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and profligate in their manners, to were, from the unpleasant circumcome into Scotland, and outrage the stance that occurred in Lolly's case, moral feelings of the people, for the called upon to reconsider the question purrose of regaining freedom. There most deliberately, yet, that, after they are alarming consequences, and which had become acquainted with the opiought to induce the Court to refuse nions of the Court of Review, they to do more than could be done by the appear to us to have persisted too long courts in England.
in their own views, and to have framOn these grounds, the Commissa- ed their judgments with by far too ries refused to sustain their jurisdic- much anxiety and caution. Mr Fertion in several cases ; but the Court gusson's Reports form, indeed, an able of Session, after deliberately review- apology for their conduct; but it does ing their judgment, remitted the cases, not seem to us to be the duty of a with instructions to the Commissaries judge to look to the consequences of to sustain their jurisdiction, and pro- his decisions ; he is merely called ceed in the divorces. The principles upon to declare the law, be the conmaintained by the Court of Session, sequences what they may; for it will in opposition to the views of the be difficult to find any general law Commissaries, seem to have been to the which may not appear to be attended following effect :-Indissolubility is with evil consequences in particular in reality no part of the contract in cases. The question, however, is one an English marriage. The English of great nicety and difficulty ; and we courts give a separation a mensa et beg again to refer those who wish to thoro, and Parliament gives a divorce. study it thoroughly, to the work beThe Parliament acts as a court of fore us, for the publication of which law, deciding in a particular form a Mr Fergusson is well entitled to the particular case. The general rule thanks, both of professional men and therefore applies, that the state of per- of the public at large. sons falls to be determined according to the law of the country where they reside, whether it be permanent or Historical Account of Discoveries and temporary:
The Scotch courts give Travels in Africa, by the late John effect to the law of the place of con- Leyden, M.D. ; enlarged and comtract only in conformity with its pleted to the present time, with I. own law. The doctrine of comitas lustrations of its Geography and Na. does not apply, because, although tural History, as well as of the Moeffect was to be given to the law ral and Social Condition of its Inof the place of contract, it would habitants. By Hugh MURRAY, Esq. fall to be controlled by the subse- F.K.S.E. 8vo. Pf. 512, 536.
Equent offence, which would be judged dinburgh. Constable and Co. 1817. of according to the law of the place where the offence had been committed. An ardent spirit of inquiry after It would be morally injurious to give unknown countries, is one of the cir. effect, in a question of this kind, to the cumstances by which Britain has bien law of the place of contract, because it most honourably distinguished during would be putting it in the power of the present reign. The enterprise of foreigners to live in Scotland, with scientific curiosity, seconded by the impunity, in open profligacy. Be- resources of an enlightened governa sides, this principle of comitas is not ment, has included within the limits of universal application. It does not of geographical knowledge a new portake place in contracts regarding real tion of the globe; and what is of still estates--nor where the parties had in greater importance, has caught from view at the time the law of another its own progress an impulse which kingdom--nor where it would be at- is not likely to cease, while any one tended with injustice-nor where it region of the would remains unknown. would be injurious to the interests of When successive voyages of discovery civil society;
had reduced the fancied Southern Having thus laid before our readers Continent, to which geographers had the opposite arguments of the Inferior fondly assigned the name of Terra and Superior Courts on this great Australis Incognita, to that important question, we have only to add, ihat, group of islands now called Australacithough we think the Commissaries sia, and had detailed the numerous
isles which lie scattered over the bo- . eastern and western shores; and the soms of the Southern and the Pacific Dutch bad regularly colonized the Oceans, the views of scientific men Cape of Good Hope. But these setwere naturally directed towards Afri- tlements had introduced Europeans to ca, where nearly a whole continent a very urifiing distance from the coast, remained to be explored. Hitherto while they seemed to shut up the ina the knowledge of Europeans, with re- terior more closely than ever from gard to that immense continent, ex- European curiosity. By their avarice tended little beyond its coasts. The and oppression, the settlers had exnorthern regions, indeed, were tolera- cited the natural indignation of the bly well known, both from the ample natives against Christians; and the description given of them by Leo Afri- arts of the slave merchant, by increaseanus, early in the sixteenth centu- ing the frequency of their wars,heightry, and from the intercourse to which ened the ferocity of their various tribes, their vicinity invited the southern na- and thus rendered it more dangerous tions of Europe. The Portuguese, who for a white adventurer to appear ahave the glory of being the first mo- mongst them. dern nation that explored its western and eastern shores, had established “ The geography of Africa," says Leye many factories,particularly on the rivers den, “ extended very little within its coasts ; in the west ; and in their attempts lines traced on the margin of the map :
