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oping academic programs on earth-science research. The seminar included hands-on training in the Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and CD-ROM applications.

Another highlight of the year's activities was a 1-week hydrology training class on basic ground-water concepts, the hydrologic cycle, surface-water data collection and computation, and an introduction to the USGS that was presented as part of a 6-week water resources technician training program sponsored by the Bureau of Indian Affairs for Native American youth in Las Cruces, N. Mex. Other examples of interactions with HBCU and HACU Schools in FY 1993 include:

• Langston University, Langston, Okla.: Provided funding to support a guest lecture series on computer-applied hydrology. • Gateway Community College, Phoenix, Ariz.: Provided funding for a new hydrologic technician curriculum that will prepare students for future employment opportunities in field offices in New Mexico and Arizona. • Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, N.C.: Participated in a college career fair and promoted student employment opportunities, participated

in an earth-science lecture series, and worked with faculty members to develop new projects. • Hampton University, Hampton, Va.; Participated in career fairs, continued to promote student employment opportunities, established a computer network on campus, and continued to train students in computer systems maintenance. • Fort Valley State College, Fort Valley, Ga.; Began a consortium relationship with Fort Valley, the University of Nevada-Las Vegas, and the University of Oklahoma in support of minority students who are studying civil engineering and geophysical sciences and hired three students for summer employment. • Lincoln University, Jefferson City, Mo.; Established a memorandum of understanding to provide training to increase the number of qualified candidates available for computer science and information systems positions in the USGS. • Southern University, Baton Rouge, La.: Provided support for minority students through Stay-in-School and other student employment opportunities. The Louisiana field office in Baton Rouge became a “training district" for Southern students, allowing them to complete procurement, training, and travel-related work in the administrative office.

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Budget Information

ooperative agreements with more than 1,000 Federal, State, and local agencies and the academic community sup

port a large share of research and investigations. In fiscal year 1993, the USGS had obligational authority for $862 million, $582.8 million of which came from direct appropriations, $6.7 million from estimated receipts from map sales, and $272.7 million from reimbursements. The USGS was reimbursed for work performed for other Federal, State, and local agencies whose needs for earth-science expertise complement USGS program objectives. Work for State, county, and municipal agencies is most often conducted on a cost-sharing basis.

USGS budget authority for fiscal year 1993, by appropriation, for surveys, investigations, and research (SIR)

[Dollars in thousands]

