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πνεύσαντος Βορέαο δυσηλεγέες τελέθουσιν,
ὅστε διὰ Θρῄκης ἱπποτρόφου εὐρέϊ πόντῳ
ἐμπνεύσας ὤρινε· μέμυκε δὲ γαῖα καὶ ὕλη·
πολλὰς δὲ δρῦς ὑψικόμους ἐλάτας τε παχείας
οὔρεος ἐν βήσσῃς πιλνᾷ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ
[ἐμπίπτων, καὶ πᾶσα βοᾷ τότε νήριτος ὕλη.]
θῆρες δὲ φρίσσουσ', οὐρὰς δ ̓ ὑπὸ μέζε ̓ ἔθεντο,
τῶν καὶ λάχνῃ δέρμα κατάσκιον· ἀλλά νυ καὶ τῶν
ψυχρὸς ἐὼν διάησι δασυστέρνων περ ἐόντων.

506. δυσηλεχέες Α. A, with γρ. ὅς τε. μήρε Ι. ἔνθεντο G.

514. διάρησι




τελέθωσι Κ, Ald. 507. ἅς τε (gl. πηγάδας) 512-13. transposed in Ald. 512. ὑπὸ

Moschopulus rightly explains, κατὰ τὸν μῆνα δὲ τὸν Ληναιῶνα—κακαί εἰσιν ἡμέραι, αἴτιαι πᾶσαι τοῦ ἀποδέρεσθαι τοὺς βόας, ἀντὶ τοῦ, τελευτᾶν.

506. δυσηλεχέες Cod. Gale. The exact meaning and etymology of δυσηλεγὴς are uncertain. The resemblance to άλοχος suggests ἅμα and λεχ or λεγ. In Theogon. 652, we have δυσηλεγέος ἀπὸ δεσμοῦ. Theognis v. 739, δυσηλεγέων πολιτῶν. Homer, Il. xx. 154, δυσηλεγέος πολέμοιο, and Od. xxii. 325, θάνατον δυσηλεγέα. Homer has a similar epithet of death, τανηλεγής. Here the idea of being stretched out in sleep, or of a long sleep, suggests the root λεγ (as in λέχος, λέκτο, and λέξεται inf. v. 523). So the frost might well be said, 'hard to sleep with.' But this sense suits neither the other passages, nor the explanation of the scholiasts here, κακῶν φροντίδων πάροχοι, and κακὴν φροντίδα τιθεῖσαι, καὶ δυσμέριμνον. The general tenor of the word seems to be ἄπορος, ἀμήχανος, δυσχερής.—πηγάδες are here frozen clods.'

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(sc. δάμαλις). Hom. Il. xxi. 237, μετ μυκὼς ἦύτε ταῦρος (sc. ποταμός).

511. νήριτος, “ vast, boundless. This word is of doubtful origin. Some derive it from vò and ἔρις. Curtius, Gr. Et. 342, refers it to the root ap, whence also ἀριθμός. According to this, νήριτος is a synonym of ἀνήριθμος, Hesych. πολύς. In Homer, Νήριτον and Νήριτος are proper names, always associated with Ithaca. Od. xiii. 351, τοῦτο δὲ Νήριτον ἐστιν ὅρος καταείμενον ὕλῃ. In later writers it meant - boundless. Apollon. Rhod. iii. 1288, νήριτα ταύρων ίχνια μα στεύων. Ibid. iv. 158, νήριτος ὀσμὴ φαρμάκου. Here, perhaps, the verse was added by a late hand. It is a repetition of v. 508, and encumbers rather than assists the description.

512. μέζεα, an Ionic word for μήδεα in the sense of αἰδοῖα. Goettling refers to Gregory of Corinth, p. 535. Cf. Theog. 180. Od. vi. 129, πτόρθον κλάσε χειρὶ παχείῃ Φύλλων, ὡς ῥύσαιτο περὶ χροῒ μήδεα φωτός. It seems the same as the Latin, viri media, Sanscrit madhya; Curtius shews no good reason for doubting this, Gr. Et. 645. The setting up of the hair and putting the tail between the legs is described as common even to animals covered with thick fur, like the bear, which is θὴρ λαχνόγυιος, Eur. Hel. 378.

