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Abbé de St Leger ; Lambinet's Re- decimos. Some useful remarks are cherches, historiques, litteraires, et cri- given with regard to the particulars tiques sur l'Origine de l’Imprimerie ; which may give one edition of a book M. Serna Santander's Essai Historique,
a preference to another. prefixed to his Dictionnaire Bibliogra- Under the second head, a descripphique ; Lichtenberger's Initia Typo- tion is given of the books wlich, in graphica ; and Otiley's Inquiry into the first rude efforts at printing, were the Origin and Early History of Ena impressed with solid wooden blocks. grasing
The editio princeps of the Bible, printThe establishment and progress of ed at Mentz between the years 1450. printing, in particular countries and 55, was the first book of any considerplaces, is likewise an object of curio“ able magnitude, printed with move-, sity to the Bibliographer. The books able metallic types. On the subject which our author recommends on this of early printed books, the following subject are Ames's Typographical An- works are recommended : Laire's Intiguities, which contains memoirs of der librorum ab inventa typographia the early English printers, with a re- ad annum 1500, cum notis ; Santan. sister of their publications from 1471 der's Dictionnaire Bibliographique tə 1600. It was first published in choisi du quinzieme siecle; Bibliothe1749, in one volume quarto; a second ca Spenceriana, a descriptive catalogue edition, enlarged by Mr Herbert to of the books published in the fifteenth three volumes quarto, appeared in century in the library of Earl Spencer, 1790 ; and a third, illustrated with by Dibdin ; Maittaire's Annales Tyó superb embellishments, and contain- pographici ab Artis inventæ origine ; ing some valuable additions by Mr Annales Typographici ab Artis inventa Dibdin, is now in course of publica- origine, ad annum 1500, post Maittion. For an account of the typogra- taire, Denisii, aliorumque emendati, phical histories of France, Germany, et Aucti; Operâ S. W. Pauzer. We and Italy, we are referred to Peignot's regret that our limits will not permit Repertoire "Bibliographique Univere us to follow the learned author through
the instructive details into which he The next thing mentioned, as re- enters on the remaining branches of quisite to the Bibliographer, is a know- his subject. ledge of the different classes and bo- Upon the whole, we consider this dies of letters used by printers, and of as the most judicious and enlightened the corresponding appellations assign- treatise that we have had the good ed to the different bodies by printers fortune to meet with on the subject of different countries. The books re- of Bibliography. commended on these points are Stow- The article BILLS OF MORTALITY et's Printer's Grammar, and Four- displays a perfect knowledge of the nier's Manuel Typographique. subject. The author, Mr Joshua
In treating of the forms of books, Milne, Actuary to the Sun Life' Assurour author very briefly adverts to the ance Society, has already distinguisha method practised among the ancients, ed himself by his masterly Treatise on of rolling up their books on a cylinder Annuities and Assurances, and his siof wood, to the ends of which nobs or tuation and habits of inquiry furnish balls were affixed, often richly orna- the best security for the correctness of mented. In the present article, the his views, and the accuracy of his inattention of the author is chiefly di- formation on the subject of the prerected to the various forms in which sent article. The plan which he lays books have appeared since the origin down, and which he follows out with of printing; from an imperfect know- great ability, is, " to give a brief hislalge of which, essential errors have tory of the principal things that have arisen with regard to particular edi- been done in this way ;-to notice tions. · The circumstance from which some of the principal mortuary rea these mistakes generally proceed is, gisters, and enumerations of the peothat different sizes of paper are com- ple ;--to point out some of the prinprehended under the same name. A cipal defects in most of the published test is afforded by the water-lines in registers and enumerations;- and lastthe sheets, as, in folio and octavo ly, to submit some forms, according sizes, they are uniformly perpendicu- to which, if enumerations be made, lar, and horizontal in quartos and duo- and registers kept, they will be easily
convertible to useful purposes." The cloth, and, on that account, it would conclusion of the article, which con- have gratified us exceedingly to have tains these forms, we would recom- found such a statement in so respectmend as particularly worthy the at- able and correct a writer as Theotention of all, who, either from inter- phrastus.” It is well known that the est or curiosity, are desirous of ob* first important improvement made in taining regular data for determining the process of bleaching in this counthe law of human mortality.
