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ἀὴρ πυροφόρος τέταται μακάρων ἐπὶ ἔργοις·
ὥστε ἀρυσσάμενος ποταμῶν ἄπο ἀεναόντων,
ὑψοῦ ὑπὲρ γαίης ἀρθεὶς ἀνέμοιο θυέλλη,
ἄλλοτε μέν θ' ει ποτὶ ἕσπερον, ἄλλοτ ̓ ἄησι
πυκνὰ Θρηϊκίου Βορέου νέφεα κλονέοντος.
τὸν φθάμενος, ἔργον τελέσας, οἶκόνδε νέεσθαι,
μήποτέ σ' οὐρανόθεν σκοτόεν νέφος ἀμφικαλύψῃ,
χρωτά τε μυδαλέον θείῃ, κατά θ' εἵματα δεύσῃ.

550

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555

549. ἀὴρ Γέργοις 550. Παρυσσάμενος ἀεναξόντων 552. Γέσπερον, ἄξησι 554. Γέργον σικόνδε 556. καὶ δείματα?

549. πυρφόρος C. 550. ἀρυσάμενος ΑΙ. 551. ὑψοῦ δ' Ι. 552. ἄησιν DG. 553. κλονόεντος ΕΓΗ. 554. φθασάμενος Ι. ἔργα K, Ald. 555. μήποτ' ἐξ οὐρ. (γρ. μήποτέ γ' οὐρ.) Α. σκοτέον

Η. 556. χρῶτα δὲ ABCDEGI.

upon the tilled lands (ἔργα) of the wealthy. Donaldson (New Cratylus, § 257), while deriving ἕως, ἠὼς, from the Sanscrit ushas, yet contends that the form αὔως points to the digamma. This is confirmed by the modern name of the river Aöus, now Voioussa (Wordsworth's Greece, p. 93). This use of μάκαρες for ὄλβιοι, ἀφνειοὶ, εὐδαίμονες, is noticed by the commentators as an indication of post-Hesiodic poetry. Compare however Il. xi. 68, ἀνδρὸς μάκαρος κατ' ἄρουραν, and Od. i. 217, ὡς δὴ ἔγωγ ̓ ὄφελον μάκαρος νύ του ἐμμέναι υἱὸς ἀνέρος, ὃν κτεάτεσσιν ἑοῖς ἔπι γῆρας ἔτετμεν. Gaisford encloses 548-553 within brackets, after Ruhnken, who proposed in v. 549 to read μερόπων ἐπὶ ἔργοις. There is, perhaps, an affectation of the Ionic natural philosophy in explaining the theory of mists, which may be thought to indicate a later age.—πυροφόρος, Gl. MS. Cant. θρεπτικὸς καὶ ζωογόνος τῶν καρπῶν. Gl. Cod. Gale σιτοφόρος. Proclus records a variant ὀμβροφόρος. Hermann read πυροφόροις, “ probabilissima conjectura," says Schoemann, p. 51.

550. ἀρυσσάμενος, having drawn watery vapours from ever-flowing rivers. Both ἀρύω and its cognate ἐρύω are digammated words. Compare Eur. Med. 835, τοῦ καλλινάου τ' ἀπὸ Κηφισοῦ ῥοὰς | τὰν

Κύπριν κλῄζουσιν ἀφυσσαμέναν \ χώραν καταπνεῦσαι μετρίας ἀνέμων | ἡδυπνόους αὔρας. Hippol. 209, πῶς ἂν δροσερᾶς ἀπὸ κρηνῖδος | καθαρῶν ὑδάτων πῶμ' ἀρυ σαίμαν ;—ἀεναέντων, a participial form of ἀέναος, used also in Od. xiii. 109, ἐν δ' ὕδατ ̓ ἀενάοντα. The root (Curtius, 319) is ovv or oveF, and it is curious that the JF, dropped in νέω and νάω, is retained in our swim.

551. ἀρθείς. The true epic form is ἀερθείς, though αἴρειν occurs once in Homer.

