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made on this subject, both to the government and the public, and large sums of money have been appropriated to the object by several of the colonial legislatures. The result is, that a considerable tide of emigration has set in towards Guiana, Trinidad, and Jamaica, both from the more thickly populated West India islands, and the United States. The movement has recently extended to Great Britain and Ireland, and is stretching to Sierra Leone. Our anxieties on this head are very limited, provided the government will not become an active party. Labor, like produce or money, is nothing more than an article in the market of the world, and it will sooner or later be found just where it is wanted. Its circulation cannot long be either forced or obstructed. If the West Indians really want labor, they will get it; if they do not, all that they can do to force emigration will be fruitless. When their labor market shall be glutted, it will as surely relieve itself by reemigration, as a market glutted with any other article relieves itself by re-exportation. This matter must, and soon will, find its own level. While the colonies will spend money on it, agents may be hired, and emigrants may be procured, but the law which regulates demand and supply cannot be set aside, and will operate in spite of them.
The alleged scarcity of labor, however, is altogether fictitious. This topic was brought up in the course of the interview which Mr. Gurney had with the Governor of Jamaica, and we will fortify our opinion by the quotation of his.
• On one point we somewhat differed. Sir Charles seems to be of the opinion, with many other persons, that the planting interest of Jamaica is suffering from the want of a larger population. That there is scope in that island for a great increase in the numbers of the people, is unquestionable; and we are by no means opposed to any reasonable scheme of immigration. But the result of our own inquiries is a conviction that the present population of Jamaica, if its force be but fairly applied under a just and wise management, will be found more than adequate to its present extent of cultivation ; and that, as the population multiplies, under the righteous sway of freedom, the cultivation may be indefinitely increased.'—Ib. p. 170.
There can be no reasonable doubt that there is labor enough in the West Indies, and that the immediate effect of immigration will be injurious, by diminishing the impulse, on the part of the planters, to a proper care of the native peasantry. As to the pretence set up by all West India writers in succession, and particularly labored by Mr. Greg in the pamphlet before us, that, by a copious immigration of laborers, British West India sugar may be rendered cheaper than that of Cuba and Porto Rico, and that immigration may thus put down slavery, nothing
Tlc West Indies : Results of Emancipation.
can be more hollow or absurd. First, because sugar, like every other article, whatever it may cost to make it, will sell at the market price; and this can be reduced only by enlarged supply. Secondly, because the cost of making British West India sugar will never permit it to be sold at the price of Cuban. According to Mr. Greg, this cost is on the average 35s. 6d. per cwt., while that of Cuba is only 20s. Now how is it possible that any amount of immigration can reduce the cost of producing sugar in the British West Indies 15s. per cwt.? Immigration can reduce the cost of sugar growing only by reducing the wages of the laborer; and 15s. per cwt. is, we conceive, a very large proportion of the wages paid for this labor now. The notion that West Indians would like to see their sugar selling at the price of Cuban-22s. per cwt.-when the manufacture of it costs 35s., is utterly preposterous.
The real spring of the eagerness for immigration which has been shown by the West Indians, we take to be the high price of sugar, and the enormous profits attainable by the quick cultivation of new lands. Mr. Greg (an unexceptionable authority for our present purpose) estimates the cost of British West India sugar, including all expenses but the duty, at an average of 35s. 6d. per cwt., p. 91. Now the average price paid by the English purchaser for a good while past may be quoted at 55s. per cwt.: leaving the enormous profit of 20s. per cwt., or 20s. on 35s., for the producer. This is obviously the reason why the West Indians want a quick and large addition to their number of laborers. They wish to make hay while the sun shines. They have looked to immigration as affording them a facility for attaining this object, which they had not during slavery. They could not increase their number of slaves by importation, nor could they introduce free laborers into the same fields with slaves; but, when all were free, a new prospect opened itself. They saw in imagination fresh arrivals of men, and of men from Africa! There is something to us both pregnant and appalling, in the eagerness and the perseverance with which the West Indian legislatures and pamphleteers have directed their eyes to this desolated continent. They have implored the government to institute and conduct, on a large scale, a system of permanent ‘free emigration’ from Africa! We think we do them no injustice when we say that they were looking practically to a new slave-trade. The arguments by which their suit has been enforced, are just those which have been so many times advanced in defence of the slave-trade, with its greatest enormities. It is a nearer approach to such a measure than we can contemplate without uneasiness, that the British colony of Sierra Leone has been thrown open by our colonial minister to the immigrant speculators from the West
Indies. We have learnt with regret, that the situation of the Africans there is such as to render some of them importunate to leave it; and, undoubtedly, as freemen, they have a right to do so. But, while the progress of this measure will be watched with anxiety by every friend of humanity, lest it should involve a repetition of such atrocities as were covered by the innocent name of 'free emigration' from Bengal to Mauritius, let the West Indians be assured that the slightest approach to a system of emigration from Africa which should extend beyond the limits of a British colony, would be viewed by the public with horror and indignation. The whole management of such a system must evidently fall into the hands of the slave-traders in Africa ; and it cannot be doubted for a moment but they would obtain their victims by the established modes of warfare, rapine, and fraud. It would be part and parcel of the African slave-trade. And yet it seems actually to have entered into the heads of the West Indians that this horrible traffic might now be revived, under the immediate sanction of the government and the abolitionists !
