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exacerbated by the fact that the contaminants may be transported from their points of disposal by movement of sea ice, Ocean water, and sediment. Materials that have been introduced into the Arctic Ocean and atmosphere by the former Soviet Union include liquid radioactive waste, fueled and unfueled nuclear reactors from submarines and icebreakers, sealed barrels of solid and mixed radioactive waste, and other nonradioactive hazardous and toxic waste. Other nations have also contributed significant concentrations of contaminants to the Arctic. High trace-metal accumulations, some of which may be natural, are found at many sites in the non-U.S. Arctic. No information has been collected to indicate that critically high levels of trace-metal contamination exist in Alaskan samples. Of particular scientific concern is the fact that study of the movement of sea ice, ocean water, and sediment has been insufficient to make the kind of reliable predictions of the trajectories of pollutants that have been made in other oceans. Another concern is the freezing into sea ice of contaminants disposed of in the shallow seas. Once frozen in sea ice, these contaminants can travel long distances without being diluted. If the contaminated sea ice were to reach the warmer waters of the Chukchi or Bering Sea, the melting and release of the contaminants into the ecosystem could affect marine mammals and fish. Participants in the workshop identified and summarized existing data about arctic contamination and determined that too little credible scientific information exists to perform a detailed risk assessment of the effects of contamination on human health and on the health of the arctic ecosystem. Workshop presentations

If the contaminated sea ice were to reach the warmer waters of the Chukchi or Bering Sea, the melting and release of the contaminants into the ecosystem could affect marine mammals and

fish.

about the extent, magnitude, and timing of marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric contamination in the Arctic were compiled in a special issue of the journal Arctic Research of the United States, edited by the USGS, and published in March 1994.

A primary result of the workshop has been a USGS-led international effort to identify scientific institutions in Europe, Asia, and North America holding existing arctic environmental data and information sets that can be used to develop baseline information about arctic contaminants. Working with the United Nations Environmental Programme's Global Resources Information Database, the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection, and representatives from the arctic rim nations, the USGS has taken the lead role in coordinating the development of an international directory of arctic environmental data.

For more information on Arctic

contamination, contact: Telephone (703) 648–4120 Internet brmolnia(a usgs.gov

Bruce Molnia coordinates international polar and environmental programs for the USGS and was instrumental in organizing the U.S. Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee Workshop

International Agreements and Activities

EXPLANATION Scientific and technical cooperation in earth sciences with the Geological

Countries having international agreements Survey of Finland
with the USGS |

Agreements that began during FY 1993

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Sea PORTUGAL Regional digital seismic studies with C-7 Nthe Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica o CYPRus. - Scientific and technical cooperation ~ / o in earth sciences with the Osservatorio

0 250 MILES Geofisico Sperimentale, Ministry
of Universities and Scientific Research
Cooperation in geological sciences with
0 250 KILOMETERS the Istituto Sperimentale Modellie Strutture

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Cooperation in surveys, mapping, and remote-sensing Scientific and technical activities in international border mapping, and the cooperation in earth accessing of global change data with the Canadian sciences with the Surveys, Mapping, & Remote Sensing Sector of the Icelandic Council of Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources - Science

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Statement of intent regarding cooperation y” in geological sciences with the Geological & 2 Nova Scotia Survey of Canada A Atlantic ExPLANATION Ocean | Countries having international agreements 500 MILES

with the USGS

- Agreements that began during FY 1993 UNITED STATES

500KILOMETERS

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Scientific and technical cooperation in earth and mapping sciences with the Ministry of Energy and Mines

Scientific and technical cooperation in earth and mapping sciences with the Guyana Geology and Mines Commission

BRAZIL

Establishment of global telemetered seismic network station with the University of Brasilia y

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To seismic network station with the Comision Nacional de Desarrollo Regional Integrado del Chaco and the National University of Asuncion

URUGUAY

COLOMBIA

Scientific and o

technical cooperation o

BOLIVIA

in earth and mapping sciences with the Ministry of Energy and Mines

Scientific and technical
cooperation in earth
sciences with the
Ministry of Mines and
Metallurgy

Establishment of
global telemetered
seismic network station
with the Academia
Nacional de Ciencias
de Bolivia/Observatorio
San Calixto

Scientific cooperation
In earth sciences
with the Servicio

Nacional de

Geologia y Mineria

venezuela o

ARGENTINA

0 500 MILES
0 500 KILOMETERS
— -

uwana suPINAME
o FRENCH.GUIANA (FRANCE)

Establishment of global telemetered seismic network
station with the Instituto Nacional de Prevencion Sismica

Statement of intent regarding cooperation in earth sciences with the Secretaria de Mineria

EXPLANATION

Countries having international agreements with the USGS Agreements that began during FY 1993

Establishment of global telemetered

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MEXICO Gulf of Mexico
|- -
__ Cooperation in geothermal and related volcanic
MExICO investigations with the Instituto de Investigaciones
>. Electricas
Technical cooperation in cartography, geographic

information systems, and remote sensing with the

Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Information o a 2.

- | o s Scientific, technical, and policy cooperation - / in the earth and mapping sciences with the y– Ministry of Natural Resources |\ , GUATEMALA s ELSAtvADOR NICARAGUA - Technical cooperation in resources - <\, Lago de Managua management and development . 0 200 MILES with the Organization of American States in Latin America

0 200 KILOMETERS
North Pacific Ocean
EXPLANATION

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Cooperation in the International Decade for Natural
Disaster Reduction with UNESCO (United Nations
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization)

Scientific and technical cooperation

in topographic mapping of portions Establishment and operation of a global resource data
of Antarctica with the Department of base facility with the U.N. Environmental Program and
Lands and Surveys U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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