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GENEVA - - 1557. he that loueth me, shalbe loued me: and he that loueth me of my Father: and I wil loue shall be loued of my Father, him, and wil shewe myne owne and I wil loue him, and will selfe to him manifestly. 22 Iudas manifest my selfe to him. Iusayd vnto him (not Iudas Iscar- das saith vnto him, not Iscariot, iot) Lord what is the cause that Lord, how is it that thou wilt thou wilt shewe thy self vnto manifest thy selfe vnto vs, and vs, and not vnto the world? not vnto the world? 28 Iesus 28 Iesus answered, and sayd vnto answered, and said vnto him, him, Yf a man loue me, he wil If a man loue me, he will keepe kepe my sayinges and my my my wordes: and my Father Father wil loue him, and we wil will loue him, and wee will come vnto hym, and wil dwel come vnto him, and make our with him. 24 He that loueth abode with him. 24 He that me not, kepeth not my say- loueth mee not, keepeth not inges: and the wordes which my sayings, and the word which ye heare, are not myne, but the you heare, is not mine, but the Fathers which sent me. Fathers which sent mee.

25 These haue I spoken vnto you, beyng yet present with 26 But that Comforter, you. which is the holy Gost, whom my Father wil send in my name, he shal teache you al thynges, and bring all thinges to your remembrance, what so euer I haue told you.



27 Peace I leue with you, my peace I geue vnto you: not as the world geueth, geue I vnto you: let not youre hartes be troubled, nether feare ye. haue heard how I sayd vnto you, I go, and wil come vnto you. If ye loued me, ye wold verely reioyce, because I said, I go vnto my Father: for my Father is greater than I. 29 And now haue I shewed you, before

25 These things have I spoken vnto you, being yet present with you. 26 But the Comforter, which is the holy Ghost, whom the Father wil send in my Name, hee shall teach you all things and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoeuer I haue said vnto you. 27 Peace I leaue with you, my peace I giue vnto you, not as the world giueth, giue I vnto you let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid. 28 Yee haue heard how I said vnto you, I goe away, and corne againe vnto you. If yee loued me, ye would reioyce, because I said, I goe vnto the Father for my Father is greater then I. 29 And now I haue


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VERSE 1. Be, 3 pers. sing. imp. aux. with affraied, having for subject herte. So let be troubled in authorized version is best regarded as in 3 pers. sing. imp., and also let us go, ver. 31, in 1st pers. plu. In this last case, the subject is in the objective case because following let, which was originally a notion-word and took an object after it. Be is from A.-S. beó n. The earliest traceable stem-form of the substantive verb, so called, is Sans. as; hence, 1 pers. sing. as mi; 2 pers. as i (as si); 3 pers. as ti. From this stem, by adding pronominal affixes, we get our a m (as m), a rt (a st), is, Goth. is t. The plural are, which probably came into the English through the Danish, has the primitive s changed to r, and the pronominal affixes as well as the sibilant s in the primitive stem, are lost off. The primitive stem was strengthened by the intensive labials, b as in Eng. be; w in was, A.-S. wes an to be; for fu as in Lat. fui; the digamma in Greek; bhu in Sans. The irregularities in the conjugation of this verb arise chiefly from the intermingling of these intensified forms with the simple forms. Not, A.-S. naht, comp. of sign of negation n, § 5, and aht, aught, anything, the h a demonstrative pronominal element, § 4, the t a formative element, § 42. See § 48 (3), and cf. Mod. Greek dév (ovdév), and Fr. ne-pas, ne-point.— Boure. For initial letter see § 25 (1); it represents pronominal element of 2 sing. § 4; r formative, § 42; e inflectional, § 26.- Herte, heart. Cf. under Grimm's Law, § 35, Lat. cord is; Gr. kapd ía; Germ. hertz. The stem letters are hrt, the Vowel being unstable. Notice different spellings in the different versions. The a in King James version is an orthographic expedient for showing the e to be of long quantity, § 18 (1). The final e inflectional, § 26. — Affraied, afraid, made to fear; A.-S. afaeran, to make afraid; Norman Fr. affrayer. The stem fr is Teutonic, having f, where the Lat., as by Grimm's Law, has p as in pavor. The Mod. Fr. has botn Teutonic and Latin stems in different words, as fray-eur, and peur. The af for a or an is intensive, § 44 (2). The ai is also intensive of transitive class, § 41 (2, a). The d is formative, § 42; the e connective, § 38.-For punctuation see § 50. - Ne, A.-S. and early Eng. used ne as both simple negative not, and also as conj neither, nor. Drede, dread, 3 sing. imp., having for subject it (= heart), from A.-S. dressed an. The stem-consonants are d and r as in dare, cf. Gr. Oap peîv and