Railway Transit. A Letter to the Right Honorable Henry Labouchere,
M. P., President of the Board of Trade. By Francis Roubilliac Conder, Civil Engineer. Weale : London. pp. 32.
This is a sensible and well written letter on an important subject ; important at all times, but just now more than ordinarily so. Though in our opinion the public during the late succession of railroad disasters was a good deal more frightened than hurt' (for the proportion of accidents as compared with the instances of safe conveyance was even then far less than under the old system of travelling); still there can be no doubt that sufficient mischief was done to justify the most rigorous inquiry into the past conduct of railroad directors and managers.
Mr. Conder contends, and we think with great propriety, that the magnitude and complication of public interests involved in railroads, render it highly desirable and even necessary that parliament should keep a vigilant eye upon them ; though, we presume, he would, like ourselves, plead only for that measure of interference which shall be just sufficient to secure the bodies of her majesty's subjects from mutilation and their pockets from imposition.
Though we must confess ourselves too little professional to form a decided judgment on some of the various suggestions the writer throws out for the more effective management of a line of railway, we have no hesitation in saying that many of them commend themselves at once, and would tend, if universally adopted, to diminish to a great extent the chances of accident. We were particularly pleased with those which relate to the system of signals, and the construction of the locomotive itself. With respect to some minor points, we have doubts which we feel the less hesitation in expressing, as the writer modestly expresses some doubt about them himself.
His principal suggestion, however, is, if it can be adopted, a very important one. He proposes the formation, on each line, of what may be called a responsible transit-executive, composed of a chieftransit engineer with deputies under him. We have no doubt that some such system might be most advantageously acted upon, but, whether the present rates of traffic on any of the completed lines, are sufficient to enable railway companies to execute the project on the scale Mr. Conder recommends, is a question which we have no means of determining. He thinks it not justly liable to objection on this ground. We very cheerfully recommend the pamphlet to all who feel interested in this important subject. Unitarianism Tried by Scripture and Experience ; a Compilation of
Treatises and Testimonies in Support of Trinitarian Doctrine and Evangelical Principles, with a General Introduction. By a Layman, Hamilton and Co.
We know of no better method of introducing this work to our readers than to lay before them the compiler's own account of it, assuring them that it is a fair and modest exposition of his views and motives, and that the merit of the publication, as whole, fully bears out his statement. Of the pieces separately we need not here speak, as of some of them, when they appeared, we expressed our favorable opinion. The leading treatise in the volume is that of the late Rev. Joseph Freeston, entitled “Why are you not a Socinian?' The other treatises and testimonies' are germane to the object of Mr. Freeston's work, and the writer observes while the present publication necessarily partakes of a controversial character, the compiler's principal aim has been to produce a volume, which, by the divine blessing, might operate either as a dissuasive or a preservative from the fatal errors which it is intended to expose. This is amply confirmed by the table of contents, which exhibits, besides the work already mentioned, 'Joseph John Gurney on the Trinity--on Sin, original and actual—on the Deity of Christ—on Redemption. Narrative of the Renunciation of Unitarian, and the adoption of Trinitarian Sentiments, by the late J. E. Stock, M.D. of Bristol. The Essential passages of a Letter, addressed by the Rev. P. E. Butler, B.A. to the Unitarians of Ipswich on the occasion of the Rev. Joseph Ketley's Renunciation of Unitarianism. A Letter on the Atonement of Christ and the Expiatory Nature of his Sufferings, by W. T. Blair, Esq. Mrs. Hemans's Dying Testimony to the inestimable value and supporting efficacy of the Atonement. Extracts from Letters addressed by the Rev. Charles Leslie, M.A., to a Deist. Letter by the Chancellor D'Aguesseau on the Christian Mysteries. Lord Bacon's Theological Creed. Conclusion. Hymn to
the Trinity.' In the selection of these pieces the compiler has not confined himself to the productions of authors belonging to any single class of orthodox Christians. On the contrary, he has availed himself of what he conceived just expositions of those essential truths of revelation which it was his object to enforce, wheresoever he found them. From the miscellaneous character of his publication it will be evident that all the large divisions of the Christian church are consentient in their rejection of Unitarian views and sentiments, and unanimous in the maintenance of Trinitarian doctrine and evangelical principles.
As a minor matter; the aspect of the volume has not been disregarded. Dr. Johnson has justly remarked, Books that you may carry to the fire, and hold readily in your hand, are the most useful after all.' Such a book is the one now submitted to public notice.' The introductory essay reflects great credit on the head and heart of the writer.
The Catholic Spirit of True Religion. pp. 376. London: Scott and
We most heartily recommend this book to Christians of every denomination, in the hope it may prove a healing branch to the Marah of controversy. Improvement of Affliction : A Practical Sequel to a Series of Meditations,
entitled Comfort in Affliction. By the Rev. James Buchanan, North Leith. Edinburgh: Johnstone. 1840.
We have read these discourses on affliction with much pleasure, and can cordially recommend them to such as are suffering under the painful dispensations of divine providence.
Letters of the Late John Love, D.D., Minister of Anderston, Glasgowo.
Third Thousand. Glasgow : Collins. 1840,
These letters are characterized by a free communication of thought in an easy, elegant style. They are on a variety of subjects. And while they all show the enlarged scriptural views and sound judgment of the author, those on the Christian Ministry’are decidedly the most valuable, as on this topic he was eminently qualified to write, having passed through various changes during the term of fifty years' public devotedness to that work.
In the Press. Letters from Italy, to a Younger Sister. By Catherine Taylor. Vol. 2.
Mr. Buckingham's America, Historical, Statistical, and Descriptive. In 3 Octavo Vols. Illustrated with a Portrait of the Author, and Seventy Wood Engravings.