552. ano, 'blows,' i. e. ends in a gale. The notion is, that the mist is raised from the earth to the clouds, where it produces either rain or wind according to circumstances. Hermann thought the next verse came from another recension, in which it represented βορέαο πεσόντος in v. 547. He proposes to read thus, ἀλλότε μέν θ ̓ ὕει ποτὶ ἕσπερον, ἀλλότε δ ̓ εἰσιν Ηφός γ ἐπὶ γαῖαν κ.τ.λ. But this involves a still further change, βορέω δὲ πεσόντος 'Αὴρ πυροφόρος τέταται κ.τ.λ.

554. τὸν φθάμενος κ.τ.λ. • Anticipating this (ὑετός implied in ὕει, cf. v. 545, rather than μῆνα Ληναιώνα, Mosch.), when you have completed your work in the farm, return homewards, lest &c. He warns those who perceive a mist in the morning to beware of rain at night;

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ἀλλ ̓ ὑπαλεύασθαι· μεὶς γὰρ χαλεπώτατος οὗτος χειμέριος, χαλεπὸς προβάτοις, χαλεπὸς δ ̓ ἀνθρώποις. τῆμος τὤμισυ βουσὶν, ἐπ ̓ ἀνέρι δὲ πλέον εἴη ἁρμαλιῆς· μακραὶ γὰρ ἐπίρροθοι εὐφρόναι εἰσί. [ταῦτα φυλασσόμενος τετελεσμένον εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν ἰσοῦσθαι νύκτας τε καὶ ἤματα, εἰσόκεν αὖτις γῆ πάντων μήτηρ καρπὸν σύμμικτον ἐνείκῃ.] Εἶτ ̓ ἂν δ ̓ ἑξήκοντα μετὰ τροπὰς ἠελίοιο

559. τώμισυ βουσίν· ἐπὶ πλέον εἴη ΕF. βουσὶν ἐπ ̓ ἀνδρὶ τὸ πλέον εἴη Κ, Ald. αὖτις ΑΕΡ. αὖθις G.

557. ὑπαλέξασθαι.

560

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for nunquam imprudentibus imber obfuit,' Georg. i. 373. Compare inf. v. 570, τὴν φθάμενος οἴνας περιταμνέμεν.

557. μεὶς (for μηνs, whence mensis) is called an Ionic form. It occurs Pind. Nem. v. 82. I. xix. 117, ἡ δ ̓ ἐκύει φίλον υἱὸν, ὁ δ ̓ ἕβδομος ἑστήκει μείς. The next verse, in which χαλεπός is twice repeated after χαλεπώτατος, may be an interpolation. The sentiment is very similar to I. xviii. 549, ἢ καὶ χειμῶνος δυσθαλπέος, ὅς ῥά τε ἔργων ἀνθρώπους ἀνέπαυσεν ἐπὶ χθονὶ, μῆλα δὲ κήδει. As before remarked, the whole of this passage about the winter seems to have been tampered with by the rhapsodists. Indeed μεὶς οὗτος, referring back so far as v. 504, is one of the indications that a good deal of the intervening matter is spurious.

559. τώμισυ Goettl. with Cod. Gale. θώμισυ Gaisford with most of the copies. The omission of the aspirate is Ionic and Aeolic, as in ἀντήλιος, &c. Gaisford gives βούσ', ἐπὶ δ ̓ ἀνέρι καὶ πλέον εἴη, but the καὶ seems to have no MS. authority.—ἐπ' ἀνέρι is, but besides or in addition) for a man,' i. e. for a slave, ἐργάτῃ. For ἁρμαλιὴ was the dimensum, the slaves' allowance of food. It occurs inf. v. 767, ἁρμαλιὴν δατέασθαι, but is more common in the Alexandrine poets, e. g. Theocr. xvi. 35. Ap. Rhod. i. 393. That man requires more food in cold weather is well known. But the cattle are to be put on half-allowance, because

they have little work to do and plenty of rest at night.—εὐφρόνη, for ‘night, has been thought by some a post-epic usage. · ἐπίρροθοι, ἤγουν βοηθοί, Moschop. So Aesch. Theb. 361, ἐλπίς ἐστι νύκτερον τέλος μολεῖν παγκλαύτων ἀλγέων ἐπίρροθον.