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to passe, ye myght beleue. 80 Here after wyl I not talke many wordes vnto you: for the prince of thys world commeth, and hath noght in me. 31 But that the world may knowe that I loue my Father: therfore as the Father gaue me commandement, euen so do I. Ryse, let vs go hence.

rapártw. — It, A.-S. and Old Eng. hit ; see § 4. It is here subject of drede, and has as its antecedent herte. - - Ye. See § 4.-Bileuen, believe, plu. of bileve, comp. of be intensive, and A.-S. lefan and lyfan, to permit. The A.-S. word for believe was gelefan and gelyfan. See § 44 (2). Trace the orthography of this word in the different versions. The spelling with ie was introduced about the middle of the seventeenth century. F in A.-S. took the sound of v between two vowels, and hence, when this character v was introduced, the sound was properly represented by it; § 19.-In, prep. common in Indo-European dialects, but not traceable to its origin.

VER. 2. The, definite article from dem. pron., §7; th being dem. element, § 4, and e inflectional, § 26.- Hous, A.-S. hus. In monosyllabic nouns the A.-S. u has passed very generally into ou, as muth became mouth; pund, pound; wund, wound; cu, cow. So adjectives ful, foul, but we have derivative fulsome; sund, sound; sur, sour; ure, our. So thu, thou; hu, how; nu, now; ut, out, etc. The rule is not universal, however. See § 26. Fadir, father. The change of d to th in this word took place after Chaucer. See Grimm's Law, § 35.- Ben, 3 plu. of be. Wycliffe forms the plural generally in n with or without connecting vowel according to euphony. Many, A.-S. manig. The final guttural as usual was dropped. Cf. Ger. manch. -Dwellyngis, a participial noun from v. dwell, from Dan. dvaele, to linger, to tarry. Cf. abode from abide and Lat. mansio from maneo. For final is see §§ 42, 38. If, A.-S. gif, imp. of gifan, to give, § 6.—-Ony, any; A.-S. anig, aenig. See many above. -Thing, A.-S. thing, old Ger. dinc, Mod. Ger. ding. Conjectural origin is th dem., § 4, and ng formative, § 42.- Lasse, less, A.-S. laessa, laes, compar. of lytel.-I, § 4. Hadde, had, aux. v. past tense used for conditional (would have). A.-S. haef de from hab ban, to have. -Seid, said, told; A.-S seg de, and sae de, past tense of sec gan, seg gan and sae gan, to say, to tell. — - To. Cf. under Grimme's Law, § 35, Lat. ad, Ger. zu. Too, A.-S. to, is the same word originally, but distinguished from the prep. by affix, § 43. Cf. of, off. Notice absence of apostrophes in fathers in the three later versions. - Wolde in Tyndale, would, A-S. wolde, past tense of will an, to will. The u in would is orthographic, § 18.

VER. 3. For, conj. from the prep. The classical form by Grimm's Law and transposition is pro. The rise of the conj. is from the use of the prep. to govern the clause as if a noun. - Go, A.-S. ga, from gan, to go; allied to gin, begin.


told you before it come to passe, that when it is come to passe, ye might beleeue. 30 Hereafter I will not talke much with you: for the prince of this world commeth, and hath nothing in 31 But that the world may knowe that I loue the Father: and as the Father gaue mee commandement, euen so I doe⚫ Arise, let vs goe hence.