καί τε διὰ ῥινοῦ βοὸς ἔρχεται, οὐδέ μιν ἴσχει.
καί τε δι' αἶγα ἄησι τανύτριχα, πώεα δ' †οντι,
[οὖνεκ ̓ ἐπηεταναὶ τρίχες αὐτῶν, οὐ διάησιν]
ἰς ἀνέμου Βορέου· τροχαλὸν δὲ γέροντα τίθησι.
καὶ διὰ παρθενικῆς ἁπαλόχροος οὐ διάησιν,
ἦτε δόμων ἔντοσθε φίλῃ παρὰ μητέρι μίμνει,
οὔπω ἔργ ̓ εἰδυῖα πολυχρύσου Αφροδίτης
εὖτε λοεσσαμένη τέρενα χρόα καὶ λίπ ̓ ἐλαίῳ
χρισαμένη νυχίη καταλέξεται ἔνδοθι οἴκου,

515. βοὸς

516. Γάησι 517. ἐπαιξεταναὶ 521. Γέργα Γίδυΐα ? 523. Γοίκου

518. Fis





515. διὰ ῥ ῥινοῦ BCEF and H by the first hand. 518. βορέαο K, Ald., and D by correction. τροχαλόν τε Α. 520. μίμνει παρὰ μητέρι κεδνῇ (γρ. φίλῃ) Α. ἔντοσθι Κ, Ald. 523. μυχίη A. (with v superscribed). ἔνδοθι ADEF. ἔνδοθεν the rest.

515. If the λάχνη or fur does not keep off the cold, still less does the thinner hair of the ox and the goat. On καί τε see Theogon. v. 3.

516. οὔτι. The οὐ is very awkwardly repeated in the next verse. (See Soph. Antig. 5, 6.) If that be genuine, we might here read πώεα δ' οἰῶν, as the contracted genitive plural is often used by Homer, e.g. Od. xi. 402; xx. 142. 11. xviii, 588, and we have πῶν μέγ' οἰῶν ib. xv. 323, πώεα οἰῶν xi. 678. But by omitting v. 517, we obtain an easier correction; καί τε δι' αἶγα ἄησι τανύτριχα, πώεα δ ̓ οὔτι, ὃς ἀνέμου Βορέου. Curtius, Gr. Et. 281, refers both ποιμὴν and πῶν to the root pa, protect. We might have expected δι' αἰγὸς ἄησι τανύτριχος, which is also the more usual construction, as the scholiasts remark. Or the original line, apart from subsequent additions, may have been καί τε δι' αἶγα ἄησι τανύτριχα Fὶς ἀνέμοιο.

517. ἐπηεταναὶ, permanent during the whole year; αἱ δασεῖαι καὶ οὐ διαλείπουσαι, Moschopulus; who seems to combine two interpretations. Perhaps the idea is αὐταρκες, ‘sufficient in themselves. But τρίχες are not well applied to wool, as contrasted with the hair of goats; nor does Tv alone distinctively mean

a fock of sheep.-On_the digamma in ἐπιρετανός see sup. v. 31.

518. τροχαλόν τε Cod. Gale. The scholiasts rightly took this word to mean ‘bent, ‘stooping;'but Proclus adds, ἢ ὀξὺν ἐν τῷ δρόμῳ, i.e. stepping briskly to promote warmth. In Eur. Iph. Αul. 146, τροχαλοὶ ὄχοι may mean wheeled chariots,' or 'going at a trotting pace.'

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520. Cod. Gale μίμνει παρὰ μητέρι κεδνῇ, but γρ. φίλῃ. This is said to be the reading of one or two other MSS. Perhaps, ἥτ ̓ ἔντοσθε δόμων μίμνει παρὰ μητέρι κεδνῇ.

522. εὖτε καταλέξεται for ὅταν καταλέξηται,an Homeric verb whereof the root λεγ or λεχ is also found in λέγειν, dicere. Schoemann with Dindorf gives εὖ τε κ.τ.λ., but the simple future seems inappropriate after μίμνει, though we might take it for the subjunctive, and read μίμνῃ with Hermann.—λίπα κ.τ.λ., literally, having greasiness rubbed on oneself with oil. The expression is Homeric. In Thucyd. i. 6, λίπα μετὰ τοῦ γυμνάζεσθαι ἠλείψαντο, the word stands alone. See Curtius, Gr. Et. 266.