561-3. These three verses are generally allowed to be spurious, and to have been added by way of closing the subject. Proclus;—τοῦτον καὶ τοὺς ἑξῆς δύο διαγράφει Πλούταρχος. δηλοῦσι δὲ, χρῆναι διόλου τοῦ ἔτους βλέπειν εἰς τὰς νύκτας καὶ τὰς ἡμέρας, καὶ πρὸς ταύτας ἰσοῦν τὰ ἔργα, ἕως ἂν μετὰ τὸν σπορὸν ἡ ὥρα ἀφίκηται τῆς τῶν καρπῶν συλλογῆς.

Observing these precepts till the end of the year' (viz. from midsummer till midwinter; or, with Tzetzes, ἀπὸ θέρους μέχρι καὶ θέρους ἐξίσου), make the nights equal and the days equal, viz. by proportioning the supply of food, s0 that the consumption is equal, taking one season with another, both for man and beast, i. e. when more for the one, it is less for the other. On ἰσοῦσθαι see Scut. Herc. 263.

564. ἑξήκοντα. Two months after midwinter, viz. towards the close of February, Arcturus becomes visible. Elaborate calculations have been made, founded on this passage, in order to ascertain, by the aid of astronomy, the date of this poem. (See Appendix A.) The reader who is curious on the subject, and capable of understanding it,

565

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χειμέρι ̓ ἐκτελέσῃ Ζεὺς ἤματα, δή ῥα τότ' ἀστὴρ Αρκτούρος προλιπὼν ἱερὸν ῥόον Ωκεανοῖο πρῶτον παμφαίνων ἐπιτέλλεται ἀκροκνέφαιος. τὸν δὲ μέτ' ὀρθρογόη Πανδιονὶς ὡρτο χελιδὼν [ἐς φάος ἀνθρώποις, ἔαρος νέον ἱσταμένοιο.] τὴν φθάμενος οἶνας περιταμνέμεν· ὡς γὰρ ἄμεινον. 570 ἀλλ ̓ ὁπότ ̓ ἂν φερέοικος ἀπὸ χθονὸς ἀμ φυτὰ βαίνῃ Πληϊάδας φεύγων, τότε δὴ σκάφος οὐκέτι οἰνέων· (570)

569. Γέαρος 570. Τοίνας 571. φερέοικος 572. Γονέων

570. περιτεμνέμεν Α. 571. ἀμφυτὰ βαίη (γρ. βαίνη) Α. ἂν φυτὰ βαίνῃ BCGIK, Ald. ἀμφυτὰ βαίνη DEF.

will find it discussed in p. xxixxxi of Robinson's Preface (ed. Oxon. 1737). But his faith in the accuracy of the theory will not be confirmed by finding it carries back the date to B.C. 942. According to Goettling, on the authority of Ideler, not 60, but 57 days intervene between midwinter (Dec. 29) and the rising of Arcturus (Feb. 24).-On the short as of the accusative, see inf. ν. 675.

567. ἀκροκνέφαιος. Proclus; αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ ἑσπερία ἐπιτολὴ τοῦ ̓Αρκτούρου, ἐν τῷ ἄκρῳ τοῦ καιροῦ τῆς νυκτὸς ἀνατέλλοντος. Moschopulus;—ἀντὶ τοῦ κατὰ τὸ ἄκρον τῆς νυκτὸς, ἤγουν κατὰ τὴν ἑσπέραν. The acronych or true evening rising (the edge of the darkness, as it were) is “ the rising of the star at the eastern verge of the horizon at the moment the sun is sinking on the western side. It is of this that Hesiod speaks." Keightley, Preface to Ovid's Fasti, p. viii. (ed. 2.)—παμφαίνων, apparently the same as παμφανόων, with the root reduplicated; both forms are Homeric. By Arcturus the poet is thought to mean Arctophylax or Bootes, of which Arcturus is the chief star. - As for πρῶτον, which Goettling appears to construe with προλιπών, the more obvious and easy sense is τότε δὴ πρῶτον παμφαίνων ἐπιτέλλεται. For ἐπιτολαί and ἐπιτέλλειν, properly said of stars, see Aesch. Prom. 100. Eur. Phoen. 1116.

