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Machinery does almost everything and man comes in only to supplement the steam-engine.
The public school has now to adjust itself to the feelings and wants of society. If in time past children were sent to school that they might become scholars and so escape the drudgery of manual labor, they should now be made to understand that they go to school to learn to be more efficient workmen. The public school is the school of the many, though its doors are hospitably open also to the few. The many must live by labor, and the school must help them so to live. No longer must the primary school be looked on merely as the vestibule to the high school, which in its turn is but the antechamber of the college; but the public school in all its departments must be regarded as the turnpike road from which the travellers step at once into the farm or the workshop. No doubt some will win their way to college, some will take high stools in the counting-house, and some, alas! will drop down in the nearest ditch as unskilled laborers. These are exceptions or accidents. “The greatest possible good to the greatest possible number” demands that all the sympathies of the school shall be on the side of intelligent and artistic manual labor.
Further, and finally, the public-school system cannot be regarded as complete, till to its departments of language, mathematics, science, &c., there is added another, to which these are but the stepping-stones, -a department of manual labor.
Few will deny this in theory; fewer still would be willing to carry it into practice. The State undertakes to educate the children of the people in order that they may become good citizens. But they cannot be good citizens unless they are useful citizens, and they cannot be useful citizens unless they have learned to work; therefore the State should teach them to do something as well as to know something. “Granted, but,” we are told, “the thing is impracticable. The State cannot teach farming, and carpentering, and shoemaking." So ocean steamship navigation was pronounced impracticable forty years ago; so the sewing-machine was impracticable thirty odd years ago; so the Atlantic telegraph was impracticable twenty years ago; so ten years ago it was pronounced impracticable in England to give a primary education to all the children of the poor.
But all these things are now accomplished facts. The word “impracticable" is in the Dictionary still, but its definition has been changed. It now means difficult and costly. That is all.
But, says an objector, it is the business of the parent and not of the State to give a child a trade. Herbert Spencer goes farther and says it is the business of the parent to educate the child, and the State has rightly nothing to do with education. Where are you going to draw the line? The State
may teach the art of writing, but not of printing; the art of drawing, but not of wood-cutting; the art of composition, but not of book-binding.
Put it into plain English and say the State must not venture to teach any thing by which a young man can make a living; yet, even here you would be inconsistent unless book-keeping (hy which many graduates of our public schools do make a living) were stricken from the curriculum.
There is no escaping from the argument that if the State for her own protection is bound to interfere to prevent children from growing up in ignorance, she is equally bound to prevent them from growing up in idleness. If parental duties and obligations are insufficient to meet the one case they are equally insufficient to meet the other.
Here is a lad just from the primary school; he can read and spell and write his name, and make some simple calculations; his parents are poor, he must leave school and go to work ; he can't find a place as an apprentice, the unions have prevented that; he looks for odd jobs; he finds one now and then; he must be constantly on the lookout, constantly on the street; he becomes a loafer; he falls into crime; he is arrested, tried, convicted, once, twice, three times; finally he is sent to the penitentiary. And then when he has cost the State more than would have kept him at school four years longer, when his conscience is seared, his bad habits confirmed into a second nature, his self-respect gone, his character ruined, what do we propose to do for him ? Why just what we should have done at first, we teach him a trade so that when he leaves the prison he may have the means of making an honest living.
Do I think it possible to attach workshops to our public schools? Certainly not. But I do think it possible to have public workshops where boys can learn trades as well as public schools where they can learn letters. And just as we transfer the few from the State school to the State college where they learn to be thinkers, I would transfer the many from the city school to the city workshop where they would learn to be workers.
If this were thought to be too much for a first step, it would certainly be possible to arrange under the sanction of the State and the general direction of the public-school authorities a system of apprenticeships by which the privilege of learning some form of industrial occupation should be secured to all who need it, while at the same time the incomplete literary education of the learner should be carried on as far as might be necessary
and proper. It was not my intention to enter into any greater detail than would suffice to make my meaning clear. It is evident to all that the whole question of industrial education, the establishment of technical schools and schools of art, is involved in the principles laid down. leave the whole subject to the Association for discussion.
On motion of E. S. JOYNES, of Vanderbilt University, the question of arranging a special hour for the discussion of the Relation of Education and Labor was referred to a Programme Committe to report at 8 P. M.
Mr. JOYNEs was appointed chairman of the committee.
Hon. H. A. M. HENDERSON, in the name of the Louisville Teachers' Association, invited the National Association to an Excursion on the Ohio, River, Thursday night. The Secretary, W. D. HENKLE, read the following invitations :
LOUISVILLE, KY., August 13, 1877. To the Secretary of the National Educational Association :
In behalf of the Trustees of the Kentucky Institution for Educating the Blind, I tender to the members of the National Educational Association a cordial invitation to visit the Institution in this city. I feel very confident that the members will survey with much interest the excellent appliances in the School for teaching the Blind. In this respect the Kentucky Institution is unsurpassed anywhere.
In addition to these Educational appliances they will have an opportunity of examining the various operations for printing for the blind, and among these will be found some of the most ingenious devices that have ever been invented for the purpose. I trust that some of the members may drop us hints by which we may increase our means of instruction.
