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very nearly. The a in season and the y in seyson, as the word is spelled by Mande ville, are orthographic, § 18 (1).

2. Whan, A.-S. hwan, hwaene, an old acc. form of the relative pronoun. See n. on thanne, ver. 21. The h simply indicates that the w is aphthongal, § 20 (1). -Softe, soft. The final e is A.-S. inflection, nom. fem. sing. in the definite declension. - - Sonne, sun, A.-S. sunne, which, as in Arabic and some Teutonic languages, was feminine. The u was early changed to o; afterwards it was restored and the terminal ne dropped.

3. Shoop, A.-S. sceop, past tense of scap an or sceap an, to shape, form, make. A.-S. sc has generally passed into sh, § 20 (3). The second o is orthographic, § 18 (1). Shroudes, A.-S. scrud as, clothes. The A.-S. plural in as was first changed into es; then the connecting vowel was dropped. The word exemplifies the narrowing process often occurring in the use of words, § 47 (1).

4. Sheep, shepherd. Another text reads, " As y shepherde were." A.-S. scep, sceap, sceop, scaep, sheep.-Weere, A.-S. waere, were, subjunctive past of A.-S. beó, be. See Versions, 1. The second e in weere is orthographic, § 18 (1).

5. Habite, Fr. habit, Lat. habitus. The final e would indicate the long quantity of the i. - An, A.-S. aen, one. As a numeral, and also as an indefinite pronoun, as "such a one," "one knows," the spelling is one. As the indefinite article, it was formerly spelled an in all cases. Then has been gradually dropped, till now the article is pronounced, and should be written, a, except before vowels, where the n is retained, to prevent the hiatus from the concourse of two vowels. The one exception to this rule is by virtue of the same principle- euphony, that the n be retained before the aphthongal vowel h when not under accent. Thus we say and write "an horizon;" but "a horizontal." — Heremite, hermit. From Gr., whence Lat. eremita, Fr. ermite, hermite.

6. Werkes, works; A.-S. werc as and weorc as.

7. Wente, A.-S. went. The inflectional e, which, as common in irregular verbs had been dropped in A.-S., came to be restored. Cf. habite, above.

8. Wondres, A.-S. wundr as, wonders, plu. of wundr; also written wunder, wonder and wondor. — Here, A.-S. her an, to hear; the a in which is orthographic, § 18 (1), as is the e in here, § 26.


9. Morwenynge, A.-S. morg en, morg yn, morgh en, merg en and morn. w is probably from the gh in one of the A.-S. forms of the word. Wycliffe, morewe, in the sense of morning. Chaucer has morwening and morwe.

10. The Malvern Hills separate Worcestershire from Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, in England. They run north and south for nearly nine miles. - - Hilles, hills, from A.-S. hill.

11. Me, A.-S. dat. and acc. 1 pers sing. pron. See § 4. Here it is remote object of bifel. — Bifel, befell, A.-S. befeoll or befeol, past tense of be-feallan, comp. of be or bi, and feall an, to fall. - Ferly, a wonder, a surprising thing; A.-S. fearlich, sudden.

12. Fairye, old Fr. faerie, illusion.- Me, remote object of thoghte.-Thoghte, A.-S. thuh te, past tense of thinc an, to seem. A.-S. methinath, means thus, it seems to me. Hence our methinks, methought.

13. Wery, wearily. A.-S. werig, weary. - Forwandred, from A.-S. for, forth, and wandrian, to wonder.

14. Me, object of reste. - Reste, A.-S. rest an. For final e see n. ver. 7.

15. Brood, A.-S. brad, broad. The second o in brood, and the a in broad, are orthographic, § 18 (1).

16. Bournes, gen. sing. from A.-S. burne, a brook. The word is retained in Scotch, as Bannock-burn.—Syde A.-S. side.

17. Lenede, leaned; A.-S. hlin ian, past tense hlin ode. The A.-S. initial ●lement was an aphthongal 1, § 15.

18. Loked, looked; A.-S. loc ian, loc ode. The second o in look is orthographic 18 (1).-Watres, A.-S. waeter, plu. waeteru, waetru.

