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Octopus, The Ph.D., 149
The New Old articles that can still do good, 41,

149, 238, 326, 427

a

Education, Loyalty in, 162 Great Britain, Medical inspection of
Milton's views on, 137

schools in, 87
Money value of, 177

Group in education, The individual
Sex in mind and in (1), 429

versus, 388
The individual versus the group in, GROVE, CHARLES C. Arithmetic, The
388

Courtis standard tests in Boston,
Educational associations and organi- 1914-1915, 442

zations in the United States, 300
debt to Germany, Have we? 361 Harvard-Technology case,

Decision
movements, Modern, 284

in, 158
principle, Field work as a new, 20 Haste and waste in translating Latin,
Émile Durkheim, 449

417
English education bill, The 251 Have we an educational debt to
English lay critics of education, 377 Germany? 361
Examination Board, College Entrance Herrick's (Cheesman A.) History of
175

commerce and industry, 258
High schools, Military training in, 410

HILDERBRANT, Edith L. Military
Federal aid for vocational education,

training in high schools, 410
80

History and public opinion, 181
Field work as new educational

History teacher's patriotic opportun-
principle, 20

ity, The, in
Finances, A Cross section of teachers', Howard, FRANK E. The individual
294

Learning by teaching, 65
Legrand's (Philip E.)

Greek comedy, 73
LENHART, PEARL. A Cross section Operation of the Smith-Hughes Act,

266
of teachers' finances, 294
Libraries, Looting of archives and, Organizations in the United States,

Educational associations and,
178

300
Looting of archives and libraries, 178

Our birthright or a mess of pottage,
Lord Haldane on education, 353

256
Loyalty in education, 162

Outside professional engagements by
Master of Arts at Johns Hopkins, members of professional facul-
The Degree of, 126

ties, 207
Master of Trinity, 269

Oxford doctorate of philosophy, 201
McCONAUGHY, James L. The Wor-
ship of the yardstick, 191

PARSONS, E. DUDLEY. Why teach?
Have we an educational debt to

133
Germany? 361

Patriotic opportunity, The history
McCREA, Roswell C. Herrick's

teacher's, III
(Cheesman A.) History of com-

Patriotism and war, 62
merce and industry, 258
Medical inspection of schools in Pedagogical method, Sociological
Great Britain, 87

principles fundamental to, 91
Mess of pottage, Our birthright or,

PERRY, E. D. Legrand's (Philip E.)

The New Greek comedy, 73
256
Military training in high schools, 410

Ph.D. octopus, The, 149
Milton's views on education, 137

PHILIPS, D. E. A Working man's
Mind and in education, Sex in, 1, 429

university, 228
Modern educational movements, 284

Philosophy in America, 356
Modern languages, Music via, 345

Philosophy, The Oxford doctorate of,
Money, A Plan to save, 262
Money value of education, 177

Plain truths, 270
Moore, FRANK G. Haste and waste

Plan to save money, 262
in translating Latin, 417

POFFENBERGER, A. T. Bronner's
Moskowitz, David H. New de-

(Augusta F.) The Psychology
mands on secondary schools,

of special abilities and dis-

abilities, 71
Motion picture and child develop-

Practise and in theory, Geography
ment, The, 398
Movements, Modern educational, 284

Practise teaching, 264
Music via modern languages, 345

Presumption of brains, The, 238

Professional faculties, Outside pro-
New demands on secondary schools,

fessional engagements by mem-
New York, Superintendent-emeritus Public opinion, History and, 181

201

220

in, 30

220

versus the group in education,
FINNEY, Ross L. Smith's (Walter

388
Robinson.) An Introduction to

educational sociology, 169 Individual versus the group in edu-
FINNEY, Ross L. Sociological prin- cation, The, 388

ciples fundamental to pedagog- Intellectualist, The, 448

ical method, 91
FITZPATRICK, FRANK A. Bennett's JANEWAY, THEODORE C. Outside

(Henry E.) School efficiency, professional engagements by
259

members of professional facul-
Foreign service, Training for, 271

ties, 207
Foundation, The Rockefeller, 83 Johns Hopkins, The degree of Master
France, War and education in, 86

of Arts at, 126
From the German point of view, 254 Junior colleges in California, 117
FULLER, EDWARD H. Educational

associations and organizations KANDEL, I. L. The English Edu-
in the United States, 300

cation Bill, 251
KILPATRICK, WILLIAM Heard.

