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a board “to inquire into the laws and practice regarding citizenship, expatriation, and protection abroad, and to report recommendations for legislation.” The submission of the report of the board, which was laid before Congress December 18, was followed, January 14, 1907, by the introduction in the House, by James B. Perkins of New York, of a bill relating to expatriation, which passed on the 21st without a division. On the 27th an amended bill passed the Senate without a division. The House accepted the Senate amendments, and March 2 the act was approved.

REFERENCES. - Text in U. S. Stat. at Large, XXXIV., Part 1, 1228, 1229. The debate was unimportant. The report of the board is House Doc. 326, 59th Cong., 2d Sess.

An Act In reference to the expatriation of citizens and their protection


Be it enacted ... That the Secretary of State shall be authorized, in his discretion, to issue passports to persons not citizens of the United States as follows: Where any person has made a declaration of intention to become such a citizen as provided by law and has resided in the United States for three years a passport may be issued to him entitling him to the protection of the Government in any foreign country: Provided, That such passport shall not be valid for more than six months and shall not be renewed, and that such passport shall not entitle the holder to the protection of this Government in the country of which he was a citizen prior to making such declaration of intention.

SEC. 2. That any American citizen shall be deemed to have expatriated himself when he has been naturalized in any foreign state in conformity with its laws, or when he has taken an oath of allegiance to any foreign state.

When any naturalized citizen shall have resided for two years in the foreign state from which he came, or for five years in any other foreign state it shall be presumed that he has ceased to be an American citizen, and the place of his general abode shall be deemed his place of residence during said years: Pro vided, however, that such presumption may be overcome on the presentation of satisfactory evidence to a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States, under such rules and regulations as the Department of State may prescribe: And provided also, That no American citizen shall be allowed to expatriate himself when this country is at war.

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That any American woman who marries a foreigner shall take the nationality of her husband. At the termination of the marital relation she may resume her American citizenship, if abroad, by registering as an American citizen within one year with a consul of the United States, or by returning to reside in the United States, or, if residing in the United States at the termination of the marital relation, by continuing to reside therein.

SEC. 4. That any foreign woman who acquires American citizenship by marriage to an American shall be assumed to retain the same after the termination of the marital relation if she continue to reside in the United States, unless she makes formal renunciation thereof before a court having jurisdiction to naturalize aliens, or if she resides abroad she may retain her citizenship by registering as such before a United States consul within one year after the termination of such marital relation.

SEC. 5. That a child born without the United States of alien parents shall be deemed a citizen of the United States by virtue of the naturalization of or resumption of American citizenship by the parent: Provided, That such naturalization or resumption takes place during the minority of such child: And provided further, That the citizenship of such minor child shall begin at the time such minor child begins to reside permanently in the United States.

SEC. 6. That all children born outside the limits of the United States who are citizens thereof in accordance with the provisions of section nineteen hundred and ninety-three of the Revised Statutes of the United States and who continue to reside outside the United States shall, in order to receive the protection of this Government, be required upon reaching the age of eighteen years to record at an American consulate their intention to become residents and remain citizens of the United States and shall be further required to take the oath of allegiance to the United States upon attaining their majority.

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No. 197. Sixteenth Amendment

February 25, 1913

A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution regarding taxes on incomes, reported in the Senate, June 28, 1909, by Nelson W. Aldrich of Rhode Island, from the Committee on Finance, passed the Senate, July 5, by a vote of 77 to o, 15 not voting. An unsuccessful attempt was made to amend the resolution by adding to it provisions substantially identical with those of the Seventeenth Amendment (No. 198). The resolution passed the House, July 12, by a vote of 318 to 14, 1 answering “present”, 55 not voting. The amendment was ratified by all the States except Connecticut, Florida, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah and Virginia. A proclamation of February 25, 1913, declared the amendment in force.

REFERENCES. Text in U. S. Stat. at Large, XXXVII., Part 2, 1785. For the debates see the Cong. Record, 61st Cong., ist Sess. The important debate was in the House.