19. Slombred, A.-S. slumer ian, slumer ode. In regard to change of vowels o and u, cf. somer, ver. 1, sonne, ver. 2. The b is euphonic affix, § 38. Cf. number, Lat. numerus; cucumber, Lat. cucumis.

20. Sweyed, A.-S. sweg de, sounded. — Murye, merry; A.-S. murig, myrig, and mirig. Also murye.

21. Thanne, A.-S. thanne, also thonne, thaenne, thaen, thon, then. This adverb was originally the regular accusative of the demonstrative adjective pronoun, which was used also as the definite article. It may be supposed to be governed by some preposition understood, as A.-S. ymbe, about, concerning, with respect to. The accusative inflection was frequently used when a word which was primitively an adjective or noun became an adverb or a conjunction. The same is common in Greek and Latin. In the case of adverbs, the relation implied in the case-form is outward, objective; in the case of conjunctions, it is one of thought only, internal, subjective. Thanne, then, as also hwaene, when, like Lat. tum, quum, properly expressed the relation of the accusative — during, through, Lat. per. Thanne, used as a comparative conjunction, like Lat. quam, expresses a relation of thought only. Thus, the sentence, " John is taller than James," is to be interpreted: John is comparatively tall (= taller), when we look to James as a standard of comparison. The Greek genitive of comparison is to be explained in the same way, only we have now the reversed direction of thought; — we look from the standard of comparison, not to, and use accordingly the whence case, the genitive in Greek, the ablative in Latin, not the whither case, the accusative. As, virtus præstantior est robore is to be interpreted: virtue is relatively better, looking from, to judge from, strength, the standard or object of comparison. The initial th in A.-S. thanne was aphthongal. The change to the phthongal is unexplained. It occurs also in the definite article, and all pronominal words having this initial element and their derivatives; as the, thou, thine, thy, thee; this, that, these, those; thence, there, thither, thus; therefore, and though. The th final is regularly aphthongal also, except in the prepositions with and derivatives beneath, underneath; the verbs bequeath and mouth; and smooth, adjective and verb, and booth. — Gan, began, A.-S. be, intensive, and gyn, to begin. Cf. Bǹ d'iμev, Bǹ de Oéeɩv, in the Iliad. — Meten, A.-S. met an, to meet; here, to experience.

22. Merveillous, Fr. merveilleux, Lat. mirabilis. — Swevene, A.-S. swefene, a dream, from swefan, to sleep. Cf. swoon. For change of A.-S. finto v, see § 19. 24. Wiste, knew, A.-S. wit an, to know, past tense wis te. The root appears in Eng. wist, wot, wit, righteousness (rightwisness). — Nevere, A.-S. naefre, comp. of ne and aefer.

25. Biheeld, beheld, A.-S. beheald an and beheld an, to behold; past tense beheola and beheld. Eest, east, A.-S. est. The second e, as also the a in Eng. east is orthographic, § 18 (1). 26. An, on, A.-S. an or on. -Heigh, high; A.-S. hig, hih, and heah.

27. Seigh, saw; A.-S. seah, 1 sing. past tense of seon, to see. Cf. heigh, ver. 26, from heah. - Tour, tower, A.-S. tur, tor, and torr. — Toft, hill, A.-S. toft.

28. Trieliche, choicely, perfectly; from same root as try, A.-S. treow ian, and true, A.-S. triwe. Cf. Chaucer: "With suger which is trie" which is choice.Y-maked, made; A.-S. gemacod, past part. of macian, to make.

29. Bynethe, beneath; A.-S. be, bi, or by, and nythan or neothan, beneath. The a in beneath is orthographic, § 18 (1); for final e see § 26.

30. Therinne, A.-S. therinne. On initial th see ver. 21.

31. Depe, A.-S. deop and diop. Cf. deep, ver. 29. —Diches, ditches, A.-S. dic as. Dyke and ditches have the same origin. The element ch was already in the

language, as is shown by this spelling. The t is orthographic affix. - Derke, dark, A.-S. dearc, and deorc. For final e see § 26.