try, was the substitution of water, Under the article Blasting will acidulated with sulphuric acid, in be found a minute and accurate ac- place of the buttermilk previously emcount of the method employed by ployed. Some years after, in consequarriers and miners in blasting asun- quence of the experiments which had der rocks by the foree of gunpowder. been male by Scheele on manganese, We are happy to observe, that the au- mixed with muriatic acid, a new mothor, whose opportunities of observa- dification of that acid was discovered, tion are such as few individuals can, which possessed the property of deboast, recommends the practice of wad- stroying vegetable colours. To this ding with sand as equally efficient substance, Scheele gave the name of with the common method, while it dephlogisticated muriatic acid. Ber-, exposes the workmen to much less thollet, who, in 1785, repeated the expepersonal risk.
riments of Scheele, discovered that this The articles BLEACHING, BREW: substance was a compound of muriatic ING, and BRICK-MAKING, are contri- acid and oxygen. He, therefore, gave buted by a gentleman, who, if he has it the name of oxygenated muriatic been excelled by another chemist in acid, which was afterwards shortened the brilliancy and success of his ex- into oxymuriatic acid, the appellation periments, is second to none in a pro- by which it is still known among found knowledge of chemical science; bleachers. Its property of destroying while his extensive attainments would vegetable colours led Berthollet to have raised him to eminence in any suspect that this acid might be introdepartment of philosophy or litera- ducex with advantage into the art of ture. The departure of this gentle- bleaching, the process of which it man from Edinburgh we have ever would greatly shorten.
In April regretted as a serious loss to the lovers 1785, he read a paper on this acid of science in this city ; though we before the Academy of Sciences at Patrust it has been of advantage to him- ris, in which he mentions, that he self-as, by extending his labours had tried the effect of the acid in over a wider sphere, it has materially bleaching cloth, and found that it anadvanced the general interests of swered completely. The following learning. Ofhis indefatigable exertions year, he exhibited the experiment bea in the pursuit of truth, we have two : fore Mr Watt, who, on returning to very remarkable instances towards the England, commenced a practical excommencement of the article Bleach- amination on the subject, and was, ING. Mr. Parkes, in his essay on accordingly, the person who first inBleaching, (Chemical Essays, Vol. troduced the new method of bleachIV.) affirms, that it is stated by ing, into Great Britain. Yet Mr Theophrastus, that lime was used by Parkes, in the essay before mentioned, the ancients in bleaching; and that states, that in the early part of the a ship, partly loaded with linen, and year 1787, Professor Copland of Aber partly with water for bleaching it, deen accompanied the present Duke was destroyed by the accidental ace of Gordon to Geneva, and was shewn cess of water to the lime...“ We en- by M. de Saussure the dissolving prodeavoured, with some pains," says perty of oxymuriatic acid. Struck Dr Thomson, “ to verify this quota- with the importance of the experition; and for this purpose, turned ment, Mr Copland, on his return to over all the writings of Theophras. Aberdeen, in July 1787, repeated it tus with which we are acquainted, before some eminent bleachers in his without being able to find any thing neighbourhood. These gentlemen bearing the least allusion to it. We were Messrs Mylne, of the house of have doubts whether lime could be Gordon, Barron, and Company, Aemployed as a detergent of linen, berdeen. They immediately began without injuring the texture of the the application of the process to the
bleaching of linen on a great scale; ed by different persons. The proporand Mr Parkes assures us, that they tions which he himself recommends were the first persons. To be enabled as the most economical and advantato decide with certainty on these rival geous are, 2 parts sulphuric acid; 2 claims, Dr. Thomson applied to Mr parts water, 1 part common salt, and Watt himself. Fortunately, that gen- i part black oxide of manganese. He tleman had preserved copies of all his next proceeds to describe the present letters since 1782, taken by means of methods employed in the bleaching of his copying machine. Dr Thomson linen, the bleaching of cotton, and the being allowed to peruse all such as bleaching of rags for the papermaker ; bore any reference to the subject for all of which we must refer our in question, foand two which set readers to the article itself, which will the matter at rest. The one, dat- fully satisfy their curiosity. ted March 19, 1787, is to his father- The article Brewing we consider in-law, Mr Macgregor, and contains particularly valuable ; it is indeed the a particular detail of the new bleach- only satisfactory account of that im ing process, states its advantages, and portant account , which has hitherto says that he had sent to Mr Macgre- been published. The author divides gor a quantity of the whitening li- it into five chapters. In the first he quor. In the other, addressed to Ber- gives a short history of the art; in the thollet, and dated May 9, 1787, he second he gives an account of the difmentioned the proportion of acid and ferent kinds of grain employed in alkali which he employed, and the brewing, and terminates the chapter process which he followed in prepar- by a table, exhibiting the most reing the cloth. As the date of both markable properties of a considerable. these letters is some months prior to number of specimens of British barley Mr Copland's return from the Conti- and big, as determined by his own obnent, it is clear that Saussure has servations; in the third he treats of no claim to the original discovery, the process of inalting, -and to this Dor Mr Copland to the first introduc- chapter likewise he subjoins two va«. tion of the new process into Great luable tables, which exhibit, in cne Britain.
