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620

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φεύγουσαι πίπτωσιν ἐς ἠεροειδέα πόντον, δὴ τότε παντοίων ἀνέμων θύουσιν ἀῆται· καὶ τότε μηκέτι νῆας ἔχειν ἐνὶ οἴνοπι πόντῳ, [γὴν δ ̓ ἐργάζεσθαι μεμνημένος, ὥς σε κελεύω.] νῆα δ ̓ ἐπ ̓ ἠπείρου ἐρύσαι, πυκάσαι τε λίθοισι πάντοθεν, ὄφρ ̓ ἴσχωσ ̓ ἀνέμων μένος ὑγρὸν ἀέντων, 625 χείμαρον ἐξερύσας, ἵνα μὴ πύθῃ Διὸς ὄμβρος. ὅπλα δ ̓ ἐπάρμενα πάντα τεῷ ἐνικάτθεο οἴκῳ,

620. ηεροειδέα 621. ἀῆται 622. οίνοπι

625. ἀέντων

626. ἐκθερύσας

621. θύουσιν γρ. θύνουσιν Α. 626. χείμαρρον G. ἐνικάτθεο DEFHI.

DGI.
BCGK.

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624. Γερύσαι

627. Γοίκῳ

622. ἐπὶ οἴνοπι ΕΓ. 627. ὅπλα τ' BCDGH. ἐγκατάθεο Α.

as the end of the sailing season, see sup.
ν. 383.
Goettling here has a good
note:-"Magna pars Graecorum cum
Boeotis stellarum imagines venationem
Orionis, magni Graecorum Nimrodi, ita
repraesentare putabant, ut Orio cum
Sirio cane ἄρκτον, πελειάδας, (πληϊάδας,
columbas,) δάδας, (suculas,) πτωκάδα
cet. persequeretur. Hinc illud φεύγουσαι
Ωρίωνα. Iones vero plaustri (ἁμάξης)
imaginem cum bubulco Boote in iisdem
siderum sedibus videre sibi videbantur."
Virgil has a similar figure of Canis re-
treating before the advance of Taurus,
Georg. i. 217.

621. θύουσιν, ‘rush forth, σφοδρῶς κινοῦνται, Moschop., gl. Cod. Gale πνέουσιν, ὁρμῶνται. Photius, θύειν· τὸ ὁρμᾶν. In Scut. Η. 156 and elsewhere θυνέω is used.

623. Goettling thinks this verse spurious, and with some reason. The digamma in ἐργάζεσθαι is violated by the addition of dè, though this might be omitted if yn is pronounced with emphasis, as contrasted with πόντῳ. The old commentators recognise it; but Tzetzes seems to place it after v. 628. Van Lennep objects that vña could not so closely follow νῆας.

624. πυκάσαι λίθοισι. Make a breakwater of stones to keep off the force of the waves. By ἀνέμων μένος he means generally the effects of wind (the rainbringing wind, Nótos) in making the

625. ἀόντων ἐνὶ κάτθεο

waves lash the shore. Tzetzes, μή πως ὁ σάλος αὐτὴν ἀναρπάξῃ. Goettling seems to think the λίθοι here are the same as the large stones used as anchors, and called evval and ëpμara in the Homeric poems, accordingly as they served to moor the ship at sea or prop it upright on shore. But πυκάσαι and παντόθεν clearly imply a number of stones collected and packed round the ship. A somewhat similar expedient saved a great ship for the whole winter, when stranded some years ago on the Irish coast. Homer appears to refer to this practice in Il. xiv. 410, χερμαδίῳ, τὰ ῥα πολλὰ, θοάων ἔχματα νηῶν, πὰρ ποσὶ μαρναμένων ἐκυλίνδετο, · στῆθος βεβλήκει. Which passage further proves that the stones were of no great magnitude.

626. χείμαρον, the plug; ὁ ὑπὸ τὴν τρόπιν πάσσαλος, οὗ ἐξαιρουμένου, ὅταν ὕσῃ, τὸ ὕδωρ προχωρεῖ, Proclus. This is still done in ships' boats suspended on the davits. Hence the term χείμαρος = χειμάρρους, from the torrent of water that gushed through the hole.—πύθῃ, ήγουν σήπῃ, Mosch.

