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αὐαλέος δέ τε χρὼς ὑπὸ καύματος. ἀλλὰ τότ ̓ ἤδη [εἴη πετραίη τε σκιὴ, καὶ βίβλινος οἶνος,
μαζα τ' ἀμολγαίη, γάλα τ' αἰγῶν σβεννυμενάων, καὶ βοὸς ὑλοφάγοιο κρέας μήπω τετοκυίης,
πρωτογόνων τ' ἐρίφων· ἐπὶ δ' αἴθοπα πινέμεν οἶνον (590) ἐν σκιῇ ἑζόμενον, κεκορημένον ἦτορ ἐδωδῆς,
ἀντίον ἀκραέος Ζεφύρου τρέψαντα πρόσωπον,
588. αὐέλιος Α.
589. τε om. ΑΒ. βίβλινος ABCG, Ald. βύβλινος D and Η by correction. 592. πιέμεν G. 594. εὐκραέος ΕΙ. εὐκραέος ἀνέμου Κ, Ald. πρόσωπα ABCDGHI. From this verse to the end a different hand in D.
has the remarkable reading τῆμος πιότατο αἶγες εἰσὶ, (ν. 585, which shows that εἰσὶν could not have been in the text when that reading first originated.
589-96. These verses must be condemned as a manifest interpolation. It is true that for the unmetrical πετραίη τε σκιὴ we might read πέτρη τε σκιερὴ, which would be a safer expedient than to justify the prosody by Homer's occasional use of Σκάμανδρος, σκέπαρνον, &c. It is remarkable however that Cod. Gale, with the best Bodleian MS., omits the re, and it may be added, that the mention of the shade in v. 593 is now a mere tautology. It is further remarkable that the digamma in olvos is omitted in 589, 592, 596. Hesiod could not have written these lines; but he might have written either ἀλλὰ τότ ̓ εἴη μαζά τ ̓ ἀμολγαίη, γάλα τ' αἰγῶν σβεννυμενάων, (as having already mentioned the kid's flesh and the wine, v. 585,) or, more probably, ἀλλὰ τότ ̓ εἴη δμωσὶν ἐποτρύνειν κ.τ.λ. (v. 597.) It may be added, that the use of μήπω in v. 591 depending on the preceding optative, is hardly consistent with epic simplicity; and that the best copies agree in πρόσωπα, ν. 594, which seems a spurious nominative of the epic προσώπατα and προσώπασι, occurring once or twice in the Odyssey. Possibly there was an old form πρόσωπαρ, like πεῖραρ, ἄλκαρ, παρ, &c. Lastly, the mention of the Thracian wine known as Bybline was
not to be expected in so early a writer as Hesiod. Goettling perceived that v. 591-5 were interpolated; but (though v. 590 is a characteristic verse, and may be genuine,) he should have extended the condemnation to v. 589. Hesych. βίμβλινος· εἶδος οἴνου, καὶ γένος ἀμπέλου ἐν Θράκῃ.
590. μᾶζα αμολγαίη, bread fermented and risen (Lexil. p. 91). ἄρτος γάλακτι ἐζυμωμένος, gl. MS. Cant. κρατίστη, gl. Cod. Gale. Proclus, κρατίστη, ἀκμαία· τὸ γὰρ ἀμολγὸν ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀκμαίου τίθεται. Curtius, Gr. Et. 183, seems to take it for a cake made with milk. — σßevνυμενάων, not for τοῦ θηλάζειν παυσαμένων (Moschop.), but when milked nearly dry.' The last draining of the teats is thought to give the greatest amount of cream, because the lightest and thickest part of the milk comes away from the udder the last.
591. ὑλοφάγοιο, fed in the woodlands, not stall-fed.
592. ἐρίφων, scil. κρέας. Theocr. i. 6, χιμάρω δὲ καλὸν κρέας, ἔς τέ κ' ἀμέλξῃς.
593. ἐδωδῆς. For the genitive see v. 33. κεκορημένον, cf. Ar. Pac. 1285, ταῦτ ̓ ὧδε, ταῦθ', ὡς ἤσθιον κεκορημένοι.