32. Dredfulle, A.-S. dred and ful. The a in dread is orthographic.—Sighte, A.-S. gesight, part. from seon, to see. The preposition of expresses the whence-relation of the thought. The meaning is, dreadful as regarded from the sight. 33. Fair, A.-S. faeger and faegr. The guttural has fallen out. - Feeld, field A.-S. feld and fild. The second e is orthographic. - Ful, A.-S. ful and full.◄ Folk, A.-S. folc. Cf. Lat. vulg us, under Grimm's Law, § 35.

34. Fond, found, A.-S. fand, past tense of find en, to find. - Ther, there.➡ Bitwene, between, A.-S. be and tweonum, tweonan, or twynan, two.

35. Manere, manner; Fr. maniere. The second n in manner is orthographic, § 18 (2).

Same stem as in many, and A.-S. gemaen,

36. Meene, A.-S. maene, mean. whence our common, Ger. gemein.

37. Werchynge, pres. part. from A.-S. werc an, wyrcan, weorc an, to work.Wandrynge, pres. part. from A.-S. wandrian, to wander, which is a derivative from wend an, to wend, to go.

39. Putten, put, 3 pers. plu. of past tense from a root not, so far as known, occurring in A.-S. In Danish, however, we have put-te, to put. Cf. Lat. stem pos in pono (=pos-no). The n with connecting vowel o usually, but more rarely with a and e, was the plu. ending of the perf. in A.-S. and also of the present of some verbs which became auxiliaries, as sceal, magan, cunnan, and mot. This sign of the plural also took the place of the present plural in th in the parts of England where Danish influence reached, while in the west and southwest the form in th remained still in use. Thus the " Buch of Layamon," written in the western dialect, 1155, and the "Ancren Riwlen " (Anchorites' Rules), written probably in Dorsetshire about a century and a half later, alike use th; the "Ormulum," written, it is supposed, at about the same time as the "Ancren Riwlen," in a northeastern or eastern county, has en, or rather, as the author, Orm, uniformly doubled the consonant after a short vowel, enn. — -Hem, them. The 3 pers. sing. masc. in A.-S. was thus inflected: nom. he; gen. his; dat. him; acc. hine. The 3 pers. plu. in all genders was: nom. hi; gen. hira; dat. him; acc. hi. Layamon has heom in both dat. and acc.; the "Ancren Riwlen," him; and Orm writes hemm. The h in nom. plu. first passed into th; in poss. and obj. plu. her and hem were used by Wycliffe and Chaucer.

40. Pleiden, played; A.-S. pleg an and pleg ian, past tense pleg ode. — Seld, seldom; A.-S. seld, seldom, also seldan and seldon. The last three are old dat. plural forms.

42. Swonken, toiled; A.-S. swinc an, past tense, swanc. The word, now obsolete, was used by Spenser and by Milton.

43. Wonnen, won; A.-S. win nan, past tense, wan, plu. wunnon. — That, what, that which. - Wastours, wasters; Fr. from Lat. vastatores. The A.-S. verb was west an, to waste.

44. Glotonye, gluttony; A.-S. glut o, a glutton; Fr. Destruyeth, destroyeth; Old Fr. destruir, Lat. destruere. 45. Somme, some; A.-S. sum or som, plu. sume or some. orthographic, § 18 (2).

46. Apparailed, Fr. appareil.

47. Contenaunce, appearance, from Lat. continere. — Clothynge, clothing, A.-S. claeth, a garment.

glouton, Lat. gluto. —

The th is plural affix.

The second m is

48. Comen, come; A.-S. cum an, past tense com, plu. comon.--Degised, disguised; Fr. deguiser.

49. Preires, prayers; Fr. prières.

50. Manye, A.-S. manig, plu. manige.

51. Al, all; A.-S. al. — Our, A.-S. ure, § 4.

52. Lyveden, lived. The en is plu. affix. See ver. 39.-Streyte, narrowly, strictly; A.-S. gestreht, from strac or strec, narrow. Cf. Lat. strict us. 53. After, originally compar. of aft or aeft, but subsequently used as prep. It is not here followed by any object expressed, and is equivalent to hereafter.