627. ὅπλα, the tackle ; πάντα ὧν δεῖται ἡ ναῦς, τὸν ἱστὸν, τὰ ἱστία, τὰς διφθέρας, τοὺς κάλους, τὰ πηδάλια, Proclus. It was the custom to remove these from the stranded ship, and deposit them in the house of the owner during the winter. They were brought into the

630

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εὐκόσμως στολίσας νηὸς πτερὰ ποντοπόροιο· πηδάλιον δ ̓ εὐεργὲς ὑπὲρ καπνοῦ κρεμάσασθαι. αὐτὸς δ ̓ ὡραῖον μίμνειν πλόον, εἰσόκεν ἔλθῃ· καὶ τότε νῆα θοὴν ἅλαδ ̓ ἑλκέμεν, ἐν δέ τε φόρτον ἄρμενον ἐντύνασθαι, ἵν ̓ οἴκαδε κέρδος ἄρηαι, ὥσπερ ἐμός τε πατὴρ καὶ σὸς, μέγα νήπιε Πέρση, πλωΐζεσκ ̓ ἐν νηυσὶ βίου κεχρημένος ἐσθλοῦ· ὅς ποτε καὶ τῇδ ̓ ἦλθε πολὺν διὰ πόντον ἀνύσσας, 635 Κύμην Αἰολίδα προλιπὼν, ἐν νηῒ μελαίνῃ·

629. εὐξεργὲς 632. ἐντύνασθ', ἵνα οίκαδε ?

629. δ' om. C. 633. ἐμὸς πατήρ τε Η. and & by correction. ACG.

630. μίμνειν καιρὸν Α. 632. ἐντείνασθαι G. ἐμὸς πατὴρ καὶ Ι. 634. πλωίζεσκ' ἐν AD, πλωίζεσκε νηυσὶ ΙΚ, Ald. 635. ἀνύσας

vessel again when required for service. Hence Od. xi. 3, ἐν δ ̓ ἱστὸν τιθέμεσθα καὶ ἱστία νηὶ μελαίνῃ.—ἐπάρμενα, packed, fitted together, or placed one above the other. Compare sup. v. 601.-στολίσας πτερα, folding up the sails. To furl the sail was στέλλειν, the folds or tucks were στολμοὶ (Aesch. Suppl. 695) or στολίδες, the latter term, like συστολίσαι and ἐστολισμένος, being used by Euripides for the tucks of garments, Bacch. 936. Hel. 1359.

629. ὑπὲρ καπνοῦ. Sup. v. 45, αἶψά κε πηδάλιον μὲν ὑπὲρ καπνοῦ καταθεῖο. Ar. Ach. 279, ἡ δ ̓ ἀσπὶς ἐν τῷ φεψάλῳ κρεμή

σεται.

632. ἄρμενον, κ.τ.λ., have a proper and suitable cargo packed into it. We must read (on account of the digamma) either ἐντύνασθ', ἵνα κ.τ.λ., οι εντύνειν, ἵνα.—The meaning is, that by overloading the ship from desire of great gains, you may lose everything. Hence it is not improbable that v. 643-5, which Lehrs perceived to be out of place as they now stand, should follow next. This would greatly improve the sense of v. 646, as directly following v. 642, especially if we read εἴ κεν ἐπ' ἐμπορίην κ.τ.λ. ; and ὥσπερ ἐμός τε πατὴρ κ.τ.λ. would very well mean, "This is just what our father did when he took to the sea,' &c. The whole passage about a moderate freight might

thus be compared with Aesch. Αg. 978, τὸ μὲν πρὸ χρημάτων κτησίων ὄκνος βαλὼν σφενδόνας ἀπ ̓ εὐμέτρου, οὐκ ἔδυ πρόπας δόμος πημονᾶς γέμων ἄγαν, οὐδ ̓ ἐπόντισε σκάφος.— οἴκαδε ἄρηαι, gain profit for the voyage home. Compare ν. 611, ἀπόδρεπε οἴκαδε βότρυς.

633-42. Goettling contends that these verses were added by some one who wished to make out that Hesiod himself was born in Boeotia, and not at Cyme in Aeolis, as some later accounts stated. K. O. Müller (Gr. Lit. p. 80) says, "There is no reason to doubt the testimony of the author, that his father came from Cyme in Aeolis to Ascra. The motive which brought him thither was doubtless the recollection of the ancient affinity between the Aeolic settlers and this race of the mother country.” The verses certainly have the impress of genuineness. The strongly expressed disparagement of the soil and climate of Ascra indicates a mind longing for a return to his mother country, a land so much more congenial to poetry. He may also have been embittered against it by his experience of injustice in the local tribunals.