view, the result of a considerable nume. These two instances may serve to ber of trials which he made on malt.. prove Dr Thomson's industry in col- ing different varieties of grain ; in the lecting facts for the purpose of ascer- fourth chapter he treats of brewing, taining the truth ; indeed, it is impos- terminating this chapter too with a sable to conceive any thing more truly table, exhibiting the results obtained philosophical than the spirit with by brewing with malt made froin a which all his investigations are con- considerable number of different vadueted. We cannot now follow him rieties of barley and big ; in the fifth through this and the other articles chapter he gives an account of the na-, which bear his signature, but must ture and properties of the different. content ourselves with giving a hasty, kinds of ale and beer manufactured by. sketch of the pian which he pursues the brewer,--here, again, we are prein each. In the commencement of sented with a table, exhibiting the the article Bleaching, he states that quantity of porter brewed by the thirhis business is merely to supply the teen principal houses in London durdefects of the article in the Encyclo- ing the last nine years, and thus givpædia. These are chiefly two; 1. A ing an accurate conception of the exvery incomplete historical detail of the tent to which the porter trade is car.. improvements in bleaching, at least as ried on in the inetropolis. The exfar as this country is concerned. 2. planation of plates subjoined to the The omission of any description of whole contains a description of the the present mode of bleaching, as vessels used in a London porter brewpractised by the most enlightened ma- ery. nufacturers of Great Britain. After a In the article Brick-MAKING, he very clear account of the progress of begins, as usual, with a short history the new method of bleaching in this of the art ; he then mentions the nacountry, Dr Thomson mentions the ture and kinds of clay employed; ingredients from which the oxymu- next the preparation of the clay and riatic acid is obtained, and the propor. formation of the brick; then the tions of these ingredients recommends burning. Under the last head, he
informs us, that he saw, at some of the circumstances which have led the iron founderies in Sweden, fur- some botanists to the investigation of naces constructed of the scoriæ cast in- 'certain subjects more than others, and to bricks, which answered fully bet- the particular success of ench, may ter than common bricks. " It would prove amusing and instructive objects be easy," says he, "to make any of contemplation. In this detail, the quantity of such bricks in some of the history of scientific botany will aplarge iron founderies of Great Bri- pear under a new aspect, as rather an tain. We are persuaded that such account of what is doing, than what br cks might be brought into use for is accomplished. The more abstruse a variety of purposes, with great ad- principles of classification will be canvantage, and might even constitute a vassed, and the atteirtion of the stulucrativearticle of manufacture. Bricks dent inay incidentally be recalled to made from the scoriæ of iron and cop- such as have been neglected, or irot per founderies, would vie in beauty sufficiently understood. The natural with marble and porphyry, and would and artificial methods of classification possess a smoothness of surface, and having been, contrary to the wise a lustre, to which few marbles could intention of the great man who first reach.” This hint, we trust, will not distinguished them from each other, be neglected.
placed in opposition, and set at vaThe articles BLOCKADE, Block- riance, it becomes necessary to invesMACHINERY, BLOW-PIPE, BLOWING- tigate the pretensions of eachi. The MACHINES, and Boring, will be natural method of Linnæus may thus found to give very able and satisfac- be compared with his artificial one ; tory accounts of their respective sub- and, as the competitors of the latter jects. These, however, we cannot have long ceased to be more than obnow stop to notice. We hasten to jects of mere curiosity,' we shall have give some account of the article Bo- occasion to shew how much the rivals TANY, communicated by the learned of the former are indebted to both president of the Linnæan Society. It In the progress of this inquiry, the is difficult to say whether it is more writer, who has lived and studied valuable for the important informa- among the chief of these botanical tion which it communicates, or pleas- polemics, during a great part of their ing from the graceful style in which progress, may occasionally find a clue that information is conveyed. In the for his guidance, which their own fourth volume of the Encyclopædia, works would not supply. No one can a general view had be:11 given of the more estcem tlieir talents, their zeal,
celebrated system of Linnæus, includ- and the personal merits of the great:. ing the generic characters, as well as er part, than the author of these
