in Lent. — Ellis, at other times, A.-S. elles, else. See Versions, 11. 184. Tellen, tell, compute, A.-S. tell an.

185. Cheker, the Exchequer. See n. Task, ii. ver. 162.
186 Chalangen, demand, Fr. chalanger, Lat. calumniari.
187. Wardes, guards, A.-S. weard.

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Wardemotes, ward-meetings, A.-S.

weard and mot, an assembly.

188. Weyves, plu. of waif, something found belonging to an unknown owner, originally applied to what was thrown away, waived, by a thief. Streyves, estrays. This law-term has an Anglo-Norman physiognomy, although of affinity to A.-S. straeg an, to scatter.

189. Servauntz, servants; Old Fr. servantes.

191. Stede, stead, place; A.-S. stede. - Stywardes, stewards; A.-S. stowweard, literally, place-guard.

192. Demen, deem, judge, A.-S. dem an. Hence, doom.

193. Messe, mass; A.-S. maesse and messe, Lat. missa. The name arose from the words used to dismiss catechumens, ite missa est, sc. ecclesia, before the communion, at which they were not allowed to be present.

195. Arn, plur. of to be. - Doon, done. Cf. brooch and broche, ver. 150. The o was long as in note. - Undevoutliche, undevoutly. A hybrid having Lat. stem devotus, and A.-S. prefix un, and suffix liche.

196. Drede is at the last, there is ground of fear.

197. Consistorie, place of judging, judgment seat, Lat. consistorium.

198. Acorse, accurse; A.-S. curs ian, with transitive prefix a for an.

204. Highte, bade; A.-S. hat an, past tense het, heht.

205. Amonges, among; A.-S. mengan, to mix, with prefix a for an. The es is sign of gen., § 42. The t in amongst is euphonic, § 38.

207. Cardinals, prime or fundamental virtues, on which others hinge or turn; Lat. cardinalis, from card " hinge.

208. Yates, gates. See § 25.

210. Shette, shut; A.-S. scitt an. The vulgar pronunciation, shet, appears to

be in accordance with the usage in Langland's time. Many vulgarisms are genuine archaisms.

212. Hevene bliss. See n. ver. 54. Shewe, show; A.-S. sceawian.

214. Kaught of that name, caught hold of that name. Catch is from Old Fr. cacer, cacier, from Lat. captare (captiare), the last guttural in the stem passing into ch represented by tch in the present; in the past tense, caught, påssing into gh.

218. Nelle, will not, am unwilling; A.-S. nelle, 1 sing. pres. ind. of nyll an, to be unwilling.

219. Lettrure, learning, scripture; Lat. literatura. Cf. Chaucer, C. T. 14,415; To techen him lettrure and curtesie."

221. For-thi, for this; therefore.

224. Knyghthod, A.-S. cniht hod, properly boyhood, from cniht, a boy hence, a military follower, and hod, habit, state, condition. Ladde, led; A.-S. laed an, to lead; past tense, laed de, led.

226. Regne, reign; Old Fr. reign er, Lat. regn are. The popular election of kings was not unknown in the time of Langlande.

227. Kynde, natural; A.-S. cynd, nature, cynde, natural. The stem letters are cn. Cf. Lat. gen ui. The d is formative.

233. Casten, determined; Dan. kaste, to cast.

234. Hemself, here in the nom. in apposition with commune. —Fynde, invent, contrive, as in next ver. it is said they did.

235. Contreved, contrived; Fr. controuver; Ital. con and trovare, to find. Cf. preven, prove, ver. 76.

239. Tilie, till; A.-S. tilian.

Travaille, labor, Fr. travailler. 242. Thridde, third, A.-S. thridde, § 46 (1).

243. Shopen. See ver. 3.Leauté, loyalty; Fr. loyauté, Ital. lealta, Lat legalitas.

248. Clergially, in a learned way, in the manner of a clergyman.

250. Kyngriche, kingdom; A.-S. cyngriee, comp. of cyng, and rica, government. Cf. bishopric.

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251. Lene, grant; A.-S. laen ian, to lend. The meaning is: and grant thee to lead (govern) thy land so that loyal subjects may love thee, and for thy rightful ruling to be rewarded in heaven. Cf. Chaucer, "Legende," 2081: "And lene me never such a case befall."

252. Lovye, subj. mood; A.-S. lufige, from luf ian, to love.

254. Be rewarded, inf. and object. of lene.

255. Sithen, afterwards, then. See ver. 127.-Eyr, air, Fr. air; Lat. aer. "I fighte not as beting the eir." Wycliffe, 1 Cor. ix. 26. Tyndale has ayer; Chaucer writes eyre. An, on, A.-S. an and on.