To make. The Eng. inf. originated in the A.-S. gerund, which, as a noun in character, was governed by prep. to. After verbs admitting not the direct but only the remote object, as here, the to is really a preposition governing the verb in the inf. After ask, as, I ask to go, the to is mere sign of the inf. "Art of Composition," § 282, Obs. 1, 2. Make is from A.-S. macian. Cf. Ger. mach en, Lat. fac io. Redi, ready, A.-S. rad, raed, raeth, ready, quick. From the comparative of this, radhor, comes our rather. -A, indef. art., contracted from A.-S. an, aen, one.-Place, Fr. place, Dan. plads. Cf. Ger. platz, Lat. plat ea, Gr. TAаT Ús, Eng. flat.-And, A.-S. and, ant. - Eftsone, forthwith, again, comp. of A.-S. eft, or aeft, after, and sone, soon.— - Come, A.-S. cum an. -Schal, shall, fut. aux., A.-S. sceal. — Take, A.-S. tac an. Cf. Gr. Séx oual. Silf, A.-S. self, silf, sylf, saelf, seolf. Cf. Ger. selb. — That, §§ 4, 42. Cf. Ger. das. It is used here as clausal conj. to denote that the clause following is used as a noun, here depending on a prep. understood, as for. "Art of Composition," § 328. - Where, A.-S. hwaer. In A.-S., as in Greek, the sign of aspiration was placed before the letter to be aspirated; in Latin and English it is placed after. Cf. pýτwp, Lat. rhetor, Eng. rhetoric. See §§ 20 and 4. -Am. See be, ver. 1.- Be, potential, without aux. Cf. be glorified, ver. 13.-The spellings of receive in the three later versions are noticeable. The i is more recent; but both a and i are orthographic merely, and not etymological, § 18.

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VER. 4. Whidir, whither. See fadir, ver. 2. The wh is interrogative or relative, § 4; the d or th demonstrative; the r formative, § 42. For i, see § 38. - Witen, know, plu. from A.-S. wit an, to know. Cf. under Grimm's Law, § 35, Lat. vid es, Ger. wis sen. It was sometimes spelled weet. The stem remains in to wit, and righteous (right-wis). - Wey, way, A.-S. weg. Cf. A.-S. weg an, to carry; Lat via and veh ere. Notice spellings in different versions, also in ver. 5 of the Wycliffe version.

VER. 5. Thomas. The use of initial capitals is exceedingly irregular in Wycliffe. More commonly, as here, proper names are without capitals. —Seith. See seid, ver. 2. Th was the usual 3 sing. ending in Wycliffe's time. - Hym. The his demonstrative, § 4; the m formative of object. case, § 42. The i and y were interchangeable, as we find him in next verse. See § 23.-Lord, Old Eng. laverd, loverd; A.-S. hlaford, comp. of hlaf, bread, loaf, and weard, keeper. We, § 4. Goist. For stem see go, ver. 3; st formative of 2 sing., § 42; connective i, § 38.Hou, how, A.-S. hu, § 4.- Moun, can, A.-S. mag on, plu. pres. of mag an, to be able; past tense mighte, might, and meahte, mought, which is now obsolete, except provincially. The n is plu. formative. The guttural being dropped, the vowel was lengthened and changed into ou. - Wite, inf. object of moun. Although this latter verb became the potential auxiliary, it has its old meaning here, and is better regarded as a principal verb.-Weie. See wey, ver. 4. The inflectional e being retained, the y becomes i, according to rule, § 23.

VER. 6. Ihesus. For I, see § 22. The h seems to be used simply to indicate that the i is consonantized, § 14.- Truthe, abstract noun from verb trow, A.-S. treowian, truw ian, tryw ian, to accept as true, to believe, § 42. Notice spellings in the different versions. — Liif, life; A.-S. lif, Ger. leben. The second i is orthographie, § 18.- No, abbreviated from none, A.-S. nan (ne and an, one). — Man, A.-S. man and mon.- Cometh. Th is formative of 3 sing. Commeth in Tyndale is from rule for indicating short quantity, § 18 (2).— But, A.-S. butan, bute, comp. of prep. be and ut, out.