The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

No. 198. Seventeenth Amendment

May 31, 1913

A JOINT resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution providing for the popular election of Senators was reported, January 11, 1911, by William E. Borah of Idaho from the Senate Committee on Judiciary, to which the matter had been referred, and debated at length until February 28, when it failed to pass, less than two-thirds voting for it. In the 62d Congress numerous resolutions relating to the subject appeared in both houses. A joint resolution identical with that of January 11 was presented in the House, April 5, 1911, by William W. Rucker of Missouri, and on the 13th passed with amendments by a vote of 296 to 16, 77 not voting. An amended form, reported by Senator Borah May 1, passed the Senate, June 12, by a vote of 64 to 24, 2 not voting. The House disagreed to the Senate amendments, and the resolution went to a conference committee, where it remained until the close of the session. April 17, 1912, in the second session, Senator Clarence D. Clark of Wyoming reported that the conference committee were unable to agree; but on the 23d the House yielded, and May 14 the resolution was signed by the Speaker and the Vice-President. The amendment was ratified by all the States except Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah and Virginia. A proclamation of May 31 declared the amendment in force. An act of June 4, 1914, to expire three years from its date, made temporary provision for the election of senators under the new system.

REFERENCES. Text in U. S. Stat. at Large, XXXVIII., Part 2, 2049. For the debates see the Cong. Record, 61st and 62d Congresses. See also House Report 2, 62d Cong., ist Sess.; the Sutherland minority report of May 22, 1911, is Senate Report 35 (also in the Record, 1428, 1429).



1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legis-, lature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointment until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.



53, 54, 80.

Abarzuza, B. de, 608.

Arthur, C. A., 572.
Abolition of slavery in District of Co- Article of war, act for additional, 448,

lumbia, 450-451; in Territories, 452. 449.
Acadia, 93, 94.

Articles of Confederation, 195-204; of
Acadians deported, 109.

im peachment, 518-529.
Adams, John, 162, 184, 190, 209.

Ashburton treaty, 361-368.
Adams, J. Q., 284, 293, 311, 324.

Ashley, J. M., 500, 518, 529.
Adams, Robert, 597, 599.

Association, The, 166-171.
Adams, Samuel, 147, 162.

Atherton Company, 67.
Adams, William, 293.

Auchmuty, Robert, 106.
Administration of Justice act, 159-162.

Avalon, 31.
Admission of Missouri, resolution for,

317, 318; of Virginia to representa- Bacon, Sir Francis, 9.
tion in Congress, 544-546.

Baltimore and Ohio R. R. Co., 444.
Aix-la-Chapelle, treaty of, 109.

Baltimore, Lord, first, 31; second, 31,
Alabama admitted as a State, 311;

admitted to representation in Congress, Bank of United States (second), 302–

306; Jackson's first message, 320,
Alaska trealy, 511-514.

321; second message, 322, 323; third
Aldrich, Nelson W., 647.

message, 323; veto message, 324-329;
Alien act, 261-263.

removal of deposits, 344-353; National
Alien and Sedition acts, 258–267.

Bank act, 473-482.
Alien Enemies act, 263–265.

Bayard, J. A., 293, 441.
Allison, W. B., 574.

Benton, T. H., 359.
Amendments to Constitution, proposed Bermudas, 14.

by Hartford Convention, 296-301 ; | Bernard, Francis, 146.
thirteenth amendment, 494; fourteenth, Berry, A. S., 597
536; fifteenth, 546, 547; sixteenth, Bingham, J. A., 440, 498, 547, 554.
647; seventeenth, 647, 648.

Blaine, J. G., 501.
Amnesty proclamation, 470472.

Bland, R. P., 573, 595.
Amsterdam, 26.

· Bland-Allison" act, 573-575, 596.
Andros in Connecticut, 60; in Rhode | Blockade of Southern ports, 434, 435.

Island, 67; in Massachusetts, 84. Bollan, William, 151, 155.
Annexation of Texas, 368–370; of Borah, William E., 647.
Hawaiian Islands, 600-602.

Boston Port act, 150-154.
Antietam, 457.

Boutwell, G. S., 518.
Anti-Trust act, 591-593.

Bowdoin, James, 162.
Archer (Va.), 368.

Braddock's defeat, 109.
Arkansas admitted to representation in Bradford, William, 19.
Congress, 530-531.

Breckinridge, John, 267.
Army, command of, 507, 508.

Breda, treaty of, 75.
Arnold, I. N., 452.

Brook, Lord, 36.

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