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26 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $54,000 and does not exceed $56,000;

27 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $56,000 and does not exceed $58,000;

28 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $58,000 and does not exceed $60,000;

29 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $60,000 and does not exceed $62,000;

30 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $62,000 and does not exceed $64,000;

31 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $64,000 and does not exceed $66,000;

32 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $66,000 and does not exceed $68,000;

33 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $68,000 and does not exceed $70,000;

34 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $70,000 and does not exceed $72,000;

35 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $72,000 and does not exceed $71,000;

36 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $74,000 and does not exceed $76,000;

37 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $76,000 and does not exceed $78,000;

38 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $78,000 and does not exceed $80,000;

39 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $80,000 and does not exceed $82,000;

40 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $82,000 and does not exceed $84,000;

41 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $84,000 and does not exceed $86,000;

42 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $86,000 and does not exceed $88,000;

43 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $88,000 and does not exceed $90,000;

44 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $90,000 and does not exceed $92,000;

45 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $92,000 and does not exceed $94,000;

46 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $94,000 and does not exceed $96,000;

47 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $96,000 and does not exceed $98,000;

48 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $98,000 and does not exceed $100,000;

52 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $100,000 and does not exceed $150,000;

56 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $150,000 and does not exceed $200,000;

60 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $200,000 and does not exceed $300,000;

63 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $300,000 and does not exceed $500,000;

64 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $500,000 and does not exceed $1,000,000;

65 per centum of the amount by which the net income exceeds $1,000,000.

(b) In the case of a bona fide sale of mines, oil or gas wells, or any interest therein, where the principal value of the property has been demonstrated by prospecting or exploration and discovery work done by the taxpayer, the portion of the tax imposed by this section attributable to such sale shall not exreed 20 per centum of the selling price of such property or interest.

Net Income Defined. Sec. 212. (a) That in the case of an individual the term "net income” means the gross income as defined in section 213, less the deductions allowed by section 214.

(b) The net income shall be computed upon the basis of the taxpayer's annual accounting period (fiscal year or calendar year, as the case may be) in accordance with the method of accounting regularly employed in keeping the books of such taxpayer; but if no such method of accounting has been so employed, or if the method employed does not clearly reflect the income, the computation shall be made upon such basis and in such manner as in the opinion of the Commissioner does clearly reflect the income. If the taxpayer's annual accounting period is other than a fiscal year as defined in section 200 or if the taxpayer has no annual accounting period or does not keep books, the net income shall be computed on the basis of the calendar year.

If a taxpayer changes his accounting period from fiscal year to calendar year, from calendar year to fiscal year, or from one fiscal year to another, the net income shall, with the approval of the Commissioner, be computed on the basis of such new accounting period, subject to the provisions of section 226.

Gross Income Defined. Sec. 213. That for the purposes of this title (except as otherwise provided in section 233) the term “gross income”

(a) Includes gains, profits, and income derived from salaries, wages, or compensation for personal service (including in the case of the President of the United States, the Judges of the Supreme and inferior courts of the United States, and all other officers and employees, whether elected or appointed, of the United States, Alaska, Hawaii, or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia, the compensation received as such), of whatever kind and in whatever form paid, or from professions, vocations, trades, businesses, commerce, or sales, or dealings in property, whether real or personal, growing out of the ownership or use of or interest in such property;

also from interest, rent, dividends, securities, or the transaction of any business carried on for gain or profit, or gains or profits and income derived from any source whatever. The amount of all such items shall be included in the gross income for the taxable year in which received by the taxpayer, unless, under methods of accounting permitted under subdivision (b) of section 212, any such amounts are to be properly accounted for as of a different period; but

(b) Does not include the following items, which shall be exempt from taxation under this title:

(1) The proceeds of life insurance policies paid upon the death of the insured to individual beneficiaries or to the estate of the insured;

(2) The amount received by the insured as a return of premium or premiums paid by him under life insurance, endowment, or annuity contracts, either during the term or at the maturity of the term mentioned in the contract or upon surrender of the contract;

(3) The value of property acquired by gift, bequest, devise, or descent (but the income from such property shall be included in gross income);

(4) Interest upon (a) the obligations of a State, Territory, or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia; or (b) securities issued under the provisions of the Federal Farm Loan Act of July 17, 1916; or (c) the obligations of the United States or its possessions; or (d) bonds issued by the War Finance Corporation: Provided, That every person owning any of the obligations, securities or bonds enumerated in clauses (a), (b), (c), and (d) shall, in the return required by this title, submit a statement showing the number and amount of such obligations, securities and bonds owned by him and the income received therefrom, in such form and with such information as the Commissioner may require. In the case of obligations of the United States issued after September 1, 1917, and in the case of bonds issued by the War Finance Corporation, the interest shall be exempt only if and to the extent provided in the respective Acts authorizing the issue thereof as amended and supplemented, and shall be excluded from gross income only if and to the extent it is wholly exempt from taxation to the taxpayer both under this title and under Title III;

(5) The income of foreign governments received from investments in the United States in stocks, bonds, or other domestic securities, owned by such foreign governments, or from interest on deposits in banks in the United States of moneys belonging to such foreign governments, or from any other source within the United States;