523. μυχίη (sic) Cod. Gale. The MSS. and scholiasts vary between the two

ἤματι χειμερίῳ, ὅτ ̓ ἀνόστεος ὃν πόδα τένδει
ἔν τ ̓ ἀπύρῳ οἴκῳ καὶ ἤθεσι λευγαλέοισιν,
τοὐ γάρ οἱ ἠέλιος δείκνυ νομὸν ὁρμηθῆναι·
ἀλλ ̓ ἐπὶ κυανέων ἀνδρῶν δῆμόν τε πόλιν τε
στρωφᾶται, βράδιον δὲ Πανελλήνεσσι φαείνει.
καὶ τότε δὴ κεραοὶ καὶ νήκεροι ὑληκοῖται

524. στὸν ?

525. Τοίκῳ Γήθεσι, 526. οὐδέ τοι ?




525. καὶ ἐν AGK, Ald. 526. δείκνει ΕΓ. νόμον Κ. ἀνδρῶν om. A, but added by a later hand in margin. Gl. αιθιόπων. 528. βράδεον δὲ πανέλλησι (γρ. πανελλήνεσσι ἢ παρ' ἕλλησι) Α.

readings; and indeed they are commonly confused, So in Theogon. 901 we find both μύχιον and νύχιον, and in Aesch. Pers. 870. 931. Eur. Med. 211, it is equally difficult to decide which is genuine. Proclus, εἴσω μυχῶν τοῦ οἴκου παρθενευομένην.—ἔνδοθι Cod. Gale, with some others, rightly. The common reading is ἔνδοθεν, against the digamma in Ροίκου.

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digamma; perhaps therefore oudé oi or οὐδέ γὰρ may be the right reading. The use of δαίνυ as in imperfect in Il. xxiii. 29, suggests the meaning here, for the sun did not show it where to find food." But the reading in the two Bodleian MSS. Barocc. 46 and 60, δείκνει, is very notable. Some may have read δεικνύει and pronounced it δείκνει by a synizesis like that by which ἐρινύων sometimes becomes ἐρινῦν.

527. Hesych. κυανέων Μαύρων, Αἰθιό


524. ἀνόστεος, the cuttle-fish, a creature whose habits were not unknown to the Greeks, and which probably gave The notion of the sun visiting rise to the strange legend of Scylla in the Ethiopians seems borrowed from Od. the Odyssey. Hesych. ἀνόστεος ὁ i. 22, and the Πανέλληνες (though the θαλάσσιος πολύπους, σκώληξ. It is called word is used in the Homeric Catalogue, 'the boneless' by a phraseology almost ii. 530, of undoubtedly later date, and peculiar to Hesiod, and which Κ. Ο. there as coupled with the 'Αχαιοί οι Müller (Hist. Gr. Lit. p. 86) calls " ora- Thessalic Argives), in the sense of • the cular and sacerdotal,” as φερέοικος for whole Greek race, would hardly have * a snail, v. 571, ἡμερόκοιτος for ' a rob-been a recognised term in the time of ber,' v. 605, &c.-dv móda Tévdel, 'gnaws its own tentacles. This was a false notion; but it arose from observing that the tentacles of the captured fish were often broken or torn away.-τένδειν is another form, with the hard for the soft dental, of τένθειν and τένθης. Hesych. τένδει· ἐσθίει, ἢ λιχνεύει. τένθαι γὰρ οἱ λιχνοί. Here, as sup. 131, ὃs suus has no digamma.

525. καὶ ἤθεσι. So some of the MSS. rightly for καὶ ἐν ἤθεσι. For the digamma in this word see v. 222.

526. νομὸν, τόπον νομῆς, Mosch.; “a feeding-place to swim towards.' This and the two next lines are certainly not Hesiod's, and they may be even later than the presumed Ionic description now before us. The of always has the

Hesiod. See Thucyd. i. 3.-There is a variant, mentioned by Goettling, παρ' Ελλήνεσσι. So Cod. Gale, γρ. παρ' Έλλησι. Gloss. MS. Cant. πᾶσι τοῖς κατὰ τὸ βόρειον μέρος.

Ibid. κυανέων ἀνδρῶν. Gloss. Cod. Gale αἰθιόπων. By δῆμός τε πόλις τε ho particular settlement, i. e. no real one, is perhaps meant. Goettling thinks that Meroe may be intended, which was called by Herodotus, ii. 29, μητρόπολις τῶν ἄλλων Αἰθιόπων.

