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In order to ensure Pakistan's eventual self-sufficiency in all aspects of coal exploration, assessment, development, and production, training and institutional support have been emphasized in the current COALREAP effort. Consequently, in addition to the intensive on-the-job training fostered by the close working relationships between the Geological Survey of Pakistan and U.S. Geological Survey counterparts, Pakistani scientists are participating in short-term and long-term training courses in the United States. To date, 31 Pakistani officers have participated in a coal geology and assessment course at the University of Southern Illinois. Two Pakistani geologists have served an 8-week temporary duty assignment at USGS offices to assist in the coal resource assessment of the Pakistan areas explored during this past year and, in the process, to gain familiarity with USGS coal-resource assessment procedures. Two Pakistani Survey coal petrographers are in long-term graduate training at the University of Southern Illinois.
Under the expert guidance of Geoscience Associates Inc., three Pakistani Survey and Pakistani Water and Power Development Authority officers have been trained to conduct all aspects of geophysical logging procedures for drill holes. Four additional trainees have partially completed a training program and have been certified as operators.
Pakistan presently has few private contractors knowledgeable in the techniques to drill coal-bearing sediments successfully. COALREAP, therefore, has been especially beneficial in encouraging private-sector participation in future coal exploration programs by contracting and training a corps of drillers.
Coal samples are presently being analyzed at USGS laboratories, but in the future all analytical work will be conducted in Pakistan. Consequently, chemists from both the Pakistan Geological Survey and the Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research are being trained in the United States to conduct up-to-date coal analyses. Pakistani laboratories are being equipped with the necessary analytical equipment to allow processing of the coal samples within the country.
A Pakistani Survey scientist received training in the U.S. to become a systems
analyst and computer specialist for a national geodata center, which is a centralized repository for earth-science information that will be available to all. This specialist is now training several other computer technicians. Future training will include programs for a library information manager, a cartographer, a publications manager, and a remote-sensing specialist.
China Digital Seismograph Network
Under the auspices of the Protocol for Scientific and Technical Cooperation in Earthquake Studies between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the United States, the USGS and the PRC State Seismological Bureau (SSB) have worked cooperatively to design, construct, install, operate, and maintain a nine-station digital seismographic network. The China Digital Seismograph Network is one of the most advanced seismic systems in the world and will provide valuable data for assessing the crustal structure and evolution of the Asian continent and the location and properties of Chinese earthquakes. The network will further our understanding of the global distribution of earthquakes and will provide important data for ongoing cooperative USGS-SSB earthquake prediction studies in China. The data will also be incorporated on a continuous basis into the global seismic data base, which is distributed nationally and internationally by the USGS. The USGS designed and developed the hardware and software for the network, including nine field systems, a data management system that is located in Beijing, and a depot maintenance center, and provided training for SSB engineers and technicians. The stations that constitute the network began initial operation and testing during the summer of 1986 and are located in Beijing, Lanzhou, Kunming, Mudanjiang, Hailar, Enshi, Sheshan (Shanghai), Qiongzhong (Hainan Island), and Urumqi.
Antarctic Topographic Surveying and Mapping Program
The U.S. Geological Survey continued its geodetic and cartographic programs in Antarctica in support of the National Science Foundation's U.S. Antarctic Research Program.
For the 15th year, the Survey sent a two-person team to the South Pole Station during the austral winter June through September 1987 to make observations and collect data in support of several long-term research projects. These included Doppler satellite observations to measure the precession of the Earth's axis at the Pole and the direction and magnitude of polar icecap movement and to support geodetic networks and provide positional data for cartographic purposes. Other activities included operation of the USGS Worldwide Standardized Seismological Network Station and gathering data for an earth tides and ultra-long-period seismic project for the University of California at Los Angeles.
Field surveys were conducted during the austral summer to obtain Doppler satellite data to recompute older existing geodetic networks on the World Geodetic System 1972 datum and to establish additional control for future 1:50,000-scale topographic mapping projects in the Dry Valley-Minna Bluff-Ross Island area.
The Survey assisted the National Science Foundation, in cooperation with the U.S. Navy, in obtaining aerial photography for mapping and for various research projects in the Antarctic.
