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Plume of sulfur-rich gas from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, as seen between explosive phases of this ongoing eruption. Sulfur aerosols, especially when they rise into the stratosphere, cause temporary global cooling and may complicate analysis of global warming. (Photograph by Chris Newhall.)
responds to changes in atmospheric conditions and to provide a scientific basis for improving how those land-based responses can be represented in computer models that couple those landatmosphere interactions. The work focuses on showing how changes in the atmosphere result in changes in the water budget, energy outputs from land surface, gas transfers with the atmosphere, and nutrient fluxes through water bodies. This information in turn provides needed data for studies in the Sensitivity of Hydrologic Systems. These studies develop and apply mathematical models to assess the response of hydrologic systems to climatic variability and change. Specific river basins in different hydroclimatic zones are studied to evaluate the sensitivity of water resource systems to changes in atmospheric conditions. The results of these studies will provide improved and transferable methods for evaluating sensitivities of water resource systems to varying climatic conditions. River basins that are the sites of current and planned studies include the Delaware (see article, p. 31), American and Stanislaus in California, Carson and Truckee in California and Nevada, and Gunnison in Colorado.
What is the natural contribution of earth processes to short- and long-term climate changes?
Knowing that global climate changed in the past and how those changes affected regional and local climates, water resource distribution, and ecological systems is not enough. In order to make sound resource-management plans and policies, we must also understand why those changes took place. Analyzing the geologic record will help in determining this, but more specific process
oriented studies must be conducted as well. Programs in Volcano Hazards and Biogeochemistry of Greenhouse Gases are also needed to examine the natural earth processes that contribute to such changes. These programs will provide the baseline from which to determine what changes are caused by man and what changes are natural. How are our coastlines changing? What portion of the change is caused by human activities, and what portion is caused by natural processes?
The majority of the Earth's population lives in urban areas, and most urban areas are near the coast. Coastal communities represent an enormous investment in culture and commerce by humankind. Changes in coastal characteristics, both coastline and wetlands, can take place due to climate change or they can be caused by tectonic, erosional, or human processes. Some human activities designed to protect coastal areas may actually be harmful in the long run to the area being protected and to other areas as well. To determine what those effects might be, the Coastal Erosion and Inundation Program is examining selected coastal, barrier island, and lake shore areas.
How does the land surface respond to changes—human induced and natural — on local, regional, national, and global scales?
Land Surface and Geographic Characterization is a research program that cuts across five of the seven CES priority science elements. By using remote sensing, geographic information system, digital mapping, computer modeling, and other technologies, researchers in this program will develop techniques to analyze changes in numerous aspects of the Earth's surface and to provide the means to detect change and monitor the processes of activities that take place on the terrestrial component of the Earth's surface. Special attention is being given to the relation between processes at varying time and spatial scales, how they interrelate, and what is the best strategy for observation.
Where will the data necessary to study global change come from, how will it be archived, and how will it be distributed?
Global change research is an information-hungry and informationproducing scientific effort. Data will not only be needed by the research program, each project will also generate data. The data will take many forms, including field notes; ice, rock, sediment, and other cores; digital cartographic and geographic data; geophysical readings; aerial photographs; satellite images; biological samples; and others. To support this data explosion and to ensure the availability of data to other scientists, each research project must develop a data-management plan that links with systems that have been developed or are being developed. However, for data that are considered more general in nature, such as landsurface data sets for large areas and satellite images, a Land Surface Data System is needed. This system, housed at the Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center of the USGS, will provide a means to archive, inventory, and distribute data sets that are responsive to research needs.
Although the USGS global change research program is relatively young, there have been a number of accomplishments to date. Among these are the following:
• A model has been developed for water resource managers to use in the Delaware River basin to help determine the appropriate water allocation strategy during varying conditions of water availability. Under current circumstances, drought conditions exist in the Delaware basin 10 percent of the time. This could vary substantially if a significant change in climate were to take place. The Delaware River basin, which supplies water for an estimated 20 million people, is subject to changes in water salinity, water quality and quantity, water distribution, and water demand due to changes in the climate. These physical parameters have been incorporated into the model along with certain socioeconomic variables to give water managers a comprehensive and usable model. Refinements to this model will be made through FY 1991. Other areas are being considered for similar studies.