568. ὀρθρογόη, the plaintive songstress of the early morn. Some of the old grammarians read ὀρθρογόη, ἡ μεγάλως

καὶ ὀρθίως γοῶσα. Hesych. ὀρθρογόη· ἡ χελιδών. Philomela (according to some accounts Procne) is meant, both being daughters of Pandion, king of Athens. -The next verse, perhaps, was adapted by some rhapsodist from Od. xix. 518, ὡς δ ̓ ὅτε Πανδαρέου κούρη, χλωρηὶς ἀηδὼν, καλὸν ἀείδῃσιν ἔαρος νέον ἱσταμένοιο. This was more likely to be done, from the close relationship of Procne and Philomela.

570. οἴνας, the vines. The first pruning is in early spring, just before the leaves sprout; the second in the summer, when the too luxuriant shoots and too umbrageous leaves are dressed off, as described in Georgie. ii. 365.

571. φερέοικος, the snail. Hesych. ὁ κοχλίας. See on v. 524. Cicero, De Div. ii. 64, quotes an old poet who called the snail terrigenam, herbigradam, domiportam, sanguine cassam.' When the snail leaves the ground and crawls over the plants, seeking a shelter from the Pleiades, in the middle of May (the time of their heliacal rising), then the operations of pruning and digging or hoeing the vines must be left, and the early harvest must be commenced. Cf. Plaut. Capt. 80, quasi cum caletur cochleae in occulto latent.σκάφος, (σκάπτειν, the trench or trenching, viz. digging round the roots to open the soil and admit the air. This process is described in Od. xxiv. 227, 242, under the terms ἀμφιλαχαίνειν and λιστρεύειν φυτόν.

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ἀλλ ̓ ἅρπας τε χαρασσέμεναι καὶ ὁμῶας ἐγείρειν.
φεύγειν δὲ σκιεροὺς θώκους καὶ ἐπ ̓ ἐῶ κοῖτον
ὥρᾳ ἐν ἀμητοῦ, ὅτε τ' ἠέλιος χρόα κάρφει.
τημοῦτος σπεύδειν, καὶ οἴκαδε καρπὸν ἀγινεῖν
ὄρθρου ἀνιστάμενος, ἵνα τοι βίος ἄρκιος εἴῃ.
ἠὼς γὰρ ἔργοιο τρίτην ἀπομείρεται αἶσαν.
ἠώς τοι προφέρει μὲν ὁδοῦ, προφέρει δὲ καὶ ἔργου·

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573. ἅρπας χαρασσέμεναι, to sharpen the sickles. See sup. v. 387. Scut. 235. Theog. 179.

574. σκιεροὺς θώκους, seats under trees for your siesta or mid-day nap.—ἐπ ̓ ἐῶ κοντον, sleep until daybreak, τὴν κατὰ τὸν ὄρθρον ἀνάπαυσιν, Moschop. He recommends early rising in the hottest weather, because a third part of a day's work is got through in the morning, v. 578. See Theocr. x. 48, 50.

575. ἀμήτου Cod. Gale, for ἀμητοῦ. The Etymol. Mag. p. 83. 9, quoted by Gaisford, distinguishes αμητός as the harvest, ἄμητος as the time of the harvest, and this is accepted by both Gais ford and Goettling.κάρφει, see v. 7. Archilochus, frag. 27, οὐκέθ' ὁμῶς θάλλεις ἁπαλὸν χρόα, κάρφεται γὰρ ἤδη.