54. Hevene, heaven's; A.-S. heofon and hefan, from hebban or hefan, to heave, to raise. See § 42. The sign of the genitive was sometimes omitted, as anere riwlen, anchorites' rules. See ver. 212.

55. Ancres, anchorites, from ɑvaxwρyτýs, one who has retired; written by Chaucer, anker, by Donne, anachorit.

56. Hire, their. The A.-S. gen. plu. in all genders was hira; spelled here by Wycliffe, and her by Chaucer. The gen. sing. was hire, spelled by Mandeville, here. See § 4. Selles, cells; Lat. cella.

57. Coveiten, covet; Old Fr. coveiter, Lat. cupid us. —Noght, nothing; A.8. naht, noht, and nocht, from ne and aht, aught. See Versions, 1. country; Fr. contrée, Lat. contra, over against, with suffix.


58. Carien, care; A.-S. cari an. — Aboute, about; A.-S. a-butan, comp. of an, be, and old acc. form utan, out. Versions, 6.

59. Likerous, delicate, voluptuous; A.-S. liccera, a glutton.-Liflode, mode of life; A.-S. lif-lade, life-lead.

60. Likame, body; A.-S. lichama. - Plese, please; Fr. plais ir.

61. Chaffare, merchandise; A.-S. ceap, bargain; hence, ceapman, chapman, & bargainer, and ceap ian, to chaffer.

62. Cheveden, succeeded, achieved; Fr. achever, comp. of a for ad, to, and chef, Lat. cap ut, head. — The, old ablative, meaning hy that, by so much. Cf. Lat. "Eo gravior est dolor, quo major." — Bettre, better; A.-S. betere and quo. The final e is inflectional.


64. Swiche, such; A.-S. swilc, comp. of swa, so, and ile, same, like. Written also soche and suche in P. P., and siche and swilche by Wycliffe. — Thryveth, 3 pers. plu.

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65. Murthes, plu. from A.-S. mirth and myrth.

66. Mynstralles, minstrels; Old Fr. menestral, Lat. ministrellus. — know; A.-S. connan and cunnan, to know, to have skill in, to be able.

68. Giltless, guiltless; A.-S. gilt, a fault, and laes, privative suffix. The A.-S. g was always guttural. For u in guilt, see § 21 (1). — Leeve, believe; A.-S. leaf an, to believe.

- Konne,

69. Ac, but; an A.-S. conj. now obsolete. - Japeres, jesters. The verb jape is probably from A.-S. gabb an, to jest. The initial g became i or y, as in geoc, ioc, a yoke; geong, gung, iung, young; gea, ia, yea. This change would be effected through the insertion of a light vowel element, a sheva, after the initial consonant - a very common practice. - Jangeleres, praters; Fr. jangler.

71. Feinen, feign; Fr. feindre, Lat. fing ere. The Fr. part. is feign ant; 3 plu. pres. feign ent. - Hem, dat. plu. See n. ver. 39.

73. Han, have, contraction of habban; 3 plu. habb an, to have.

The regular

8 plu. ind. was habboth, but the th passed into n, which seems to be the older form. See n. ver. 39.

74. Wolde, would. The A.-S. perf. plu. of will en, to will, was woldan. The plu. sign, n, was dropped. See n. ver. 39.

76. Wol, wil. Cf. A.-S. will an, Ger. will en, Dan. will e, Lat. vol o, velle, Gr. Boúλ oual. -Nat, not; A.-S. nate, from ne and aht.—Preve, prove; A.-S. prof ian. Cf. Dan. pröve, Ger. prüfen, Fr. prouver, O. Fr. prover, Lat. probare. Wycliffe has preef, profe, and prevyden. Cf. meve, move, chese, choose, in Chaucer, Mandeville, and Wycliffe.