529. νήκεροι = νήκερῳ, animals such as boars, &c. opposed to wild goats. The word is compounded of vǹ for ȧvà as in νήποινος, νηπενθὴς, νώνυμος (νὴὄνυμα), νήνεμος, &c.-μυλιόωντες, from μυλιᾶν, μύλη, mola, dismally gnashing their teeth,' perhaps through hunger

λυγρὸν μυλιόωντες ἀνὰ δρία βησσήεντα

φεύγουσιν· καὶ πᾶσιν ἐνὶ φρεσὶ τοῦτο μέμηλεν,



το σκέπα μαιόμενοι πυκινοὺς κευθμώνας ἔχουσι (530) καὶ γλάφυ πετρῆεν· τότε δὴ τρίποδι βροτῷ ἶσοι, οὗτ ̓ ἐπὶ νῶτα ἔαγε, κάρη δ' εἰς οὐδας ὁρᾶται, τῷ ἴκελοι φοιτῶσιν, ἀλευόμενοι νίφα λευκήν. καὶ τότε ἔσσασθαι ἔρυμα χροός, ὥς σε κελεύω, χλαινάν τε μαλακὴν καὶ τερμιόεντα χιτῶνα· στήμονι δ ̓ ἐν παύρῳ πολλὴν κρόκα μηρύσασθαι·

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rather than through cold. The v is properly short, and therefore the a must be regarded as doubled in pronunciation. Van Lennep gives μυλλιόωντες (μυλλὸς) with the ed. princ. Proclus says that Crates the grammarian read μαλκιόωντες. Cobet, Var. Lect. p. 131, thinks μαλκίοντες the true form. See Aesch. frag. 406, ed. Herm. and Photius in v. μαλκίειν.

531. τοῦτο μέμηλεν, scil. τὸ φεύγειν.— Perhaps ὡς ἔχωσι, ‘that in their search for shelter they may have hiding-places that keep out the cold.—σκέπα, a remarkable plural from σκέπας, like γέρα from γέρας.

533. γλάφυ, the neuter of the obsolete γλαφὺς = γλαφυρός, here used for a substantive. We have the verb γλάφει in Scut. H. 431.—Hesych. γλάφυ σπη λαῖον, ἄντρον. τρίποδι βροτῷ, an old man who walks by the aid of a stick, τριβάμων, Eur. Troad. 275, τρίποδας μὲν ὁδοὺς στείχει, Αesch. Agam. 80. The nominative is θῆρες, which are said φοιτᾶν, to stalk through the forest, with bended body, and as it were shrinking into themselves, like old men. There is an evident allusion to the riddle of the Sphinx, who is mentioned in Theog. 326, as Oedipus was sup. v. 163. Hermann would read βροτο. and Goettling so far agrees as to make βροτοὶ the


536. Τέσσασθαι Γέρυμα

533. ὅτε δὴ Ι. 534. 536. καὶ τότ' σασθαι Α. χλαῖναν μὲν the rest.

subject to φοιτώσιν. The absence of the F in foot throws a doubt on the antiquity of the verse.

534. ἔαγε. The Attics use the genitive of the part, as Ar. Ach. 1180, καὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς κατέαγε περὶ λίθον πεσών. Bentley proposed ἐάγη, which would require κεφαλὴ for κάρη. The a is long by nature, so that ἐάγη would be a synizesis. Cf. Ar. Ach. 928, iva un καταγῇ φερόμενος (al. καταγῇ φορούμενος).

535. νίφα, a word with no nominative Curtius, 318), seems to be ἅπαξ λεγόμενον. Photius, νίβα· χιόνα. Either he wrote νίφα, or he explained a word belonging to a much later dialect.

530-7. Both ἔρυμα χροός (Il. iv. 137) and τερμιόεντα χιτῶνα (Od. xix. 242), • a tunic (or frock) reaching down to the feet, are Homeric phrases, and therefore add something to the suspicion that this passage is the work of an Ionic rhapsodist.

538. πολλὴν κρόκα. He recommends much weft, or cross-thread, to scanty warp, the erect orhuav suspended from the loom. The common form is κρόκη, not κράξ. But we have πτὺξ by the side of πτυχή.—μηρύσασθαι, glomerare, to enwrap or intertwine it by means of the shuttle.