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576. τηροῦτος, at that hour of the day. Or simply perhaps, at that season (so Tzetzes). When the sun is hot, says the poet, and there is an inducement to indulge listlessness, then be on the alert to get in your crop. Compare τηλικοῦτος. The correlatives ἦμος and τῆμος (inf. 582-5) may have been adjectives agreeing with χρόνος, the when time and the then time. Donaldson, New Crat. § 202, compares demum; Curtius, Gr. Et. 582, says both forms are Sanserit.—ἀγινεῖν Goettling for ἀγείρειν, with Cod. Gale and two others.

577. εἴῃ (for ἔῃ or ᾖ) was restored by Hermann for εἴη, and it is so written in

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η

575

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ὅτ' ήέλιος ΕF. καρφει Α. 576. ἀγινεῖν Α. ἀγείρειν 578. γάρ τ' ἔργοιο MSS.

MS. Cant. See on v. 470. So θείῃ for θῇ οι θέῃ in v. 556. φανείῃ ν. 680. ἄρκιος, secure, safely got in ; or perhaps, sufficient. See v. 370.

578. ἀπομείρεται, ἀποτέμνεται, takes to itself a third share of a day's work in the farm. In Theog. 801 the verb is used passively for χωρίζεται. In both places there is a variant ἀπαμείρεται (α being here superscribed in Cod. Gale). Hesych. απαμείρεται· ἀφαιρεῖται, where perhaps μέρος should be added to the interpretation. Apoll. Rhod. has ἀπαμείρωμεν, ii. 186. The τe of the MSS. is a mere metrical insertion in place of the digamma (Fέργοιο).

579. προφέρει ὁδοῦ, for πόρρω φέρει, carries you well on your journey and far on your work. Cf. Scut. H. 345. Il. iv. 382, οἱ δ ̓ ἐπεὶ οὖν ᾤχοντο, ἰδὲ πρὸ ὁδοῦ ἐγένοντο. Moschopulus, ἐπίδοσιν ποιεῖ τῆς ὁδοῦ, ἤγουν τῆς ὁδοιπορίας. The ancient reading was perhaps 88 and ἔργῳ, in which case προφέρει meant προφερής ἐστι, is best for, as διαφέρει is often used for διάφορός ἐστι. Cf. Scut. H. 260, τῶν γε μὲν ἀλλάων προφερής 1 ἦν πρεσβυτάτη τε. Thucyd. vii. 77, καγώ τοι οὐδενὸς ὑμῶν οὔτε ῥωμῃ προς φέρων—οὔτ ̓ ευτυχίᾳ δοκῶν που ὕστερός του εἶναι. Pind. Pyth. ii. 86, (157,) ἐν πάντα δὲ νόμον εὐθύγλωσσος ἀνὴρ προφέρει. This is confirmed by the com ment of Tzetzes, κάλλιστόν ἐστι καὶ τοῖς ἐργαζομένοις καὶ τοῖς ὁδεύουσι, and that of Proclus, φησὶτοῖς ὁδεύουσι τὴν ἠῶ G

ἠὼς, ἦτε φανεῖσα πολέας ἐπέβησε κελεύθου ἀνθρώπους, πολλοῖσι δ ̓ ἐπὶ ζυγὰ βουσὶ τίθησιν. Ημος δὲ σκόλυμος τ ̓ ἀνθεῖ, καὶ ἠχέτα τέττιξ δενδρέῳ ἐφεζόμενος λιγυρὴν καταχεύετ ̓ ἀοιδὴν πυκνὸν ὑπὸ πτερύγων, θέρεος καματώδεος ὥρῃ, τῆμος πιόταταί τ' αἶγες καὶ οἶνος ἄριστος, μαχλόταται δὲ γυναῖκες, ἀφαυρότατοι δέ τε ἄνδρες [εἰσὶν, ἐπεὶ κεφαλὴν καὶ γούνατα Σείριος ἄζει,]

582. Ρηχέτα

583. καταχέξετε 585. Γοῖνος

580

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585

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583. ἐπιχεύετ' BCDGHI. 585. πιότατ' αἶγες εἰσὶ (γρ. πιόταταί τ'

581. πολλοῖσί τ' Α. πολλοῖς δ' ΕΓ. 584. πυκνῶν (γρ. πυκνὸν) A. αἶγες) Α. 586. δέ τοι ΑΕF.