594. ἀκραέος, τοῦ ἄκρως φυσῶντος, καλοῦ καὶ ἀμιγοῦς, ἢ ἠρέμα πνέοντος, Proclus. From the analogy of εὐάης, inf. v. 599, it seems that there is here a synizesis. Some copies give εὐκραέος, ε form used in Apoll. Rhod. ii. 1228, ἐϋκραὴς ἄεν οὖρος. But here ἄκροs and
κρήνης τ ̓ ἀενάου καὶ ἀπορρύτου, ἦτ ̓ ἀθόλωτος. Τρὶς ὕδατος προχέειν, τὸ δὲ τέτρατον ἱέμεν οἴνου.] Δμωσὶ δ ̓ ἐποτρύνειν Δημήτερος ἱερὸν ἀκτὴν δινέμεν, εὖτ ̓ ἂν πρῶτα φανῇ σθένος Ωρίωνος, χώρῳ ἐν εὐαεῖ καὶ ἐϋτροχάλῳ ἐν ἀλωῇ.
595. ἀεννάου Α. τέταρτον AD, Ald.
596. τρὶς ὕδατος ABCEFGHI. τρις δ' ὑδ. D.
ἄημι, not εὖ and κεράννυμι, are the components. For Ζεφύρου the early editions and the Corpus Christi MS. give ἀνέμου. The best copies agree in πρόσωπα, on which word see on v. 589.
595. Hesych. ἀεννάου. ἀεὶ οὔσης, ἀεὶ ῥεούσης. ἀπορρύτου, gushing from the earth on the spot, not conveyed by pipes or artificial means.—ἀθόλωτος, unstirred, not made muddy by cattle drinking at it. Hermann would omit the full stop after αθόλωτος, and read τρεῖς ὕδατος προχέειν, ‘pour first into the mixer three measures of water from a clear spring. This is, perhaps, a better way of taking the passage. There was not much point in sitting with the face towards the spring, (unless indeed to enjoy the sight of it, but the mention of it in connexion with the wine-mixing is most appropriate. Compare Ovid, Fast. i. 403, Vina dabat Liber; tulerat sibi quisque coronam; Miscendas large ri. vus agebat aquas. Goettling objects, that ὕδατος would be superduous after κρήνης. But the antithesis between ὕδωρ and oivos seems a studied one.—τὸ τέτρατον, a very weak mixture, fitted, as Proclus observes, for simple working men, and not for the luxurious, who preferred the τρία καὶ δύο. See Photius in τρία καὶ δύο, who cites the present passage. Some copies, but not the best, give τρὶς δ ̓ ὕδατος.
597. The sense here is continued from v. 576. There the slaves were to carry home the corn; here they are to thrash it, i. e. either by drawing over it the heavy toothed plank (the Roman tribulum, as is still done in Asia Minor; see Sir Charles Fellows' Travels, p. 51),
or by driving the cattle so as to trample it on the smooth and level threshingfloor. Hesiod here uses δίνειν, commonly δινεῖν, to express the circular track; by εὐτροχάλῳ the circular shape seems indicated. But Van Lennep explains it, well-rolled, from Virg. Georg. i. 128. In those parts of Europe which still retain the ancient Roman practice of agriculture, this circular floor may often be seen on some exposed hillside. Both the treading out and the winnowing are performed on the same spot; and both operations are seen in juxtaposition in a drawing in vol. ii. p. 41, of Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians. See also Xen. Oecon. xviii. 3-5, οὐκοῦν, ἔφη, τοῦτο μὲν οἶσθα, ὅτι ὑποζυγίῳ ἀλοῶσι τὸν σῖτον.—ὅπως δὲ τὸ δεόμενον κόψουσι καὶ ὁμαλιεῖται ὁ ἀλοητὸς, τίνι τοῦτο, ὦ Σώκρατες; ἔφη. Δῆλον ὅτι, ἔφην ἐγὼ, τοῖς ἐπαλωσταῖς, στρέφοντες γὰρ καὶ ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας ὑποβάλλοντες τὰ ἄτριπτα ἀεὶ, δῆλον ὅτι μάλιστα ὁμαλίζοιεν ἂν τὸν δῖνον, και τάχιστα ἀνύτοιεν. — Ωρίωνος κ.τ.λ., scil. before the middle of July.
599. εὐαεῖ, εὐηνέμῳ. Hesych. εὐκράτῳ. See Soph. Phil. 828. This epithet alludes to the use of the aλwn for winnowing, or throwing the grain in the air that the chaft may be blown off, as our country people treat their gleanings. Xen. Oecon. xviii. 6, 7, describes it, and Homer alludes to it Il. v. 499, ws d' ἄνεμος ἄχνας φορέει ἱερὰς κατ ̓ ἀλωὰς ἀνδρῶν λικμώντων, ὅτε τε ξανθὴ Δημήτηρ κρίνῃ ἐπειγομένων ἀνέμων καρπόν τε καὶ ἄχνας, αἱ δ ̓ ὑπολευκαίνονται ἀχυρμιαί. Od. v. 368, ὡς δ ̓ ἄνεμος ζαὴς ήΐων θημῶνα τινάξῃ καρφαλέων, τὰ μὲν ἄρ τε διεσ‐ κέδασ ̓ ἄλλυδις ἄλλῃ.