• An initial estimate has been made of what global climate conditions were during the Pliocene. A plan has been developed to determine an understanding of that climate on a broad regional level. Once the regional studies are complete, there will be sufficient data to help validate atmospheric general circulation models, which are used to predict future climates. In addition, techniques have been developed for accurate high-resolution studies of past climates.
• As part of the Louisiana Barrier Erosion Study, a careful analysis of tide gage records and geologic framework investigations shows that the sea level has risen relative to the land approximately 3 to 4 feet during the past 100 years. The majority of the rise is due to land subsidence and sediment compaction of the recently deposited sediments in the delta. Because these rates of sea-level rise are close to the maximum rates being forecast for the future due to "greenhouse effect," the results from the barrier islands and wetlands studies can be used in predicting possible future coastal conditions for other similar regions around the United States.
• A technique has been developed to identify and to measure changes in the historic temperature of climates in permafrost areas. This will help in modeling the potential release of methane, a greenhouse gas, trapped in the permafrost.
• A baseline of Antarctic glacial extent has been established by using satellite data obtained during the mid-1970's. This can be compared to additional synoptic views of Antarctica to help determine if the ice edge is advancing or retreating in response to changes in temperature and other variables in the Southern Hemisphere.
• More than 400,000 deteriorating satellite images have been identified. A system is being developed at EROS Data Center to save these data by transferring them onto stable media. Also, the requirements for the Global Land Data System have been identified, and the design of the system is proceeding.
• A plan has been completed for the long-term management of the land portion of the Earth Observing System data.
science expertise complement USGS program objectives. Work for State, county, and municipal agencies is most often conducted on a cost-sharing basis.
Most of the appropriations and reimbursements received by the USGS in fiscal year 1989 were distributed to geologic, hydrologic, mapping, and administrative areas of responsibility. Budget tables appear near the back of this book.
At the end of fiscal year 1989, the USGS had 8,589 permanent full-time employees. The USGS's diversified earth-science research programs and services are reflected in its workforce, more than half of which possesses a bachelor's or higher level degree. Almost half of the USGS employees are professional scientists.
Permanent employees are supported by other-than-full-time permanent employees, including many university students and faculty members. This relation with the academic community has made the expertise of many eminent scientists available to the USGS. Students have also proved valuable during times of increased workload, especially during the field season. Academic institutions have also provided a means of recruiting qualified young professionals for permanent full-time positions upon completion of their studies. The USGS has several innovative programs that provide opportunities for graduate students. Other programs promote interest in the earth sciences at historically black colleges and universities. (See article, p. 21.)
Awards and Honors
Each year, USGS employees receive awards and honors that range from certificates of excellence and monetary awards to recognition of their achievements by election to membership or office in professional societies. The large number of these awards attests to the high caliber of USGS personnel. Of the
many who received awards, the USGS is pleased to acknowledge here those individuals who became members or officers in professional societies or who received awards from those organizations. Also acknowledged are those who received the Presidential Rank Award from the Office of Personnel Management and other special USGS awards.
Service in professional societies is an important contribution by USGS scientists to the USGS. These societies play a fundamental role in disseminating knowledge as well as providing a forum in which to test new ideas. The USGS is proud of those individuals who have been honored by election to society presidencies or chairmanships of society committees by their professional peers.
Awards and Honors Received by USGS Employees During 1989
S.T. Algermissen, Geophysicist, Geologic Division, was awarded the 1989 Prize of the Center for Seismology in South America (CERESIS) for his outstanding contribution to seismology in South America over a period of years. Charles E. Barker, Geologist, Geologic Division, was elected Vice President, Society of Luminescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy for 1989-90. Raymond M. Batson, Cartographer, Geologic Division, became the first recipient of a prestigious NASA award in 1989 for significant contributions to planetary cartographic science. The award was in recognition of his leadership in fostering a sustained high level of production of planimetric maps covering all major solid bodies of the solar system. Earl E. Brabb, Geologist, Geologic Division, was presented with the Distinguished Practice Award of the Engineering Geology Division of the Geological Society of America for distinguished public service, research, consulting, and administration.