Thwing's (Charles F.) Edu-
Geography in practise and in theory,

cation according to some modern
30

masters, 166
German point of view, From the, 254
Germany, Have we an educational LANDFIELD, Jerome B. American
debt to? 361

ideals, 75
GiddingS, FRANKLIN H. Branford's Languages, Music via modern, 345

(Benchara) Janus and Vesta, Latin, Haste and waste in trans-
167

lating, 419

PUTNAM, J. H. Modern educational
Notes and News, 80, 175, 262, 353,

movements, 284
448
Notes on New Books, 77, 171, 260, RANDOLPH, L. S. Character and
351, 445

fitness in education, I

bers of, 207

Maxwell, 357

220

Recitation, The, 326

THWING, CHARLES F. Education ac-
Reviews, 71, 166, 258, 349, 442

cording to some modern masters,
Rockefeller Foundation, The, 83

166
RUSSELL, WILLIAM F. Colvin's (S. S.) Training for foreign service, 271

An Introduction to high school Training in high schools, Military, 410
teaching, 349

Translating Latin, Haste and waste

in, 419
SACHS, JULIUS. Junior colleges in Trinity, The Master of, 269
California, 117

Truths, Plain, 270
Schools in Great Britain, Medical Twiss's (George Ransom). A textbook
inspection of, 87

in the principles of science teach-
Schools, New demands on secondary,

ing, 440

United States, Educational associa-
SCHUYLER, ROBERT L. History and

tions and organizations in, 300
public opinion, 181
Secondary schools, New demands on, University, A Working man's, 228

University, Cornell, 177
220
Sex in mind and in education, I, 427

Villari, Death of Professor, 180
SMILEY, CHARLES N. Conservation

Vocational education, Federal aid for,
in education, 11

80
Smith-Hughes Act, Operation of, 266
Smith, KIRBY Flower. The degree War and education in France, 86

of Master of Arts at Johns War, Patriotism and, 62
Hopkins, 126

Waste in translating Latin, Haste
Smith's (Walter Robinson). An In-

and, 419
troduction to educational soci-

WEBB, WILLIAM A. Milton's views
ology, 169

on education, 137
Sociological principles fundamental to Weiss, ALMA JOACHIMSON. Music
pedagogical method, 91

via modern languages, 345
Stupidity in schools, The artificial

WENLEY, R. M. The Oxford doctor-
production of, 41

ate of philosophy, 201
Superintendent-emeritus Maxwell of West, Andrew F. Our birthright
New York, 357

or a mess of pottage, 256
SWIGgETT, Glen Levin. Training What the college stands for, 16
for foreign service, 271 Why teach? 133

WOOFTER, T. J. Chapman (J.
Teach, Why? 133

Crosby) and Rush's (Grace P.)
Teachers' finances, A Cross section

The scientific measurement of

classroom products, 350
Teaching, Learning by, 65

Work (Field) as a new educational
Teaching, Practise, 264

principle, 20
Theory, Geography in practise and Working man's university, A, 228

of, 294

Worship of the yardstick, 191
THWING, CHARLES F. What the
college stands for, 16

Yardstick, Worship of the, 191

in, 30

[graphic]

EDUCATIONAL REVIEW

JANUARY, 1918

I

CHARACTER AND FITNESS IN EDUCATION

Without doubt the greatest development of our time has been the systematic study and promotion of efficient methods, or in other words making a number of blades of grass grow where one grew before.