Fiscal year Fiscal year Activity/Subactivity/Program element 1993 Activity/Subactivity/Program element 1993 enacted enacted National Mapping, Geography, and Surveys......... $126,092 t Water Resources Investigations ........................ $187, 161 National Map and Digital Data Production ......... 49,454 National Water Resources Research and Cartographic Data and Map Revision............. 41,742 Information System—Federal Program........ 117,468 Thematic and Special Data.......................... 5,007 Data Collection and Analysis ....................... 27, 108 National Map and Digital Data Cooperative National Water Information Clearinghouse...... 2,742 Program .......................................... 2,209 Coordination of National Water Data Activities. 997 SLAR (Side-Looking Airborne Radar)............ 496 Regional Aquifer System Analysis................. 6, 175 Information and Data Systems........................ 19,127 Core Program Hydrologic Research............... 10,277 National Data Base Management.................. 7,228 Improved Instrumentation.......................... 1,169 Information Dissemination Services............... 4,469 Water Resources Assessment ....................... 1,589 Global Change Data Systems ....................... 7,430 Toxic Substances Hydrology........................ 14,428 Research and Technology ............................. 18,843 Nuclear Waste Hydrology........................... 1,331 Cartographic and Geographic Research .......... 8,545 Acid Rain .............................................. 2,922 National Cartographic Requirements, Scientific and Technical Publications.............. 2,343 Coordination, and Standards.................. 4,601 National Water-Quality Assessment Program.... 38,260 Geographic and Spatial Information Analysis... 5,697 Global Change Hydrology .......................... 6,707 Advanced Cartographic Systems...................... 38,668 Truckee-Carson Program ........................... 1,420 Geologic and Mineral Resource Surveys and National Water Resources Research and Mapping ............................................... 222,444 Information System—Federal-State Geologic Hazards Surveys ............................. 68,025 Cooperative Program.............................. 63,488 Earthquake Hazards Reduction.................... 50, 146 Data Collection and Analysis, Areal Appraisals, Volcano Hazards...................................... 15,528 and Special Studies.............................. 59,438 Landslide Hazards.................................... 2,351 Water Use.............................................. 4,050 Geologic Framework and Processes.................. 36,626 National Water Resources Research and National Geologic Mapping......................... 21,982 Information System—State Research Institutes Deep Continental Studies ........................... 2,795 and Research Grants Program................... 6,205 Geomagnetism ........................................ 1,823 State Water Resources Research Institutes....... 5,529 Coastal and Wetlands Processes.................... 10,026 Program Administration............................. 676 Global Change Research ............................... 10,873 General Administration .................................. 24,506 Global Change and Climate History............... 10,873 Executive Direction ..................................... 7,494 Offshore Geologic Surveys............................. 26,935 Administrative Operations............................. 14,550 Offshore Geologic Framework ..................... 26,935 Reimbursements to the Department of Labor...... 2,462 Mineral Resource Surveys ............................. 48,282 Facilities............. ‘..... 22,684 National Mineral Resource Assessment National Center—Rental Payments to GSA......... 19,549 Program ............................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26,396 National Center–Facilities Management............ 3,135 Strategic and Critical Minerals ..................... 8,796 Development of Assessment Techniques ......... 13,090 Total, SIR...................................... $582,887 Energy Geologic Surveys............................... 31,703 Evolution of Sedimentary Basins................... 6,422 Coal Investigations ................................... 8,977 Oil and Gas Investigations .......................... 8,015 Oil Shale Investigations.............................. 597 Uranium and Radon Investigations ............... 1,968 Geothermal Investigations .......................... 4,893 World Energy Resource Assessment .............. 831

USGS budget for fiscal years 1990 to 1993 (in obligations), by activity and sources of funds'
[Dollars in thousands; totals may not add because of rounding

Budget activity 1990 1991 1992 1993

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - $723,137 $802,538 $851,979 862,335 Direct program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501,510 575,044 586,699 *582,891 Reimbursable program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221,628 227,494 265,280 279,444 States, counties, and municipalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74,113 87,415 89,950 91.299 Miscellaneous non-Federal sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 151 13,499 14,609 14.842 Other Federal agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132,363 126,580 160,721 173,305 National Mapping, Geography, and Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141,069 162,421 164,981 156,898 Direct program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ll 1,528 132,395 132,612 126,092 Reimbursable program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29,542 30,026 32,369 30,806 States, counties, and municipalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,132 2,366 3.028 3,219 Miscellaneous non-Federal sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,278 9,722 10,633 10,562 Other Federal agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,131 17,938 18,708 17,025 Geologic and Mineral Resource Surveys and Mapping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241,739 261,513 267,642 261,089 Direct program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200,472 225, 112 225,383 222.565 Reimbursable program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41,267 36,401 42,259 38,524 States, counties, and municipalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,917 2,661 3,077 1,609 Miscellaneous non-Federal sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,022 1,260 536 834 Other Federal agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37,328 32,480 38,646 36,081 Water Resources Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - 295,128 333,238 363,287 384,467 Direct program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152,904 177,969 184,489 186,933 Reimbursable program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142,224 155,269 178,798 197.534 States, counties, and municipalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70,064 82,388 83,845 86,471 Miscellaneous non-Federal sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,839 2,503 3,424 3,440 Other Federal agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69,321 70,378 91,529 107,623 General Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21,493 21,528 25,028 25,886 Direct program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,081 21,206 23,883 24,506 Reimbursable program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,412 322 1,145 1,380 Miscellaneous non-Federal sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l 1 l l Other Federal agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,411 321 l, 144 1,379 Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18,502 18,314 20,304 23,111 Direct program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,502 18,314 20,304 22,750 Reimbursable program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 () 0 361 Computer and Administrative Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - 5, 183 5,476 10,709 10,839 Reimbursable program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 183 5,476 10,709 10,839 Miscellaneous non-Federal sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 13 15 5 Other Federal agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,172 5,463 10,694 10,834 Operation and Maintenance of Quarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - 23 48 28 45 Direct program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 48 28 45

