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NOTES ON THE CONSTITUTION.
LEADING GENERAL CASES.
The cases cited below, under their respective headings, are considered leading cases and apply to the Constitution as a whole. They are all great outstanding cases, and are cited many times throughout these notes as also applying to particular clauses of the Constitution. Nature of the Constitution
McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheat. 316.
The Jurisdiction of the United States
Gibbons v. Ogden, 9 Wheat. 1.
Relation of the States to the Federal Government
Lane County v. Oregon, 7 Wall. 71.
Checks and Balances in Government
Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137.
1 The Constitution went into operation on the first Wednesday (4th day) of March, 1789. (Owings v. Speed, 5 Wheat. 420.)
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
The People of the United States
The Constitution emanated from the people and was not the act of sovereign and independent States. The above phrase contemplates the body of electors composing the States, the terms “people” and “ citizens” being synonymous. Negroes, whether free or slaves, were not included in the term “people of the United States " at that time.
Penhallow v. Doane, 3 Dall. 93.
To Form a More Perfect Union
The union of the States never was a purely artificial and arbitrary relation. By the Articles of Confederation, the Union was solemnly declared to be perpetual. And when these articles were found to be inadequate to the exigencies of the country, the Constitution was ordained" to form a more perfect Union."
Texas v. White, 7 Wall. 724.
For the United States of America
The Government is established " for the United States of America ” and not for countries outside of their limits. Where the Constitution has been once formally extended by Congress to Territories, neither Congress nor the Territorial legislature can enact laws inconsistent therewith.
In re Ross, 140 U. S. 464.
For the United States of America—Continued.
Alaska.-Under the treaty with Russia concerning Alaska it appears that Alaska is incorporated into and is a part of the United States, and the provisions of the Constitution are applicable to that Territory.
Rassmussen v. U. S., 197 U. 'S. 522.
Cuba.-Not a part of the territory of the United States.
Neely v. Henkel, 180 U. S. 122. Hawaiian Islands.-Mere annexation did not effect incorporation of the islands into the United States, and the provisions of the Constitution as to jury trials are not applicable to them. They are not foreign country within the meaning of the tariff
Hawaii p. Mankichi, 190 U. S. 217.
Goetze v. U. S., 182 U. S. 221.
Dorr v. U. S., 195 U. S. 138.
The prohibition of double jeopardy, guaranteed by the fifth amendment, is applicable to all criminal prosecutions in the Philippine Islands.
Grafton v. U. S., 206 U. S. 333.
In Serra v. Mortiga, 204 U. S. 470, will be found the bill of rights enacted by Congress for the Philippine Islands.
Porto Rico. After the treaty with Spain and its cession to the United States, Porto Rico became a part of the United States but not within the revenue clauses of the Constitution. It is a de facto and de jure American territory; and ceased to be a foreign country after the cession of the island to the United States.
Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U. S. 263.