77. He who speaks foul speech.

78. Luciferes, A.-S. genitive. - Hyne, servant; A.-S. hyne, hine and hina. 79. Bidderes, petitioners; A.-S. bid dere, from bidd an, to ask, to bid.

80. Yede, went; A.-S. gan, to go, past tense eode, pronounced yode. Cf. F. Q. III. viii. 34, "So forth they yode ;" and I. ii. 5, "Then badd the knight his lady yede aloof."

81. Bagges, A.-S. baelg, bag, belly. Cf. Lat. baga, Gael. bag and baelg. There is a play on the words belies, bellies, and bagges, the two being the same originally. 82. Breed, bread; A.-S. bread and breod, from breowian and briw an, to brew. Bread is thus brewed. It was variously spelled brede, breed, and bread, by early English writers. The pronunciation was doubtless the same.

83. Faiteden, begged; Old Fr. fait en.

85. Woot, knows; A.-S. wat, 1 and 3 sing. pres. ind. of wit an, to know; past tense, wist e. The second o is orthographic, § 18 (1).

86 Bedde, bed; A.-S. bed, baed, and bedde.

87. Ribaudie, ribaldry, from Fr.

88. Tho, those; A.-S. tha. - Roberdes knaves, a class of evil-doers, also called wastours, particularly named in the statutes of Edward III. and Richard II. 'Gentz qui sont appellez Roberdesmen, Wastours, et Draghelatche."

89. Sleuthe, sloth; A.-S. slewth and slaewth, from slaw, slow, idle, lazy.

90. Seweth, follow; Fr. suivre, Lat. sequi. We find these forms, sywede, rewed, suede, sued, followed; and sewe, sue, follow. Cf. ensue, pursue. — Evere, ever, adv.; A.-S. aefre and aefer.

91. Palmeres, pilgrims, so called from the staves of palm which they bore from the Holy Land.

92. Plighten, pledge; A.-S. pliht en, plight, pledge. Cf. under Grimm's Law. Lat. obligo. Togidere, together; A.-S. to-gaedere and to-gadre.

95. Wey, way; A.-S. weg. See Versions, 4.

97. Lyen, lie; A.-S. leog an.

98. Seigh, ver. 27. Seiden, Versions, 2.

101. Ech, each; A.-S. aelc and elc. The A.-S. c has passed in many words into ch, as sc into sh.

102. Tonge, tongue, often written tong. Cf. tongs.

103. Moore, more; A.-S. mar. The r is compar. affix, § 42. orthographic, § 18 (1).-Seye, say; A.-S. secg an, or saeg an. -Sooth, truth; A.-S. soth. See Versions, 7.

104. Semed, seemed; A.-S. sem an. The second e is orthographic, § 18 (1). Speche, speech; A.-S. spec an, to speak. The second e in speech, and the a in speak are orthographic, § 18 (1).

The second on
See Versions, 2.

105. An, see ver. 5. — Heep, heap; A.-S. heap, a company or large band.

106. Hoked, hooked; A.-S. hoc, a hook, see § 18 (1).- Staves, A.-S. stafas plu. of staef. The etymology indicates that the a has the sound of a in father, rather than a in fate. For v, see § 19.

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107. Wolsyngham, a parish in Norfolk county, England, where was a shrine of the Virgin Mary, of great celebrity. The followers of Wycliffe, especially, denounced pilgrimages to this shrine.

108. Wenches, A.-S. wenche, a maid, daughter. It was used in a good sense, as P. P. applies it to the Virgin Mary.

109. Grete, great; A.-S. great, the pronunciation of which was represented by the spelling grete.· Lobies, loobies or lubbers. The stem is lob, a clown. "Bion therefore, was but a very lob."-Holland. "I am none of those heavy lobcocks that are good for nothing."- Caryll, 1671. "And though you think it lubberlike."- Gascoigne. The verb to lob signifies to droop, hence to be inert, to be heavy,

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