257. Lowed, made himself low, condescended, § 47 (2).

258. Koude, could; A.-S. cuthe, past tense of cunn an, to ken, to know, to be able. The in the modern could is probably from a mistaken analogy in this form to would and should. It was spelled coude by Chaucer, and couth by Spenser.

259. Jugge, judge; Fr. juger.

262. For-thi. See ver. 221.

262-276. In this Latin should be noticed the absence of the double accent, and of the alliteration that belong to the English of the poem. It has however, a limping rhyme, which is noticeable. A close translation is :

I am king, I am chief,
Neither perhaps hereafter;

O thou who administerest laws,
Christ's special laws administerest,
That which thou mayest better do,

Be just, be merciful.

Bare justice by thee

Should be clothed with mercy.

What thou wouldst reap

Such seed sow.

If justice is bared,

Of bare justice must thou reap;

If mercy be sown,

Of mercy mayst thou reap.

277. Greved, grieved; Old Fr. griever and grever. - Goliardeis, a parasite. Goliards, says Mr. Wright, were "riotous and unthrifty scholars who attended on

the tables of the richer ecclesiastics, and gained their living and clothing by pras ticing the profession of buffoons and jesters."

281-284. Since ruler from ruling
Is said to have his name,

He has the name without the thing
Unless he aims to keep the laws.

285. Gan, began. See ver. 21.

289, 290. The commandments of the king are to us the constraints of law. 291. Route, an irruption; Fr. route.

292. Ratons, rats; A.-S. raet; Old High Ger. rato.- Ones, once. See § 42. 293. Mees, mice; A.-S. mus, plu. mys. - Myd, with; A.-S. mid and myd. 294. Mo, more; A.-S ma and mae, contraction of mara, compar. of mych, much.

298. Hym, remote object of liked (= pleased). See ver. 120.

299. Overleep, overleaped, past tense, from A.-S. ofer and hleap an.

802. Possed, pushed; Fr. pousser.

804. Dar, dare; A.-S. dear an.

305. Grucche, grudge, complain, formerly written gruch, grutch, and groche; Old Fr. grouch er. - - Gamen, sport; A.-S. gamen.

307. Cracchen, scratch; Dan. kradse and kratse. The initial s in scratch is intensive prefix. Cf. creak, screak; cringe, scringe.

308. Clouches, clutches, fr. A.-S. gelaeccan, to seize; Scotch, cluk, to snatch. 309. Lotheth, is loathsome. See ver. 110.

810. Late, let; A.-S. laet an, to let.

312. Withstonde, withstand, from A.-S. stand an.

313. O-lofte, aloft, on high; A.-S. on and lyft, the air.

315. Renoun, renown; Fr. renommée.

316. Renable. Another reading has resonable, reasonable.

318. Hymselve, themselves. The final e here is sign of plural. Cf. hemself, ver. 234.


319. Y-seyen, seen; A.-S. gesegen. The y is for ge, participle prefix. §§ 23, 44 (2). —Segge, men; A.-S. secg, a speaker, a man. - Quod, said ; A.-S cuaeth an, to say, past tense cuaeth and cuaed.

320. Cité, city; Fr. cité.

321. Beren, bear; A.-S. ber an. — Beighes, collars; A.-S. beah, beh, bach, a metal ornament, whether ring, necklace, or crown.

325. Wareyne, a warren, a guarded place, an inclosure; A.-S. waerian and werian, to protect, to guard; Old Fr. varenne; New Fr. garenne.

326. Hemself liked. See vv. 120, 320.

327. Outher, other; A.-S. athor, author, and other.

330. Me thinketh, to me seemeth. Cf. hem liked, ver. 120; hym liked, ver. 298; hemself liked, ver. 326; hym list, ver. 341; him pleye liketh, ver. 344; hym wratheth, ver. 345.

331. Myghte, might; A.-S. mihte, past tense of mag an, to be able.- Witen, know; A.-S. wit an.

332. Awey, away; A.-S. a-weg, from an and weg.-Renne, run; A.-S. rennen,

to run.

335. Bugge, buy; A.-S. bycg an.

337. Knytten, bind; A.-S. cnitt an and cnyt an, to knit; to bind.

339. Ryt, ride, 3 sing. pres. ; A.-S. rid.

341. Laike, play; A.-S. laec an and lac an. -For expresses relation of object

of design or purpose.

342. Loke, look; A.-S. loc ian. - Mowen, may; A.-S. mag an.

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