Production of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Landsat image maps continued during fiscal year 1987, and three 1:250,000-scale reconnaissance maps were submitted to the U.S. Board on Geographic Names through the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names for names approval. Also, new official Antarctic maps were distributed to member nations of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research for Geodesy and Cartography and to appropriate depositories in the United States.
When the current U.S./Mexico border mapping project is completed, there will be 203 color-image maps of the U.S./Mexico border from San Diego, California, to the Gulf Coast of Texas. Eighty-eight colorimage maps have been published as of September 1987. Completion of the entire project is scheduled for June 1988.
The U.S. Geological Survey began the U.S./Mexico border mapping project at the request of the U.S. Customs Service in 1979. The goal of the project is to produce 1:25,000-scale U.S./Mexico border maps from high-altitude color-infrared aerial photographs. In 1981, a similar request was made by the International Boundary and Water Commission to meet its legislative requirements for updating map coverage of the international boundary along the Rio Grande and Colorado Rivers. To accommodate the Commission's particular needs, the Survey is producing a separate, full-color edition.
The color-infrared images, which do not show colors in their "natural" state, are being enhanced to produce a simulated natural green that makes vegetation and other ground features easier to recognize. The published maps will provide about 3 miles of coverage on each side of the border.
Technology Transfer and Pan American Countries
Under the auspices of the Pan American Institute of History and Geography (PAIGH), the Survey continued to provide assistance in the transfer of cartographic, remote sensing, and geographic information system (GIS) technology to Latin American member nations.
The PAIGH Test Program to evaluate remote sensing for cartographic applications in Latin America is one of the projects in which the Survey is playing a major role. The project involves the use of Landsat Thematic Mapper data, panchromatic data, and GIS techniques to produce an experimental map of Viedma, the proposed new national capital of Argentina. Another PAIGH project in which the Survey has been actively involved is the multilingual "Glossary of Cartographic and Photogrammetric Terms." The glossary, published in 1987, contains approximately 1,700 technical terms, each translated into Spanish, English, French, and Portuguese.
Training Programs and Courses
The USGS planned and administered programs for 35 visiting scientists from 16 countries to conduct research at the USGS or at USGS-selected institutions. Formal training courses for 94 foreign nationals representing 26 countries were provided by the Survey during fiscal year 1987:
• "26th International Remote Sensing Workshop" in Sioux Falls, South Dakota (13 participants).
• "Techniques of Hydrologic Investigations" in Denver, Colorado (13 participants).
• "Training Course in Marine Geology" in Moss Landing, California (8 participants).
• On-the-job or academic training for 60
other foreign nationals either at the Survey or at other facilities on behalf of the Survey.
The countries where the USGS was active during fiscal year 1987 are shown in figure 7.
Miscellaneous International Activities
• A pilot project using AVHRR and other data was conducted to evaluate the location and magnitude of locust infestation in Botswana.
• A 1:50,000-scale experimental Landsat image map of Nairobi West in Kenya was prepared by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, and published by the USGS.
• Plans are underway for the Survey to prepare a series of 1:250,000-scale Thematic Mapper image maps of western Sudan for a forest inventory project.
• Activities under the Protocol on Scientific and Technical Cooperation in Surveying and Mapping Studies between the PRC National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping (NBSM) and the USGS are continuing in accordance with the work plan for 1987. This plan was developed at the second meeting of the Joint Working Group in Beijing in October 1986. In accordance with the work plan for Annex II for developing geographic information systems, the NBSM and the USGS jointly developed and exchanged software packages for map
digitizing and editing, image display and analysis, spatial data processing, and GIS applications.
The U.S. Geological Survey, under auspices of the African Bureau in the Agency for International Development, is supporting the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), a program to monitor Africa and identify and alert populations at risk. The Survey assists in determining the system requirements and provides technical advice to implement the spatial data base and the geographic information systems technology that are used to compile and analyze data pertaining to physical resources, cli
mate and weather, spectral and related monitored information, and health and nutrition in order to mitigate the effects of famine. Survey staff have formally assessed the FEWS and have assisted in designing a 5-year plan for its continued implementation. Individual countries, the first being Sudan, are being assisted by the Survey in design of systems that will integrate with FEWS and also provide for management of information on land assessment, land management, and resources monitoring.