προφέρειν.—For three consecutive verses commencing with the same word, see sup. v. 58. 1824. 317–19. Theog. 832-4. Scut. H. 291-3. - For καὶ ἔργου Bentley proposed προφέρει δέ τε Γέργου.

5801. This distich merely amplifes the sense of the preceding, viz. that morning is the best time for every kind of work. So says Xenophon, Oecon. ν. 4, καὶ γὰρ ἐν τῷ χώρῳ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἄστει ἀεὶ ἐν ὥρᾳ (i.e. πρωΐ) αἱ ἐπικαιρόταται πράξεις εἰσί.—πολλοῖσι δ ̓, perhaps πολλοῖς δέ τ', as two very good MSS. give πολλοῖς δ', and Cod. Gale has τε for δέ. 582. Having warned the farmer not to waste his time in sleep or mid-day repose when the harvest has to be gathered, the poet proceeds to show that during the extreme heat some little recreation is allowable. Provocatives to festivity are the fat kids, the mellow wine, and the maidens not indisposed to toy with their rustic lovers. This brief episode on permissible fest ends with v. 597, after which the subject of farm operations is continued from

ν. 573.

Ibid. σκόλυμος, some prickly plant of the thistle family; some say artichoke, others chicory. Proclus and Hesychius call it λάχανον ἄγριον ἀκανθῶδες, and Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. vi. § 4) describes it as having a root edible either raw or cooked, and says that this is best when it flowers, which is περὶ τροπὰς, about the summer solstice.

583. δενδρέῳ. Compare Scut. Η. 393, ἠχέτα τέττιξ ὄζῳ ἐφεζόμενος θέρος ἀνθρώποισιν ἀείδειν ἄρχεται. Though the poets speak of the cicada's song, (as Il. iii. 150, ἀγορηταὶ Ἐσθλοὶ, τεττίγεσσιν ἐοικότες, οἵ τε καθ ̓ ὕλην δενδρέῳ ἐφεζόμενοι ὄπα λειριόεσσαν ἱεῖσιν, and Virg. Georg. iii. 328, 'et cantu tremulae rumpunt arbusta cicadae,') Hesiod at least knew that the sound was produced by the friction or vibration of the wings. Proclus;ᾄδει δὲ ὑπὸ ταῖς πτέρυξι τρίβων ἑαυτὸν καὶ τὸν ἦχον ἐκπέμπων· οὕτω γὰρ αὐτὸν ἄδειν φασί.—καματώδεος, causing languor, fatiguing, see inf. v. 664.

586. ἀφαυρότατοι, not necessarily in coitum pigerrimos,' as Pliny, N. H. xxii. 22 (quoted by Goettling), sup. posed; but in a general sense, exhausted and debilitated by the heat, and so requiring recreation. Virgil had this passage in view, Georg. i. 341, ‘Tune agni pingues, et tunc mollissima vina.'

587. This verse is probably spurious, and for these reasons:-In the first place, eioìv stands awkwardly at the beginning of the verse ; secondly, ὁπότε χρόα Σείριος ἄζει occurs in Scut. Η. 397, and may have suggested the repetition here; thirdly, it may have been inserted from the words of Alcaeus, quoted by Moschopulus, νῦν δὲ μιαρώταται γυναῖκες, λεπτοὶ δέ τοι ἄνδρες, ἐπεὶ κεφαλὴν καὶ γόνατα σείριος ἄζει, and this is quite as likely as that Alcaeus should have borrowed the exact words of Hesiod; fourthly, and principally, Cod. Gale

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