It is not, therefore, surprizing that so many establishments exist under conditions of which the following is not an exaggerated description:

First. Raw material is received without specification and no more examination than to determine that it is material.

Second. Sixty-five to seventy-five per cent of this raw material is thrown out during the process of manufacture, after having been more or less worked upon or, in the language of the shop, spoiled during the process of manufacture.

Third. Each foreman or head of department, selected with little regard to his capacity for the work in hand, doing what he likes in his own line, having little regard to the character of material, or to the work which others are doing; frequently with no knowledge of the qualities required in the finished product, and often undoing the work of some other department, more frequently duplicating the same.

Fourth. Where the attempt is made to put all of the material into the same form of machine, regardless of the kind of material, be it brass, steel, cast iron, or concrete.

Reprinted by permission from the Bulletin of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education.

Fifth. Where the men who use the finished product usually consider it a failure and generally work it over when they do not kick it out entirely, except in those few cases where the product happens to fit.

Sixth. Where no systematic study is made as to the suitability of the finished product for the work it is intended to do.

One would say that should such a plant be subject to the ordinary laws of business, failure would be a question of time only, and yet the description does not inaccurately portray the conditions which obtain in the average school of engineering, probably to a greater extent in a modern university, and accounts for the all pervading educated misfit.

This condition was tersely described in a recent inaugural address of a university president, as follows:

"It is a sad commentary on the educational institutions of the country that those upon whom are showered their choicest honors are seldom if ever those whom any one would care to resemble.”

When we realize that in the old academic type of education the matter of utility of the subject was not only ignored, but was most studiously avoided (see the toast to pure mathematics), and when we consider that utility is the final test of technical education we begin to see that modern technical education has caused a big step in advance of the culture of the civilized world, and when we take into account the condition of our technical schools as described above, we can understand why it took over 2,000 years from the university at Athens to the university of the present day to do what comparatively little civilizing was done, and when, as someone remarked recently, the growth of civilization in the last forty years has been greater than in the previous 2,000 years, we can appreciate more completely the possibilities of engineering education.

A member of the faculty of one of our universities was heard to boast that his university was founded on the university at Athens. Would we be so far wrong should we feel that the university has not grown much above its foundation? Many of our universities have grown far above such a

[graphic]

foundation, are veritable sky scrapers, but the student is too apt to find that the elevators are not running today. It may

be claimed that the entrance examination on the fourteen-unit basis is a specification, but is it anything more than an indication that the student's mind exists and has had some training? It does not differentiate between brass, pig iron, steel, green timber or seasoned, between a memory mind or a reasoning one, between a self-confident mind or the contrary, between one who can grasp only facts and draw conclusions from a general view of a limited number of them or one who reasons step by step.

Has the student the mentality of a successful civil engineer, electrical, mechanical, executive, selling, or research engineer, or has he that of a lawyer, physician, artist, or what not? Is any attempt made to determine?

How many students start on their college work who are both mentally and temperamentally unfit for the course they are trying? The writer has seen numerous cases where a very cursory examination would have shown that the boy could do better at almost anything else than what he was attempting, and in many a case has sent civil engineers into medicine or law, or mechanical engineers into agriculture or business, or men who were delving hard towards the domain of pure science into executive work, and had them come back afterwards and thank him from the bottom of their hearts.

How often are we attempting to make a silk purse out of a sow's ear, or use a razor wherewith to open oysters?

The writer sent to a warm personal friend, to do rather fine engineering work, a student who afterwards made a success on a small farm and lumber proposition. The friend was polite enough not to express himself audibly, but he would never take any more students on the same recommendation.

With the modern development of psychology and character reading, such blunders are inexcusable, for the students in a technical school can be differentiated according to their mental qualifications with quite a great deal of accuracy, and the mental qualities needed in the different lines can be quite definitely determined.

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