THEODORE S. BELL, President of the Board of Trustees of the Kentucky School for the Blind.
On motion of John HANCOCK, of Ohio, the thanks of the Association were tendered to the authorities of the Kentucky Blind Asylum for this courteous invitation to visit that Institution.
LOUISVILLE, KY., August 14, 1877. To the Members of the National Education Association :
You are cordially invited to visit Cave-Hill Cemetery, and those desiring to do so can obtain complimentary tickets of admission of Dr. H. A. M. HENDERSON, Superintendent of Public Instruction.
J. H. M. MORRIS, Secretary. M. A. NewELL, President, &c.
The Secretary, after reading this invitation, said the Cemetery was one of the finest in the whole country.
On motion of W. F. PHELPS, of Wisconsin, the thanks of the Association were tendered for this invitation.
LOUISVILLE, KY., August 14, 1877. M. A. Newell, Esq., President National Education Association.—Dear Sir:
Permit me to extend to the officers and members of the Association an invitation to visit, at their convenience, the Masonic Widows and Orphans' Home of Kentucky. Its doors will be open to you at any time during your stay in the city.
CHARLES TILDEN, Vice-President. The Secretary then read the following letter to Major WM. J. Davis and enclosed circular relating to expenses of an excursion to Mammoth Cave:
MAMMOTH Cave Hotel, WM. MILLER, Proprietor, Aug. 11, 1877. William J. Davis.-DEAR SIR:
Yours of the 9th received. I reply that our terms for your party will be $3,00 per day board, and $2,00 per short route, and $3,00 per long route, with 33 per cent reduction on the above. Enclosed I send you our circular which will show you our excursion rates, and will give railroad and stage fare. I would like to know before your arrival how many and when they will come. The owners have stopped me from giving half-fare to any but ministers of the Gospel.
WM. S. MILLER.
Louisville & Nashville
South of North Alabama Railroads.
Office General Passenger and Ticket Agent.
Louisville, Ky., May 25, 1877.
That all our Connecting Lines may be fully informed as to Rates and Time to Mammoth Cave, we rise to explain.
Rates from Louisville, for round-trip tickets:
5 50 Time from Louisville to Cave City three and one-half hours, and from Cave City to the Cave, distance eight and a half miles, good Concord coaches, about two hours. Board at Cave Hotel $3,00 per day. Cave fees, short route $2,00, longe route $3,00. A reduction from hotel bills and cave fees, of 25 per cent is made on parties of ten or more. No reduction for a less number than ten.
Tickets sold at Louisville are arranged to allow members of a party to return separately.
C. P. ATMORE,
Gen'l Pass. and Ticket Agent.. WM. S. MILLER,
For Mammoth Cave Co.
LOUISVILLE, KY., August 14, 1877. To the Members of the National Educational Association.—GENTLEMEN :
You are cordially invited to visit the rooms of The Health Lift, at Library Building, Fourth Avenue.
E. C. MILES, Manager. The thanks of the Association were in each case returned.
DR. GEORGE A. Chase announced that the rooms of the Female High School will be open to members during their stay in the city.
A motion by the Hon. J. P. WICKERSHAM, of Pennsylvania, was carried, that a committee of one from each State and Territory represented, be appointed to nominate officers to serve the Association during the ensuing year.
It was moved by Prof. Wm. F. PHELPs, that a committee of five on the National Bureau of Education be appointed by the chair with instructions to report what measures, if any, are necessary for the extension of the powers and the more efficient discharge of the duties of that important agency; such committee to report before the final adjournment of the Association. Adopted.
J. Ormond Wilson, of Washington, D. C, offered the following resolution which was referred to the committee on National Bureau of Education.
WHEREAS, Museums for illustrating the condition of education and the most useful and approved appliances for its promotion have been established in other countries, and experience has shown them to be of great utility, and
WHEREAS, The United States Bureau of Education has secured from the Centennial Exhibition, and now has in its possession, a large collection of valuable material gathered from our own and foreign countries, but is provided with neither a place in which the articles can be properly arranged and exhibited, nor funds to pay for the services required for this purpose, therefore be it
Resolved, That a Select Committee, to consist of five members of this Association, be appointed by the President to consider the expediency of establishing at Washington, and in connection with, and in charge of the Bureau of Education, a National Educational Museum, and that said committee be instructed to report to the present meeting.
The President appointed the following Committee on National Bureau of Education and Museum :-WM. F. PHELP3, of Wis.; J. P. WICKERSHAM, of Pa.; Join Hancock, of Ohio; J. ORMOND Wilson, of D. C.; and S. H. WHITE, of Ill.
A. S. LOVENTHAL offered the following, which was adopted :
Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to organize the excursion to Mammoth Cave.
The Secretary then read the Treasurer's Report, which will be found near the close of this volume.
The Association adjourned until 8 o'clock, P. M.
EVENING SESSION. The Association was called to order at 8 o'clock, and was entertained with a violin solo, Meditation, by Prof. Green Anderson.
Committees were announced as follows:
Committee of Arrangement for Excursion to Mammoth Cave :- A. S. Lor. ENTHAL, Washington Co., Ky.; W. H. BARTHOLOMEW, Louisville, Ky.; Miss SUMMERS, Louisville, Ky.