(6) Amounts received, through accident or health insurance or under workmen's compensation acts, as compensation for personal injuries or sickness, plus the amount of any damages received whether by suit or agreement on account of such injuries or sickness;

(7) Income derived from any public utility or the exercise of any essential governmental function and accruing to any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision of a State or Territory, or income accruing to the government of any possession of the United States, or any political subdivision thereof. Whenever any State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, or any political subdivision of a State or Territory, prior to September 8, 1916, entered in good faith into a contract with any person, the object and purpose of which is to acquire, construct, operate, or maintain a public utility, no tax shall be levied under the provisions of this title upon the income derived from the operation of such public utility, so far as the payment thereof will impose a loss or burden upon such State, Territory, District of Columbia, or political subdivision; but this provision is not intended to confer upon such person any financial gain or exemption or to relieve such pe. son from the payment of a tax as provided for in this title upon the part or portion of such income to which such person is entitled under such contract;

(8) So much of the amount received during the present war by a person in the military or naval forces of the United States as salary or compensation in any form from the United States for active services in such forces as does not exceed $3,500.

(c) In the case of nonresident alien individuals, gross income includes only the gross income from sources within the United States, including interest on bonds, notes, or other interest-bearing obligations of residents, corporate or otherwise, dividends from resident corporations, and including all amounts received (although paid under a contract for the sale of goods or otherwise) representing profits on the manufacture and disposition of goods within the United States.

Deductions Allowed. Sec. 214. (a) That in computing net income there shall be allowed as deductions:

(1) All the ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business, including a reasonable allowance for salaries or other compensation for personal services actually rendered, and including rentals or other payments required to be made as a condition to the continued use or possession, for purposes of the trade or business of property to which the tax-payer has not taken or is not taking title or in which he has no equity;

(2) All interest paid or accrued within the taxable year on indebtedness, except on indebtedness incurred or continued to purchase or carry obligations or securities (other than obligations of the United States issued after September 24, 1917), the interest upon which is wholly exempt from taxation under this title as income to the taxpayer, or, in the case of a nonresident alien individual, the proportion of such interest which the amount of his gross income from sources within the United States bears to the amount of his gross income from all sources within and without the United States;

(3) Taxes paid or accrued within the taxable year imposed (a) by the authority of the United States, except income, war profits and excess-, rofits taxes; or (b) by the authority of any of its possessions, except the amount of income, war profits and excess-profits taxes allowed as a credit under section 222; or (c) by the authority of any State or Territory, or any county, school district, municipality, or other taxing subdivision of any State or Territory, not including those assessed against local benefits of a kind tending

to increase the value of the property assessed; or (d) in the case of a citizen or resident of the United States, by the authority of any foreign country, except the amount of income, war-profits and excess-profits taxes allowed as a credit under section 222; or (e) in the case of a nonresident alien individual, by the authority of any foreign country (except income, war-profits and excessprofits taxes, and taxes assessed against local benefits of a kind tending to increase the value of the property assessed), upon property or business;

(4) Losses sustained during the taxable year and not compensated for by insurance or otherwise, if incurred in trade or business;

(5) Losses sustained during the taxable year and not compensated for by insurance or otherwise, if incurred in any transaction entered into for profit, though not connected with the trade or business; but in the case of a nonresident alien individual only as to such transactions within the United States;

(6) Losses sustained during the taxable year of property not connected with the trade or business (but in the case of a nonresident alien individual only property within the United States) if arising from fires, storms, shipwreck, or other casualty, or from theft, and if not compensated for by insurance or otherwise;

(7) Debts ascertained to be worthless and charged off within the taxable year;

(8) A reasonable allowance for the exhaustion, wear and tear of property used in the trade or business, including a reasonable allowance for obsolescence;

(9) In the case of buildings, machinery, equipment, or other facilities, constructed, erected, installed, or acquired, on or after April 6, 1917, for the production of articles contributing to the prosecution of the present war, and in the case of vessels constructed or acquired on or after such date for the transportation of articles or men contributing to the prosecution of the present war, there shall be allowed a reasonable deduction for the amortization of such part of the cost of such facilities or vessels as has been borne by the taxpayer, but not again including any amount otherwise allowed under this title or previous Acts of Congress as a deduction in computing net income. At any time within three years after the termination of the present war, the Commissioner may, and at the request of the taxpayer shall, reexamine the return, and if he then finds as a result of an appraisal or from other evidence that the deduction originally allowed was incorrect, the taxes imposed by this title and by Title III for the year or years affected shall be redetermined; and the amount of tax due upon such redetermination, if any, shall be paid upon notice and demand by the collector, or the amount of tax overpaid, if any, shall be credited or refunded to the taxpayer in accordance with the provisions of section 252.

(10) In the case of mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber, a reasonable allowance for depletion and for depreciation of improvements, according to the peculiar conditions in each case, based upon cost including cost of development not otherwise deducted: Provided, That in the case of such properties acquired prior to March 1, 1913, the fair market value of the property (or the taxpayer's interest therein) on

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