635. τῇδ ̓ ἦλθε, came to this country; for it was at Orchomenus that the poet is believed to have resided, because after his death the people of that town

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οὐκ ἄφενος φεύγων οὐδὲ πλοῦτόν τε καὶ ὄλβον, ἀλλὰ κακὴν πενίην, τὴν Ζεὺς ἄνδρεσσι δίδωσι. νάσσατο δ' ἄγχ ̓ Ἑλικῶνος ὀϊζυρῇ ἐνὶ κώμῃ, *Ασκρῃ, χείμα κακῇ, θέρει ἀργαλέῃ, οὐδέ ποτ ̓ ἐσθλῇ. 640 Τύνη δ ̓, ὦ Πέρση, ἔργων μεμνημένος εἶναι ὡραίων πάντων, περὶ ναυτιλίης δὲ μάλιστα. νῆ ὀλίγην αἰνεῖν, μεγάλῃ δ ̓ ἐνὶ φορτία θέσθαι, μείζων μὲν φόρτος, μεῖζον δ ̓ ἐπὶ κέρδεϊ κέρδος ἔσσεται, εἴ κ' ἄνεμοί γε κακὰς ἀπέχωσιν ἀήτας,— 645

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641. Γέργων

645. ἀρήτας

637. ἄφενον GI. τε om. G. 640. θέρει δ' Κ, Ald. οὔποτ ̓ ἐσθλῇ Α.

are said to have removed thither his relics. Proclus says, the father of Hesiod was reputed to be fifty years old when he came to Boeotia. If so, the poet may have been born long before, and have retained vivid recollections of Asia Minor. This will account for the fact, that in Theogon. 338 seqq., he enumerates many more Asiatic than European rivers.

637. άφενος. See on v. 24. Theog. 112. The meaning is, that if he had possessed a farm there he would not have left it. Perhaps there is an ironical allusion to the wealth and prosperity so often promised to emigrants; or the poet may mean that his father came to Aeolis not as an exile, but as an adventurer. We need not suppose, with the scholiast, that the poet here used three mere synonyms: ὄλβος is ‘prosperity, of which πλοῦτος, riches, is only a part, and ἄφενος, 'landed property,' or produce from it, is only an accident.

639. νάσσατο, see v. 168. Hesych. κατῴκησεν, ἔθλιψεν (ἔτριψεν). — ὀϊζυρῇ, 'beggarly,'' comfortless," wretched.'ἀργαλέῃ, a synizesis, as in χρύσεος, κυάνεος, &c. This is better than to suppose a crasis of n with où. For the character here given to Ascra, compare Ovid, Epist. ex Pont. iv. 31, 32 : Esset perpetuo sua quam vitabilis Ascra, Ausa

638. πενίαν CI. δίδωσιν G. 643. ἐν φορτία BCGHI.

est agricolae Musa docere senis.'-For οὐδέποτ' there seems to have been an ancient (and perhaps better) reading οὔποτε δ'. This accounts for οὔποτ ̓ ἐσθε λῇ of Cod. Gale, and θέρει δ ̓ ἀργαλέῃ of the Corp. Christ. MS.

641. τύνη, sup. v. 10.—μάλιστα, viz. because more risks and greater losses attend the sailing out of season than the farming out of season. Cf. 621. The sense then is, Whatever you do, choose the right time of doing it, but especially in sailing.'

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643-5. On the probable disarrangement of these verses in their present place, see v. 632.—aiveîv, decline, have nothing to do with, a small ship. Properly, say what you please in favour of it, but don't make use of it.' More commonly ἐπαινεῖν is used in this sense. The scholiasts explain it by χαίρειν ἐᾶν and παραιτεῖσθαι. Το Virgil uses laudare (inverting however the relations of size), Georg. ii. 412; laudato ingentia rura, Exiguum colito.' Aratus, Phaen. 153, ὁ δὲ πλόος οὐκέτι κώπαις ὥριος· εὐρεῖαι μοι ἀρέσκοιεν τότε νῆες, where the Schol. compares the present passage.

644. ἐπὶ κέρδεϊ, Moschop., ἐπὶ τῷ καὶ ἐν ἀσφαλεστέρῳ εἶναι. So Aesch. Theb. 432, καὶ τῷδε κέρδει κέρδος ἄλλο τίκτεται, viz. πρὸς τῷ ὑπέρφρον σῆμα ἔχειν, καὶ τὸ ὑπέρφρονα γλώσσῃ κομπάζειν.