'Total direct program includes actual obligations of $579,337 for FY 1993 year, $112 for no year, $3,386 for multiyear Emergency supplementals for hurricanes and floods, and $10 for Contributed funds.

USGS reimbursable funds from other Federal agencies for fiscal years 1990 to 1993, by agency
[Dollars in thousands; figures in parentheses are included in Department of the Interior totals]

Budget activity 1990 1991 1992 1993

Department of Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 3,379 $ 3,464 $ 3,714 $ 2,697 Department of Commerce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 l 323 9 103 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,448 2,258 5, 146 1,630 Department of Defense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41,257 42,002 56,461 64,518 Department of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29,574 28,521 30,679 33,651 Bonneville Power Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 159 217 445 Department of the Interior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12,728 12,533 12,451 12,090 Bureau of Indian Affairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2,018) (1,834) (1,347) (881) Bureau of Land Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1,239) (1,256) (1,508) (1,797) Bureau of Mines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (24) (0) (0) (0) Bureau of Reclamation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (6,119) (6,259) (5,990) (6,495) Minerals Management Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (32) (76) (207) (107) National Park Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (883) (1,036) (1,107) (1,111) Office of the Secretary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1,343) (1,549) (1,551) (1.298) Office of Surface Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (106) (67) (8) (22) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (964) (456) (733) (379) Department of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 144 8,279 10,524 13,333 Department of Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 299 661 605 Environmental Protection Agency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,279 4,302 6,414 7,671 National Aeronautics and Space Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,607 6,270 9,589 10, 108 National Science Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,328 625 1,838 2.096 Nuclear Regulatory Commission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,917 1,441 539 1,087 Tennessee Valley Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 200 275 417 Miscellaneous Federal agencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19,484 15,904 22,204 22,852 Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $132,363 $126,580 $160,721 $173,303

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Mineral Resources
To obtain information on mineral resources,

write or visit:

Minerals Information Office.*

Main Interior Bldg., Room 2647

1849 C St., NW.

Washington, DC 20240

*Joint venture of the USGS and the U.S.

Bureau of Mines.

Minerals Information Office, USGS
Corbett Blag.

340 N. 6th Ave.
Tucson, AZ 85705–8325

Minerals Information Office, USGS
Box 25046, Mail Stop 936
Bldg. 20, Room B1324
Denver Federal Center
Denver, CO 80225–0046

Minerals Information Office, USGS
c/o Mackay School of Mines
University of Nevada, Reno
Reno, NV 895.57–0047

Minerals Information Office, USGS
Post Office Bldg., Room 133
W. 904 Riverside Ave.
Spokane, WA 99.201–1087

Maps and Books

To buy topographic and thematic maps of all areas of the United States, to request USGS catalogs, pamphlets, leaflets, and circulars (limited quantities free), and to buy USGS book publications, write or visit: USGS Map Distribution Box 25286, Bldg. 810 Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 802.25

Open-File Reports

To buy USGS open-file reports or to obtain information on the availability of microfiche or paper-duplicate copies of open-file reports, write: USGS Open-File Report Sales Box 25286, Bldg. 810 Denver Federal Center, Mail Stop 517 Denver, CO 802.25

Periodicals
New Publications

To get on the mailing list for the monthly list of New Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey (free), write:

USGS New Publications
582 National Center
Reston, VA 2.2092

Earthquakes & Volcanoes
To subscribe to Earthquakes & Volcanoes, a

bimonthly, nontechnical digest that provides

up-to-date information on earthquakes, volcanoes,

and related natural hazards around the world,

write:

Superintendent of Documents

Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20402

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