a few positions were ascertained, and a few to penetrate into the interior, they while the interior was a charta rasa, an ex. became acquainted with several king- tended blank of immense size, where every doms and countries, which had never thing was unsettled and uncertain. on before been heard of by any individual this desart space, the geographer, following north of the Mediterranean. On the blindly the steps of Edrisi the Nubian, western coast, the kingdoms of Benin, traced the uncertain course of unexplored Congo, Angolo, Matamba, and Loan rivers, and a few names of towns equally go; on the eastern, Sofala, Mozam- unknown. The course of the Niger, the bique, Quiloa, Mombaza, and Melin- rise and termination, nay, the separate exda, besides the great Empire of Abys- termined. Since De la Brue and Moore,
istence of that stream, were equally unde. sinia, were first made known to Eu- half a century had elapsed, but the Sene. ropeans by the Portuguese, whose mis- gal had not been
explored beyond the falls sionaries, had they been men of intel- of Felu ; nor the Gambia beyond those of higence and science, possessed ample Baraconda.” (First Edition, Chap. I.) opportunities of collecting information concerning the customs, laws, govern- The scanty knowledge which was ment, and religion, of these various obtained of some parts of the interior, kingdoms. The Portuguese monarch bad been derived chiefly from the exhad assumed the additional title of ertions of a few enterprising indiviKing of Guinea ; and the advantages duals who had penetrated in different which he was supposed to derive from directions these generally forbidding bis settlements in Africa, would pro- regious. Caffraria, which had been bably have directed to the same quar- partly traversed by Dr Sparmann beter the spirit of enterprise and activity tween the years 1772-6, and by Mr which then began to prevail in Eu- Paterson 1777-8, was afterwards more rope, had not the doubling of the fully explored by M. Vaillant, who has Cape of Good Hope opened to the described the situation, political state, merchant more alluring prospects in customs, and manners of various naIndia; while the recent discovery of tions, till then unknown to Europeans America presented a new world to the even by name; though the ndulgence cupidity, or curiosity, of the adven- which he seems to give to his fancy turer. The profits arising from the considerably impairs the authenticity detestable traffic in slaves, had in- of his narrative. Nubia and Egypt duced some of the European States to had been visited by Norden, whose form settlements on the western coast picturesque and interesting journey of Africa. The English, French, and was published in 1755; and Bruce, Spaniards had, for this purpose, es- after a long residence in Abyssinia, tablished factories to the north of the published in 1788 his minute but enequator ; from the equator to the tro- tertaining account of the geography, pic of Capricorn, the Portuguese had the government, customs, and man. girdilar establishments, both on the nere, of that singular kingdom.
Such was the state of African geo- sible of the defect, had undertaken a graphy, when a few gentlemen of rank new edition of his work on a more exand learning, considering our igno- tended scale, to embrace the whole rance of that continent as a reproach continent. His departure for India to an age distinguished by the suc- prevented the completion of this decess of its researches in the remotest sign: the task devolved upon Mr Murregions of the world, formed them- ray, by whom the plan has been selves into an Association for promot- still farther extended, so as not only ing the Discovery of the Interior Parts to include the whole of Africa, of Africa. Nothing can be more laud- but to trace the progress of discovery able than the zeal with which they from the earliest ages; and the ability have pursued the grand object of their with which he has accomplished this association ; yet the obstacles to their arduous undertaking leaves the public success are still so numerous and so no room to regret that it has fallen informidable, that, aided though they be to his hands. If Mr Murray's pages do by government, we dare hardly join not glow with the same animated eloMr Murray in the pleasing anticipa- quence as those of his illustrious pretion, " that, in the course of fifteen or decessor, they never fail to please us twenty years, Africa will lose its place by perspicuity of narrative, and elein the list of unknown regions.” At gance of style. If he do not, with the all events, the progress of discovery same kindred enthusiasm, identify in that continent will continue to be himself with the traveller whose ad. an object of peculiar interest to the ventures he is relating, he relates friends of religion and science; and them with at least a warmth of inthe humane exertions in its behalf terest in which his readers very readily which have succeeded to the atroci- sympathize. If his reflections do not ties of the slave-trade, will, we may always indicate the same comprehenventure to hope, rapidly diffuse over sive grasp of mind, they indicate at this hitherto unfortunate portion of the least a judgment clear, correct, and globe the blessings of knowledge and perfectly well-informed. His work is civilization.