εὖτ ̓ ἂν ἐπ' ἐμπορίην τρέψῃς ἀεσίφρονα θυμὸν, βούληαι δὲ χρέα τε προφυγεῖν καὶ ἀτερπέα λιμόν. (645) δείξω δή του μέτρα πολυφλοίσβοιο θαλάσσης, οὔτε τι ναυτιλίης σεσοφισμένος οὔτε τι νηῶν. οὐ γὰρ πώποτε νηΐ γ ̓ ἐπέπλων εὐρέα πόντον, εἰ μὴ εἰς Εὔβοιαν ἀπ ̓ Αὐλίδος, ᾗ ποτ' Αχαιοί μείναντες χειμῶνα πολὺν σὺν λαὸν ἄγειραν Ἑλλάδος ἐξ ἱερῆς Τροίην ἐς καλλιγύναικα.

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650

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646-75. om. I, from loss of a leaf. τρέψας K, and edd. vett. 647. βουλέαι δὲ χρέα τε προφυγεῖν καὶ λιμὸν ἀτερπῆ A, Ald. (with βούληαι). χρέα τε φυγεῖν καὶ ἀτερπέα λιμὸν BC. χρέα τε προφυγεῖν καὶ ἀτερπῆ λιμὸν ΕF. βούληαι δὴ χρέα τε φυγεῖν καὶ ἀτερπέα λιμὸν DG (with δέ). 648. δείξω δέ Κ. 649. σεσοφισμένος Α, (corrected το σεσοφιμένος, but the erased o restored by a later hand. 651. εἰσ εὔοιαν Α. εἰς ΕF, Ald. ἐξ Αὐλίδος the MSS.

646. It seems best to place a comma after θέσθαι and ἀήτας, and a full stop at λιμόν. The meaning is thus connected: Put your goods in a large ship (for the profit will be greater, if you can but escape storms) when you turn your mind to trade, and desire to avoid debts. I will show you then the distances to the different marts, though no great sailor myself. Perhaps μείζων γὰρ φόρτος was the old reading, μὲν being superscribed on account of μεῖζον δὲ following. Schoemann places a full stop after θέσθαι and ἀήτας, and reads εἰ δ ̓ ἂν ἐπ ̓ ἐμπορίην κ.τ.λ., as the protasis to δείξω δή. But the sentiment, 'or, if you turn your mind to commerce,' &c., should have been preceded by some advice different from Tep ναυτιλίης δὲ μάλιστα in 642.

647. The reading of some good MSS. χρέα τε φυγείν, arose from not perceiving that βούληαι was a dissyllable by synizesis. Gaisford and Van Lennep edit τρέψας—βούληαι χρέα τε προφυγείν κ.τ.λ., omitting the δὲ on conjecture. If a full stop is placed after antas, and a comma after λιμὸν (or ἀτερπῆ), we must make dei w dǹ the apodosis; when you are disposed to become a merchant, then I will show you,' &c. So also Proclus and Tzetzes understand the context; the comment of Moschopulus

is obscure, and perhaps corrupt. But what a sentiment is this, especially when the poet adds, though I know little about sailing, and have never made a voyage.' Besides, as remarked on v. 635, it is probable that Hesiod and Perses came with their father from Cyme. Goettling regards the whole passage from v. 646 to v. 662 as spurious. His reasons are, that Plutarch ap. Procl.) did not recognise as genuine the verses on the tripod, 654-62; Pausanias, ix. 31, 3, speaks of Hesiod having gained a tripod at Chalcis, not as related by himself, but merely as the tradition of the place; and lastly, that v. 650 seems contradicted by 683, in which he thinks he finds an indication that Hesiod was an experienced sailor.

651. ἀπ' for ἐξ seems a necessary metrical correction. Otherwise Εὐβοίαν or Εὔβοιάν γ' must be read. Perhaps, εἰ μή γ ̓ εἰς Εὔβοιαν. The sense is,‘I never sailed on the wide sea, though I did once sail across the narrow channel to Euboea.

652. μείναντες χειμῶνα, awaiting the cessation of the adverse winds. Or perhaps, staying there during the stormy weather.'

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653. καλλιγύναικα occurs in Il. ii. 683 and xi. 770 as an epithet of Hellas and Achaia.