μέτρῳ δ' εὖ κομίσασθαι ἐν ἀγγεσιν· αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν δὴ 600 πάντα βίον κατάθηαι ἐπάρμενον ἔνδοθι οἴκου, θῆτά τ' ἄοικον ποιεῖσθαι, καὶ ἄτεκνον ἔριθον δίζεσθαι κέλομαι· χαλεπὴ δ ̓ ὑπόπορτις ἔριθος· καὶ κύνα καρχαρόδοντα κομεῖν· μὴ φείδεο σίτου· μὴ ποτέ σ ̓ ἡμερόκοιτος ἀνὴρ ἀπὸ χρήμαθ ̓ ἕληται. 605 χόρτον δ ̓ ἐσκομίσαι καὶ συρφετὸν, ὄφρα τοι εἴῃ
601. ἔνδοθι Α. ἔνδοθεν
600. ἐσκομίσασθαι Κ, εὐκομίσασθαι Ald.
the rest. 602. θῆτά τ' ἄοικον ABCD. θῆτ' ἄοικον EFGHIK, Ald. 606. χόρτον τ' BDHI. εἴῃ ΕF. εἴη the rest.
600. μέτρῳ, by measure. Having thrashed and winnowed it, ascertain the quantity, and store it away in terracotta vessels. Compare sup. v. 350. 475. The reading of one copy, ἐσκομίσασθαι, is a good one, 'get it brought into your house.' Compare v. 576.
601. ἔνδοθεν vulgo, against the digamma in Fοίκου. ἔνδοθι is preserved by Cod. Gale. See on v. 523.
602. θῆτα, a head-servant; a hired farming-man, or bailiff, especially to keep the stores at home. The θῆτες seem to have been farm-servants on pay, as distinct from the domestic slaves or general servants, δμῶες, who merely had their allowance of food, and were probably subordinate to the θῆτες. Homer distinguishes them, Od. iv. 644, θῆτές τε δμῶές τε. Cf. ibid. xi. 489, βουλοίμην κ ̓ ἐπάρουρος ἐὼν θητευέμεν ἄλλῳ ἀνδρὶ παρ' ἀκλήρῳ. xviii. 357, ξεῖν, ἢ ἄρ κ' ἐθέλοις θητευέμεν, εἴ σ ̓ ἀνελοίμην, ἀγροῦ ἐπ ̓ ἐσχατιῆς; Photius, θῆτες. οἱ ἕνεκα τροφῆς δουλεύοντες, ibid. θητεύειν, μισθῷ ἐργάζεσθαι. So Hom. Il. xxi. 444, πάρ Διὸς ἐλθόντες θητεύσαμεν εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν μισθῷ ἐπὶ ῥητῷ.—ποιεῖσθαι, ' to adopt, i. e. to take into your employ; cf. inf. v. 707. He is to be ἄοικοs, without a family or household of his own (cf. sup. ν. 405), that he may attend solely to your interests.—ἔριθον, γυναῖκα ἐργατικὴν, Moschop. Compare again v. 405, οἶκον μὲν πρώτιστα γυναῖκά τε. She too must be childless, for a mother with an infant at the breast is difficult to make use of, χαλεπή.—ὑπόπορτις, παῖδα ἔχουσα,
Proclus. The term is quaint and characteristic, otherwise we might be inclined to suspect the genuineness of this verse. It is not necessary to the context, and κέλομαι interrupts the series of infinitives used for imperatives. Schoemann indeed rejects 602-605, which may well have been inserted from some other place. Prof. Mahaffy (Hist. Lit. i. p. 108, note) has no doubt about the meaning of these disputed lines;” and he renders them thus: "When you have brought all your stores into the house, you must turn your man-servant out of it, and look out for a woman-servant (who will sleep within) who has no child to feed.” I however feel great doubt if ἄοικον ποιεῖσθαι can mean ἐξοικίζειν, to dislodge or‘evict from a homestead.