a most valuable accession to our gecDr Leyden, entering with the en- graphical knowledge, and, if we may thusiasm of genius and philanthropy decide from the pleasure and informainto the views of this benevolent as- tion which it has imparted to oursociation, undertook to " exhibit the selves, we do not hesitate to pronounce progress of discoveries at this period in it one of the most agreeable and ina North and West Africa, by combining structive collections of adventures and a delineation of the appearance of the discoveries which have, for many country, an account of its native pro- years, becn presented to the public. ductions, a description of the peculiar “ It was his original wish,” Mr manners of the African tribes, with a Murray informs us, to preserve the detail of the adventures of the travel-' portion of the narrative composed by lers by whom these researches were Dr Leyden distinct from the aldiaccomplished.” It was a subject in tions made to it. On considering, which his whole mind and soul were however, the general enlargement engaged ; and for which he was pecu- which, it was necessary to give to the liarly qualified, not merely by the ro- work, it appeared that such a plan mantic turn of his imagination, but would have broken down entirely its by his unwearied patience of research, unity and connection. It seemed of and by a vigour of intellect before more importance to the public, to rewhich every obstacle gave way. His ceive a distinctly arranged view of work, accordingly, soon attracted ge- the subject, than to be able to distinneral admiration, and obtained a guish, at a glance, the contributions of wide circulation, not only in this coun. its respective authors. There appeartry, but over the continent. It was ed a necessity, therefore, for taking translated into German, and is enu, down, as it were, the parts of Dr Leymerated by Eichhorn among the most den's performance, and arranging them valuable materials for the African part anew in the more comprehensive plan of his learned work, entitled “ History which is now adopted! In this Mr of the Three Last Centuries." It was Murray certainly acted judiciously; oúly to be regretted that his plan was at the same time, to gratify the cutoo contracted; and he himself, sen- riosity of his readers, he suhjuins a
list, by which they are enabled to trace inquiry relative to this continent from at once the parts of the work which the earliest ages. To this part of the were composed by Dr Leyden. In work Professor Jameson has contrithe two introductory chapters, Mr buted a general view of the natural Marray traces the progress of disco- history of Africa, the importance of very in Africa from the earliest ages which cannot fail to be generally reto the commencement of maritime en- cognised. To this book, likewise, terprise in molern Europe. In the are attached historical maps, intended first book he follows the progress of to exhibit the general ideas entertainmodern discovery in the interior ; in- ed by geographical inquirers, at these cluding under this head those parts successive periods, of the form and of the coast by which attempts to pe- constituent parts of the African connetrate in ward have been chiefly tinent. The appendix contains transmade,-as Congo, and the banks of lations of some scarce and curious the Senegal, and Gambia. The se passages of the early geographers, recond book exhibits the discoveries in lating to central Africa, which, though the maritime countries, beginning often referred to, are seldom accessiwith Abyssinia, the chief native power, ble to the general reader. For the and making thence the circuit of use of those who may wish to proseAfrica. The third book, which we cute farther their researches regarding consider as peculiarly curious and va- this continent, he has annexed a list luable, is occupied with geographical of the best works which illustrate its illustrations and views of the present geography. Such is the outline of state of Africa. The author judici- Mr Murray's plan ; into its details ously refrains from indulging in con- we would now gladly enter, but as jectures, which the discoveries of a the space which we could afford to few years would probably supersede; them would be altogether inadequate and rather chooses to exhibit, as a to their importance, we must deny branch of the history of science, a ourselves that pleasure till our next view of the progress of speculation and Number.
Supplement to the Encyclopædia Brio, to their constituent parts, their edi
tannica, Vol. II. Part 11. tions, and different degrees of rareThe present half-volume yields to ness, their subjects and classes. The Bone of its predecessors, either in the importance of Bibliography is very importance of its subjects, or the abi- correctly estimated by the author of lity with which they are treated. Even this article. While he renounces the the minor articles of geography and extravagant pretensions of some of biography evince, in general, consider the French Bibliographers, who reable extent of research, and skill in present it as the most extensive and condensation and arrangement, and universal of all the sciences; he shews, the leading articles fulfil, in their exe- by an enumeration of its chief objects, cution, the expectations which the that it embraces many curious as well eminent names annexed to them na- as interesting subjects of inquiry, and turally excited.