τὴν περιέσσασθαι, ἵνα του τρίχες ἀτρεμέωσι, μηδ ̓ ὀρθαὶ φρίσσωσιν ἀειρόμεναι κατὰ σῶμα. ἀμφὶ δὲ ποσσὶ πέδιλα βοὸς ΐφι κταμένοιο ἄρμενα δήσασθαι, πίλοις ἔντοσθε πυκάσσας. πρωτογόνων δ ̓ ἐρίφων, ὁπότε κρύος ὥριον ἔλθῃ, δέρματα συρράπτειν νεύρῳ βοὸς, ὄφρ ̓ ἐπὶ νώτῳ ὑετοῦ ἀμφιβάλῃ ἀλέην· κεφαλῆφι δ ̓ ὕπερθεν πῖλον ἔχειν ἀσκητὸν, ἵν ̓ οὔατα μὴ καταδεύῃ· ψυχρὴ γάρ τ' ἠὼς πέλεται Βορέαο πεσόντος· ἠφος δ ̓ ἐπὶ γαῖαν ἀπ ̓ οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος

539. περιέσσασθαι

544. βοιὸς

540. ἀFειρόμεναι 541. βοὸς Fΐφι
547. ἀξὼς 548. ȧFoos

539. περιέσασθαι AD. ἀτρεμέωσιν BCGI. ὁπόταν Ald. ἔλθοι ΑΕΓΚ, Αld.

541. On ΐφι with the digamma see Scut. H. 53.—κταμένου, slain, sacrificed, ib. 402. The phrase is again Homeric; Il. ii. 375, ἥ οἱ ῥῆξεν ἴμαντα βοὺς ΐφι κταμένοιο. The meaning is (say the old commentators) that the hide of an ox that has died of disease or old age is not to be used. From the joke of Aristophanes, Ach. 724, about the whip made ἐκ λεπρῶν, out of leprous hides, it would seem that such hides were harder and thicker.


542. πίλοις, ‘with felt. Il. x. 265, κυνέην—μέσσῃ δ ̓ ἐνὶ πῖλος ἀρήρει. Plat. Symp. p. 220, Β, καί ποτε ὄντος πάγου οἷου δεινοτάτου, καὶ πάντων—ὑποδεδεμένων καὶ ἐνειλιγμένων τοὺς πόδας εἰς πίλους καὶ ἀρνακίδας, κ.τ.λ.

543. ὁπόταν Gaisford and Goettling, apparently with very slight MS. authority. Good copies give ἔλθοι, which is defensible in the sense of εἴ ποτε ἔλθοι. —κρύος ὥριον, seasonable cold; τὸ συνήθως ἐν τῇ τεταγμένῃ αὐτοῦ ὥρᾳ γινόμενον, Moschop.

544. ἐπὶ νώτῳ, to form a water-proof cape. Similar leathern garments were σισύρα οι σισύρνη, διφθέρα, and βαίτη. Robinson follows Graevius in reading ἐπὶ ὤμῳ, merely because Moschopulus happens so to paraphrase ἐπὶ νώτῳ.

546. πίλον, a cap, κυνέη, made of soft fur, and lined with felt. It is uncertain

ἔλθῃ the rest.





543. ὁπότε MSS.

what is meant by ἀσκητὸν, which Moschopulus explains by τέχνῃ κατεσκευασ μένον, but adds, that it may mean, ‘made large enough to cover the ears. It should mean, decorated externally with some kind of ornament; here, perhaps, with ear-flaps. Theocr. i. 33, ἀσκητὰ πέπλῳ τε καὶ ἄμπυκι.—καταδεύῃ, that it (the shower) may not drench your ears.

547. πέσοντος, τουτέστιν ἄνωθεν πνεύσαντος· πνεῖ γὰρ ἀπὸ ὑψηλοτέρων ὁ βορέας, ὃ δηλοῖ τὸ πεσεῖν. Proclus. This seems the true explanation, and is preferred by Goettling to another, hardly less obvious but of opposite sense, λήγοντος, κοιμωμένου, as the Romans said venti cecidere. To this Van Lennep inclines. Homer seems to use πεσεῖν in both senses : thus in Od. xiv. 475, νὺξ ἄρ ̓ ἐπῆλθε κακὴ, βορέαο πεσόντος, πηγυλίς, the meaning is πνεύσαντος, but ib. xix. 202, τῇ τρισκαιδε κάτῃ δ ̓ ἄνεμος πέσε, τοὶ δ ̓ ἀνάγοντο, the context shows the sense to be, the wind fell, ceased. The MS. Cant. here has the gloss ἀντὶ τοῦ πνεύσαντος. Gl. Cod. Gale πνεύσαντος ἢ μετὰ τὸ πνεῦσαι, which recognises both meanings.

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548. ήφος—ἀήρ. ‘In the morning too a mist from heaven, producing good wheat-crops, is spread over the earth

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