604. καὶ κύνα, viz. to protect your stores. Virg. Georg. iii. 404, Nec tibi cura canum fuerit postrema.ἡμερόκοιτος ἀνὴρ, Hesych. ὁ κλέπτης, a nightprowling thief who sleeps by day; an expression of the same kind as φερέοιkos in v. 571. The compound occurs in Eur. Cycl. 58.
606. χόρτον κ.τ.λ. Get in not only your corn, but your hay and fodder against the winter,-συρφετός being the rubbish consisting of leaves, vine-clippings, weeds, twigs, &c., which in the Romance countries) are still used for feeding and littering goats and cattle, in default of grass. Photius, συρφετὸς, ἀγυρτώδης ὄχλος ἢ λόγος· ἢ ἡ ἐξ ἀνέμου (f. ἡ ἐξ ἀγροῦ) συλλεγομένη κοπρὸς καὶ
βουσὶ καὶ ἡμιόνοισιν ἐπηετανόν. αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα (605)
608. βότε 610. δὲ Είδῃ ἀξὼς
609. ἔλθη Α. ἔλθοι ΕF. ἔλθῃ ἐσίδοι ΕF. ἐσίδη (η) the rest. δ' Α. δέκα ἤμ. Κ, Ald.
φρυγανώδης. (This latter epithet has reference only to fuel.)—eἴῃ for in or ᾖ. See v. 470.
607. ἐπηετανόν. On this word as a quadrisyllable, see v. 31.-This ingathering of fodder is spoken of as a kind of supplement to the harvest operations. Between the conclusion of these and the vintage in the autumn, the slaves are to have an interval of rest, and the cattle, being no longer required, are to be loosed. Moschop. ἔπειτα δὲ τοὺς δούλους ἀνάψυξον, ἤγουν ἀνάπαυσον κατὰ τὰ φίλα γόνατα, ἵνα πάλιν ἀκμαιότεροι ἐν τοῖς πόνοις ὑπουργήσωσι, καὶ τοὺς βόας λῦσον, ἤγουν τοῦ ζυγοῦ ἀπάλλαξον καὶ τῶν ἔργων.
610. ̓Αρκτοῦρον. The operations of the vineyard were all regulated by this star; cf. v. 566, 570, where Goettling refers to Plat. Legg. viii. p. 844, D, τὴν ὥραν τὴν τοῦ τρυγᾶν ̓Αρκτούρα ξύνω δρομον. Here the morning rising of Arcturus is meant, after the middle of September. By Sirius, according to the scholiasts, is meant, not the star properly so called, but one in the constellation of Canis. So also he seems rather to refer to the star in Virgo, called by the Greeks προτρυγητός (or —ής), by the Romans Vindemitor (Ovid, Fast. iii. 407), than to Arcturus.
611. ἀπόδρεπε οἴκαδε, a singular el lipse for ἀποδρέπων κόμιζε εἰς τὸν οἶκον (Moschop.). Cf. v. 632, ἵν' οἴκαδε κέρδος ἄρηαι. The Cod. Gale gives ἀποδρέπειν, which arose, like so many other mistakes, from ignorance of the digamma. Probably the Doric infinitive, ἀποδρέ
(-η) the rest. 611. ἀποδρέπειν Α.
610. ἐσίδη Α. 612. δέκα
πεν, was the alteration in the first instance.
612. δεῖξαι ἠελίῳ. The process of drying the gathered grapes in the sun seems to have been regularly adopted by the ancients, at least in the manufacture of the more rich and sweet wines, the vinum passum, like our Malmsey Madeira. The modern practice is, to allow the grapes to hang as long as possible upon the vines. Goettling illustrates the drying of the grapes both from Pliny, N. Η. xiv. 8, and Columella, xii. 39. The drying-ground is specially mentioned in Homer, Od. vii. 123, τῆς ἕτερον μὲν θειλόπεδον λευρῷ ἐνὶ χώρῳ τέρσεται ἠελίῳ. Proclus here has a very good note. which it may be as well to present to the reader in English:-'Having cut off the bunches, they laid them under the sun, in order to dry out of them, by the exposure to his rays, the thin and watery part that does not keep well; and they called this θειλοπεδεύειν. After this, they again disposed them in the shade, to ensure the contraction of the grape after the sunning, and to cure the tendency to ferment, by a counteracting coolness. The third process was to tread and squeeze out the wine, which they considered now settled and properly tempered.