ἔνθα δ' ἐγὼν ἐπ' ἄεθλα δαΐφρονος Αμφιδάμαντος

Χαλκίδα τ ̓ εἰσεπέρησα· τὰ δὲ προπεφραδμένα πολλὰ 655 ἆθλ ̓ ἔθεσαν παῖδες μεγαλήτορες· ἔνθα μέ φημι ὕμνῳ νικήσαντα φέρειν τρίποδ ̓ ὠτώεντα.

τὸν μὲν ἐγὼ Μούσαις Ελικωνιάδεσσ ̓ ἀνέθηκα, ἔνθα με τοπρῶτον λιγυρῆς ἐπέβησαν ἀοιδῆς. τόσσον τοι νηῶν γε πεπείρημαι πολυγόμφων ἀλλὰ καὶ ὡς ἐρέω Ζηνὸς νόον αἰγιόχοιο·

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660

Μοῦσαι γάρ μ' ἐδίδαξαν ἀθέσφατον ὕμνον ἀείδειν. (660) Ηματα πεντήκοντα μετὰ τροπὰς ἠελίοιο,

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656. μεγαλήτορος Α.

μούσῃσι Κ.

658. μούσης AC. μούσαις BDEGH. 660. νηῶν πεπείραμαι BC. νηῶν πειπείρημαι ΕF,

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and with τῶν νηῶν Η. πεπείραμαι Α. πεπείρημαι D. πεπείραμαι Ald.

655. προπεφρασμένα, ‘previously announced. Cf. Apoll. Rhod. iii. 1315, δὴ γάρ σφι πάλαι προπεφραδμένον ἦεν.

656. ἆθλα, prizes for games at the funeral of Amphidamas.-The Cod. Gale has the remarkable reading μεγαλήτορος, with the gloss οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ μεγάλου Αμφιδάμαντος. This leads to the inference, as Hermann remarks, that the older reading was παῖδες μεγαλήτορος Αμφιδάμαντος, the verses about Hesiod's victory being a still later interpolation. There was another reading, preserved by Proclus, of v. 657, ὕμνῳ νικήσαντ ̓ ἐν Χαλκίδι θεῖον Ομηρον. Such a boast as this could not, of course, be really attributed to Hesiod himself. We may be assured that frag. xxxiv. (ed. Gaisf.) is also spurious; ἐν Δήλῳ τότε πρῶτον ἐγὼ καὶ Ομηρος ἀοιδοὶ Μέλπομεν ἐν νεαροῖς ὕμνοις ῥάψαντες ἀοιδὴν, Φοῖβον Απόλλωνα χρυσάορον, ὃν τέκε Λητώ. But it is curious as preserving an old tradition, which made the two great poets contemporaries. The reading of Proclus would require the present verse to be retained and emended somehow thus, ἔνθα μέ φημ ̓ οἶκόνδε φέρειν τρίποδο ὠτώεντα, and this again falls in with the old reading indicated in the Cod. Gale, μεγαλήτορος [Αμφιδάμαντος].

659. ἔνθα, 6 on the spot where, viz. in their temple on Mount Helicon. This event is described in Theog. 22.—ἐπέβησαν, they put me up to singing in clear tones."

660. τόσσον, ‘thus much and no more. Cf. v. 649.—πεπείρημαι, expertus sum. This seems hardly a form of the old epic; in Soph. Trach. 581, καὶ πεπείρανται τάδε, the verb is probably πειραίνω. It is remarkable that very good MSS. omit the ye, and two at least give πειπείρημαι to preserve the metre.-καὶ ὣς, Viz. καίπερ οὐ σεσοφισμένος ναυτιλίης. As a poet, and so an interpreter of the divine will, he professes to be able to lay down correct rules as to the times for navigating.

663. τροπάς. On the short a see below, v. 675. The poet distinguishes two sailing-seascns; one, which is the most favourable for merchants, between midsummer and autumn; the other, εἰαρινὸς πλόος ν. 678, after the rising of the Pleiades in spring. See v. 383. Apollonius Rhodius, ii. 523, speaks of forty days after the rising of the dogstar, as the period during which the Etesian winds, unfavourable for sailing, prevailed; ἱερά τ' εὖ ἔρρεξεν ἐν οὔρεσιν ἀστέρι κείνῳ Σειρίῳ, αὐτῷ τε

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