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VER. 7. Knowe, A.-S. cnaw an, allied to cun nan, to ken. Cf. Lat. no sco, nc vi. The auxiliaries, being originally principal verbs, took the infinitive regularly after them as object. The meaning is: had knowing of me, knowledge of me. ticiple from had known should receive a slightly different explication. In this case

the meaning is, had me as known object. The infinitive form is retained in such expressions as had better be, had as lief go, had rather do, and the like. Had is past tense used for potential. The supposition that had comes from 'd used colloquially for would, is untenable, for we find the expression in Chaucer when the dissyllable wolde was in regular use, before it was shortened to would; and to put the matter beyond all possible doubt, we find in Chaucer, C. T., ver. 11,835, the verb following hadde, with the sign of the infinitive to:

"I hadde wel lever ever to suffren wo

Than to depart the love betwixt you two."

There is no way of disposing of suffren here but to regard it as infinitive object of hadde. The same form of expression occurs frequently in Chaucer, showing that it was accepted as a settled form in the language.

"And he had lever talken with a page." Ver. 11,004.
"Yet had I lever spenden all the good." Ver. 16,844.
"Yet had this brid, by twenty thousand fold,
Lever in a forest that is wilde and cold,
Gon eten wormes." Ver. 17,118-17,120.

In the following, hadde is followed by a clausal noun as its object :

"I hadde lever than a barrel of ale,

That goode lefe my wif had herde this tale." Ver. 13,899.

This passage is confirmatory of the view presented that the infinitive was regarded by Chaucer as object of hadde, in the other quotations. Two centuries later, this form of expression was equally current: "I had rather be a doorkeeper." Ps. lxxxiv. 10: "I had rather speak five words." 1 Cor. xiv. 19. "They had not had sin." John xv. 22. In Shakespeare, it is very common. "I had as lieve not be." J. C. i. 2. "Brutus had rather be a villager." Ibid. "I had rather coin my heart." Id. iv. 3. It would be a great loss to our language to let this form of expression go out of use. The theory that objects to it would, if consistently applied, drive out such expressions as "O had I wings;" "Had it been otherwise;" indeed, would discard the use everywhere of the imperfect tense to express the conditional mood, in opposition to the general tendency and usage of languages. —Sothli, verily; A.-S. soth lice, adv., and soth lic, adj., from soth, truth, and suffix lic, -ly, § 45, 111. Cf. Eng. for sooth (for truth). See ver. 28. Also, A.-S. alswa, comp. of al, all, and swa, so. Aftirwarde, A.-S. aefterweard, and aefterwearde, comp. of after, compar. of aft, (see eftsone, ver. 3), and weard, towards. Cf. Lat. vers us, from vert ere; Ger. warts. Schuln, fut. aux. from A.-S. scul on and sceal on, plu. pres. indic. of sceal, I owe, I must. Shall being intransitive, cannot take an object like have; hence it is followed always by the infinitive form. Sholde in Geneva version is A.-S. sceolde, past tense of sceol. The u in should in Authorized version is orthographic. Han, 3 plu. pres. ind., contraction of haben. - Seen, A.-S. segun, past part. of seon, to see.

VER. 8. Filip. Wycliffe not unfrequently represents the Greek & by f. He is not uniform, however, in this. -Schewe, show; A.-S. sceawian.-Sufficith, from Lat. sufficere, through French. Notice spellings in the different versions.

VER. 9. So, A.-S. swa. - Long, A.-S. long, lang; Ger. long; Lat. long us. — Tyme, A.-S. tima, time; Lat. tempus.

VER. 10. Wordis, A.-S. word. Cf. Ger. wort; Lat. ver bum.—Speke, A.-S. spea an and spaec an. The a in speak is orthographic. - Him with self must be regarded as uninflected. — Doith, A.-S. don, to do. Cf. Ger. thun.—Werkis, wyrc and


VER. 11. Ellis, else; A.-S. elles, gen. of stem ael or el, other, foreign, § 42. Cf. Lat

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