some of the specific differences of pages; but no one is more indepenmost plants then discovered, with dent of theoretical opinions, or less their qualities and uses. The supple- dazzled by their splendour, even when mentary article exhibits a view of the they do not, as is too often the case, subject more adapted to the progress prove adverse to the discovery of and present state of the science. truth. Nor is he less anxious to Within the last thirty years, botany avoid personal partiality. Incorruphas been so generally and so ardently tam fidem professis, nec amore quise cultivated, that it has been elevated quam, et sine odio, dicendus est.” from a dry systematic detail of classi- In the very limited sketch to which, fication and nomenclature, into a phi- in notices of this kind, we must ne losophical and practical study. How cessarily confine ourselves, we can immuch the able author of this article part to our reader but a faint idea of has contributed to so important a the delight with which we have ace' change, is known to all who are in companied our author, while, in purany degree conversant with the recent suance of this plan, he has traced, history of botany. Of the plan which with equal erudition and judgment, he proposes to himself in the present the causes which paved the way for short but masterly treatise, we dare the general reception of the Linnæan not attempt an account in any other system, and the various improvements words than his own. “ The Riffer- for which the science is indebted to ent modes in which different nations the latours of subsequent cultivators; or schools have cultivated this science, and the adventiticus circumstånces,
which render botany almost a differ- break the force of the waves, and to ent sort of study in different parts of make the port of Cherbourg, in some the habitable globe. We were about winds, a sate anchorage for about 40 to attempt an analysis of this aclmirable sail of the line. One of the grandest , article, but soon discovered that it was of Bonaparte's magnificent projects, quite impossible to do it any justice, was to establish a large dock-yard at without transcribing almost the whole. Cherbourg, not merely for repairing, So valuable are, the observations of but also for constructing ships of war this distinguished writer, that we can- of the largest class; to dig a basin not make a selection without perplexi- capable of containing 50 or 60 sail of ty, and without regret for omitting the line ; to construct dry-docks and what seems equally entitled to be slips for building and repairing, and quoted; while his style is already so to make it a naval port of the first coneise, though flowing, and his ma- rank. The basin was completed in terials so compactly arranged, as near. 1813, at the expence of L. 3,000,000 ly to defy all farther condensation. Sterling. A wet-dock of the same But whoever wishes to obtain a clear magnitude, communicating with it, and comprehensive view of the recent was then commenced, and is now in history of Botany,--of the compara- progress. The Breakwater in Plytive merits of its improvers, and of mouth Sound is constructed on soundthe schools in which it has been cul- er principles than that of Cherbourg, tivated,-will derive much satisfaction with less machinery, and fewer people. from the perusal of this treatise ;-in Compared in extent and dimensions which, not the least interesting object with that of Cherbourg, it is only in is the author himself,-looking round the ratio of about one to four. This in calm enlightened review on the great national undertaking was first wide field in which he himself has projected in 1806, at the suggestion laboured with such ardour and suc- of Lord St Vincent, but was strangely Cess,-imparting with impartial and neglected till Mr Yorke was called unerring hand to its numerous culti- to preside at the Board of Admiralty. vators their due meed of praise, – The first stone of this great work was correcting their errors,-collecting in laid on the 12th August 1812; and a judicious arrangement the results of on the 31st March 1813, the Breaktheir several exertions, and removing water made its first appearance above every obstruction to the perfection of the surface of the Sound, at low water this elegant science,
of the spring-tide. The total expence The article BREAKWATER, written of this grand undertaking was origiby Mr Barrow, one of the Secretaries nally estimated at L. 1,171,100,the of the Admiralty, contains an intes" total sum expended, up to the 12th resting account of the repeated at. August 1816, was L: 364,000; and teinpts made by the French Govern,,, as the work may be considereri as more ment to render the port of Cherbourg than half completed, 'it will be finisha safe station for ships of the line by ed considerably within the original means of a Breakwater; that is, an estimate. To those who know the insulated dike of stones so placed as to importance of Plymouth harbour, as a obstruct and break the waves of the station for watching the enemáy's fleet sea, and thus to convert a 'dangerous' at Brest, and at the same time its inanchorage into a safe and commodious security as an anchorage for ships of harbour. The result of all these at- the line, from its exposed situation, tempts, which have been carried on at and the heavy swell that almost conan enormous expence, is, that at pre- stantly rolled in, especially when the sent small spots only of that dike are wind blew fresh from the south-west visible above the surface of the sea at to south-east, it must be gratifying to low water of spring-tides, and no- learn, that its good effects have already where do these spots exceed three feet equalled the most sanguine expectain height; the intermediate spaces tions. are froin 3 to 15 feet below the sur- The article BRIDGE exhibits an adface; and, taking the average, the mirable view of the scientific and whole dike, from one end to the other, practical principles on which the struomay be about four feet below the sur- ture of bridges depends. It is divided face of low water at the spring-tides. into the two heads of physico-matheIt is sufficiently high, however, to matical principles, subservient to the