613. εἰς ἄγγε ̓ ἀφύσσαι, rack off into vats or open vessels, viz. to ferment, before finally storing it in the terracotta Tíeo or jars. Of this process the poet speaks not. How they were finally laid up in the houses of the heroic times
[δώρα Διωνύσου πολυγηθέος. αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν δὴ Πληϊάδες θ' Υάδες τε τό τε σθένος Ωρίωνος δύνωσιν, τότ' ἔπειτ' ἀρότου μεμνημένος εἶναι ὡραίου· πλειὼν δὲ κατὰ χθονὸς ἄρμενος εἴη.]
Εἰ δέ σε ναυτιλίης δυσπεμφέλου ἵμερος αἱρεῖ, εὖτ ̓ ἂν Πληϊάδες σθένος ὄμβριμον Ωρίωνος
614. διονύσου ΕΓΗ. Ald. aipeî the rest. the rest.
616. αρότρου GHI, Ald.
we know from Od. ii. 340, ἐν δὲ πίθοι οἴνοιο παλαιοῦ ἡδυπότοιο ἕστασαν, ἄκρητον θεῖον ποτὸν ἐντὸς ἔχοντες, ἑξείης ποτὶ τοῖχον ἀρηρότες. Gloss. Cod. Gale άντλησον.
614. Proclus :οὐκ οἶδεν ὁ ̔́Ομηρος δῶρον Διονύσου τὸν οἶνον. This and the next three verses are in all probability a later addition. It was enough to have given directions about pouring off the wine: what is added about ploughing interrupts the prescribed series of the annual farm operations. That subject had been fully discussed and dismissed, sup. v. 492. Moreover, v. 615 is taken from Il. xviii. 485, ἐν δὲ τὰ τείρεα πάντα, τά τ ̓ οὐρανὸς ἐστεφάνωται, Πληϊάδας θ' Υάδας τε τό τε σθένος Ωρίωνος. The final verse alone is rejected by Goettling, on the ground that πλειών, ‘a year,' is an Alexandrine word. Whether it occurs elsewhere than in Callim. Hymn. Jov. 89, we know not. It is said to be from πλέος οι πλεῖος, • full, meaning the completed circle of the seasons. Hesych. πλειών· ὁ ἐνιαυτός. ἀπὸ τοῦ πάντας τοὺς καρποὺς τῆς γῆς συμπληροῦσθαι. Compare δέκα πλείους ἐνιαυτούς, Theog. 636. ‘As the poet began with ploughing and the setting of the Pleiades (v. 384), so now,' says Proclus, he comes back to the same subjects, and closes with the remark, that so the year will have a fitting conclusion of farming operations. It is, however, impossible to extract this meaning from the verse. Van Lennep translates, annus in operibus terra obeundis recte dispositus fuerit.' Moschopulus explains κατὰ χθονός by ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐπὶ τῶν τῆς γῆς ἔργων. But this is equally untenable. Probably the writer
intended κατὰ χθονός εἴη to mean, let it go beneath the earth, i. e. be numbered among things past, as in Eur. Alcest. 618, δέχου δὲ κόσμον τόνδε καὶ κατὰ χθονός ἴτω. And Goettling seems to think that eἴη must come from είμι, though he is unable to defend the word by examples or analogy. Possibly the sense on the earth' may be justified by Theog. 498, τὸν μὲν (λίθον) Ζεὺς στήριξε κατὰ χθονός. Schoemann reads κατὰ χρέος, “ ut omnis annus ad necessitatem (cuiusque operis) commodus et opportunus sit.'
618. He now passes to the subject of navigation. Some precepts on so important a branch of industrial enterprise were required in a didactic poem of this scope ; though the poet avows that the sea is not a congenial element to himself, v. 649.
Ibid. δυσπεμφέλου, ' stormy. Hesiod uses this word as an epithet of the sea, Theog. 440, and of a churlish person inf. v. 722. The etymology is uncertain, as also whether πέμφελος is distinct from, or another form of, πέμπελος. Homer applies δυσπέμφελος to a stormy sea, Il. xvi. 748, and Aeschylus has μοίραν οὐκ εὐπέμπελον of the Furies, Eum. 454, who are said to be δύσπεμπτοι ἔξω, Ag. 1161. Moschopulus here explains the word by τῆς κακῶς παραπεμπούσης. The gloss in Cod. Gale is δυσκόλου. Perhaps it is from πέμφιξ, which Photius renders πνοή. Compare πομφόλυξ, ποίφυγμα, and ποἳ οι πολφ (our word puf). Hence, applied to the sea, it would mean 'frothy and bubbling;' to a man, ‘swelling with anger, pettish, ill-tempered.
619. On the setting of the Pleiades,