is calculated to afford very useful aid The first subject of importance to every other species of intellectual which occurs in this part, is BIBLIO- occupation. The business of the GRAPHY, a branch of knowledge, bibliographer he states to be, to trace which, as the author well observes, the history of books in regard to their would be more correctly designated forms and all other constituents, and, by the word Bibliology. The term consequently, to trace the beginnings originally denoted skill in the perus- and progress of typography; to mark ing and judging of ancient manu- the differences of editions, and to inseripts, but is now appropriated to dicate that edition of every book, the knowledge of books, in reference which is esteemed the most correct.
and valuable; in the case of books office of Transcribers, persons ema published anonymously, or under ployed to copy books before the inven. feigned names, to assign those names, tion of printing, next claims attention, which the discoveries of literary his- and the evils which arose out of their tory may have brought to light; to ignorance and carelessness. Petrarch, collect all remarkable facts attaching who flourished in the fourteenth cen to the history of books, such as the tury, complains of these evils in the number of their editions, their rare- following remarkable terms :-“ How ness, their having been condemned to shall we find a remedy for those mise the flames, or suppressed, and to fure chiefs which the ignorance and inatnish catalogues of the books which tention of the copyists inflict upon us? have appeared in the various branches It is wholly owing to these causes that of knowledge. The plan which he many men of genius keep their most proposes is, to point out the progress valuable pieces unpublished, so that and best sources of information in re- they never see the light. Were Cicero, gard to all those departments of Biblio- Livy, or Pliny, to rise from the dead, graphical knowledge; and in confor-, they would scarcely be able to recoginity with this plan, he divides the nise their own writings. In every subject into the following heads: 1. page they would have occasion to exOf the constituent parts of books, and claim against the ignorance and the the differences of editions ; 2. Of early corruptions of these barbarous tranprinted books; 3. Of rare books; 4. scribers.” On the invention of printof the classics; Of anonymous and ing, these copyists were naturally pseudonymous books; 6. Of condemn- alarmed by an art which threatened ed and prohibited books; 7. Of biblio- to deprive them of employment, and graphical dictionaries and catalogues; they endeavoured to obtain from their 8. Of the classification of books ; 9. Of respective governments the exclusive Bibliography in general. Under these privilege of multiplying copies of heads the author displays an accurate books : but the new art was too eviand extensive acquaintance with his dently beneficial to the interests of lisubject, and communicates much in- terature to be repressed by their ma. formation, particularly with respect to chinations. the books proper to be consulted in The obscurity, which hangs over the various departments of Bibliogra- the inventor of this admirable art, and phy, which cannot fail to be extreme- over the place of its origin, is one of ly useful to those who wish to pursue the most curious facts in the history this curious line of inquiry. In of Bibliography. Numberless distreating of the first head, the author cussions have taken place on this subhas refrained, perhaps too scrupulous- ject, and the public opinion is still unly, from entering into any detail in decided. Were the question to be doregard to the various substances used termined by numbers, the laurel must for writing, before the important art be placed on the brow of Guttenof making paper from_linen rags berg of Mentz; though champions of had been discovered. He has ren- great ability maintain very keenly dered, however, a greater service the pretensions of Lawrence Coster to the student of Bibliography, by of Haerlem. Declining to give an referring him to the most approva opinion in a case of so much uncer. ed works on this branch of the sub- tainty, our author contents himself ject, viz. Horne's Introduction to with referring to the following works Bibliogrophy; Nouveau Traité de in which the question is agitated :Diplomatique, Tom. I.; and Mr Peig- Mallinkrot, De ortu et progressu artis not's Essui sur l'histoire du Parche- Typographica, published in 1640; min, et du Velin, in the introduction to Daunou's Analysis of the various opiwhich is given a complete list of se- nions on this subject, published in the parate works on this subject. He fourth volume of the Memoirs of the next adverts to the different kinds of Moral and Political Class of the French writing peculiar to different ages; and Institute; Monumenta Typographica on this interesting branch of Biblio- of Wolfius; Meerman's Origines Tygraphy, the books which he recommends pographicæ ; Prosper Marchard Hise are the Nouveau Traité mentioned toire de l'origine et des premiers proabove, and, in particular, Astle's Ori- gres de l'Imprimerie ; a Supplement gin and Progress of Writing. The to which was published by Mercier,