P. Robin Brett, Geologist, Geologic Division, was elected Secretary General of the International Union of Geological Sciences for the period 1989-92. William J. Campbell, Meteorologist, Water Resources Division, received the William T. Pecora Award of the Department of the Interior and NASA for his
Personnel, by Occupation
Administrative and Clerical
Other Scientists and Engineers
SJ Wage Board
outstanding scientific contributions and leadership in international experiments that have applied remote sensing methods to the study of the cryosphere (the cold regions of the planet). Alden P. Colvocoresses, Research Cartographer, National Mapping Division, was awarded the Alan Gordon Memorial Award by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing for his contributions to the application of satellite remote sensing to cartography and in fostering the development and refinement of satellite image mapping worldwide.
Charles G. Cunningham, Geologist, Geologic Division, was presented with the Japanese Government Research Award for Foreign Specialists. The award includes fieldwork for ore deposit research at the Osorezan geothermal system in Japan. G. Brent Dalrymple, Geologist, Geologic Division, was elected President of the American Geophysical Union for the period 1990-92.
Frederick J. Doyle, Scientific Advisor for Cartography, National Mapping Division, was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. He is the first USGS employee to be selected for membership in this organization. Robert L. Earhart, Geologist, was awarded the Exemplary Act award of the Department of the Interior for life-saving emergency medical care he rendered to a Venezuelan geochemist. George E. Ericksen, Geologist, Geologic Division, was presented with the 1988—89 Richard Owen Award of the University of Indiana as a distinguished alumnus for his outstanding contributions to the geological sciences and meritorious service to the profession.
Kathie R. Fraser, Technical Publications Editor, Geologic Division, was presented with a 1989 Blue Pencil Award—in the book for technical audience category—by the National Association of Government Communicators.
Virgil A. Frizzell, Jr., Geologist, Geologic Division, was selected as the Congressional Science Fellow for 1989—90 by the American Geophysical Union. He served as a consultant to Congressman Norman Y. Mineta who represents California's 13th district.
Warren B. Hamilton, Geologist, Geologic Division, was elected to the National
Academy of Sciences in recognition of his outstanding contributions in advancing the science of geology. He also was awarded the Penrose Medal, the highest award given by the Geological Society of America in honor of his eminent research in geology. Thomas L. Holzer, Geologist, Geologic Division, was elected Chairman of the Engineering Geology Division of the Geological Society of America for 1988-89.
Carolyn S. Hulett, Publications Graphic Specialist, Geologic Division, was presented with a 1989 Blue Pencil Award—in the book for technical audience category—by the National Association of Government Communicators. Marshall E. Jennings, Hydrologist, Water Resources Division, was named 1989 Engineer of the Year for the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, by the National Society of Professional Engineers.
Jean S. Kane, Chemist, Geologic Division, received the 1989 Outstanding Member award of the Baltimore-Washington Section of the Society for Applied Spectroscopy.
Susan Werner Kieffer, Geologist, Geologic Division, was awarded the Spendiarov Prize by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences at the 28th International Geological Congress (IGC). This was the most prestigious award given at the IGC in Washington, D.C., July, 1989, and saluted her contributions to our knowledge of the Earth and the planets and her prolific research in fields ranging from volcanology and planetology to thermodynamics and river hydraulics. Baerbel K. Lucchitta. Geologist, Geologic Division, was elected Second Vice Chairman for 1989-90 of the Planetary Geology Division of the Geological Society of America.
Richard F. Madole, Geologist, Geologic Division, was elected Second Vice Chairman for 1988—89 of the Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology Division of the Geological Society of America. Harold Masursky, Geologist, Geologic Division, received the National Air and Space Museum Trophy from the Smithsonian Institution, presented for outstanding achievements in air and space