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EPITOME OF THE SUBJECT.

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1–10, Address to the Muses and invocation of Zeus.-11-26, Distinction of two kinds of Contention, viz. jealousy and honourable emulation.—27—41, Complaint of the dishonest conduct of Perses in depriving his brother of part of his inheritance through the favour of corrupt judges.-42–53, Causes of woe and suffering on earth traced to the fraud of Prometheus.—54–89, Episode of Prometheus and the punishment of mankind by the creation of the woman Pandora.—90—105, Primitive happiness of man, and the present evils that issued from Pandora's casket.—109–201, The ages of the human race; golden (109—126), silver (127—142), brazen (143—155); the age of heroes (156—173). The present and greatly deteriorated age, and prospects of a yet worse (174—201).202—211, Story of the kite and the nightingale.—212—218, Its application to Perses, and advice to be honest.—219–247, Effects of practising justice and injustice on the prosperity of cities.248–269, Appeal to the judges to decide impartially.—274—285, Reiterated address to Perses to desist from his evil ways, and place right before might.—286—292, The broad road to vice and the narrow road to virtue.—293—326, Advice to Perses to rely on his own industry; the consequences of industry and idleness contrasted; and the end of ili-gotten gains.—327—334, Examples of crimes that bring special vengeance from the gods.—335–341, The practice of piety recommended.—342—382, Maxims, chiefly relating to doméstic economy.-Part II. Precepts on Husbandry. -333-390, The proper times for reaping, ploughing, and sowing. —395–404, Threat to Perses that he shall have no further help if he continues idle.—405—413, Advice to get the required implements of husbandry ready in time.—414-447, Instructions for

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making a wain, a plough, a mortar and pestle, &c.—448—454, Advice to keep cattle in good condition, and not to rely on the loan of them from others at a busy season.—458—492, The best times for first and second ploughing.–493—503, What is to be done, and what to be avoided in the cold season. - 506—563, Description of winter and its effects on man and beast.—564–581, The season of pruning vines and gathering in the vintage.582—596, Midsummer, and its permissible rest and enjoyments.597—608, Winnowing and storing corn, and fodder for winter stock.—609—617, How to treat grapes when gathered, and how to store wine.—618—640, Precepts respecting navigation; how to keep boats and tackle in the winter.—632—540, How the poet's father came by sea from Cyme in Aeolis to Ascra.—641—662, The poet's own adventure from Aulis to Euboea, to be present at a musical contest. 663—677, The time for summer voyaging.678–694, The time for spring voyaging, more hazardous than the other.—695—705, Advice touching marriage.—706—764, Religious and ceremonial obligations inculcated.—PART III. The Calendar, with the lucky and unlucky days.

ΕΡΓΑ ΚΑΙ ΗΜΕΡΑΙ.

Μούσαι Πιερίηθεν, αοιδησι κλείουσαι,

1. κλέπουσαι

Title, "Έργα και Ημέραι. This means, (Com. Crit. p. 13) observes, “ totum hoc Farming operations and lucky and un- prooemium, sive verba sive sententias lucky days, viz. both for such opera- consideramus, nec bonum poetam protions and for domestic matters generally. dere nec satis accommodatum videtur inIt is well explained by Tzetzes (iii. p. 17 sequentis carminis argumento.” There Gaisf.) διδασκαλία γεωργίας και ημερών, is an important passage in Pausanias, καθ' &ς δεί τόδε και τόδε ποιείν. How ix. 31, 3, which shows that the pro0eancient the title is, or whether it has mium had not much credit for genuinedescended from the Author himself, it is ness, though it existed in his time :impossible to say. In the MSS. gene- Βοιωτών δε οι περί τον Ελικώνα οικούντες rally, the "Έργα is regarded as a distinct παρειλημμένα δόξη λέγουσιν, ώς άλλο division of the poem (ν. 383), the “Ημέραι Ησίοδος ποιήσαι ουδέν ή τα 'Εργα και also forming a separate subject, from v. τούτων δε το ές τάς Μούσας αφαιρούσι 765. It is very probable that this part προοίμιον, αρχής της ποιήσεως είναι το ες of the poem contains precepts attributed τας Έριδας λέγοντες· καί μοι μόλιβδον to Orpheus, Musaeus, or Pythagoras, εδείκνυσαν, ένθα η πηγή, τα πολλά υπό compiled and added at a later period. του χρόνου λελυμασμένα γέγραπται δε

1-10. That this projemium proceeded [εν αυτώ τα Έργα.-It has no connexion from the pen of Hesiod, was denied by with the subject of the poem, beyond Aristarchus and others of the learned the somewhat forced allusion to the law. Grammarians. Proclus (ap. Gaisf. iii. suit with Perses, in the invocation to p. 3), ότι δε το προοίμιόν τινες διέγραψαν, Zeus “ to set straight the decisions of ώσπερ άλλοι τε και Αρίσταρχος οβελίζων judges. Moreover, there is a double τους[Ο στίχους, και Πραξιφάνης και του Θεο- address, first to the Muses, to sing of φράστου μαθητής, μηδέ τούτο αγνοώμεν. Zeus, then to Zeus himself;" and lastly, Ούτος μέντοι και εντυχείν φησίν απρο- there is a rapid transition to Perses by οιμιάστε τα βιβλία και αρχομένη χωρίς the awkward antithesis, “Do thου, ο της επικλήσεως των Μουσών εντεύθεν, Zeus, set straight men's decisions, and Ουκ άρα μούνον έην ερίδων γένος. It is I will address to Perses the truth. The highly probable that it was borrowed or probable inference is, (as Goettling has adapted from some ancient Hymn to well stated it,) that the first nine verses Zeus, and was prefixed as an Introduc- were prefixed as an introduction by some tion to the genuine poem, after the usual rhapsodist, while v. 10 was added by a custom of the later hymn-writers, èK Aids grammarian to connect them with the αρχώμεσθα κ.τ.λ. Κ. Ο. Müller (Hist. direct purport of the poem, which comGr. Lit. p. 83) regards it as only one of menced naturally and appropriately several introductory strains which the with ουκ άρα μούνον έην Ερίδων γένος. Hesiodean rhapsodists could prefix to 1. Πιερίηθεν, scil. ελθούσαι, likeVirgil's the Works and Days. Schoemann Pastor ab Amphryso, Georg. iii. 2. Il.

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δεύτε, Δίεννέπετε σφέτερον πατέρ' υμνειουσαι:
όντε διά βροτοί άνδρες όμως άφατοί τε φατοί τε,
ρητοί τ' άρρητοί τε Διός μεγάλοιο έκητι.
ρέα μεν γαρ βριάει, ρέα δε βριάοντα χαλέπτει,

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4. Fέκητι

2. δεύτε δι' K, Αld. δεύτε δε EF'. δεύτε δη the rest. 5. ρεια-ρεία Ι. ρεία--ρέα ABCDEFGK.

xiii. 363, 'Οθρυονήα Καβησόθεν.-κλεί- and φατοι, ρητοί. Again, ρητοί, οι ένουσαι, celebrating in lays, viz. τά τε δοξοι. θεία και τα ανθρώπινα. Cf. Theogon. 32. 5. The reason why both obscurity and Od. xvii. 418, εγώ δέ κε σε κλείω κατ' celebrity depend on Zeus, is declared in απείρονα γαίαν. Τheocr. xvi. 1, άει τούτο what follows: “ for easily he makes Διός κώραις μέλει, αιέν αοιδούς, υμνείν strong, and easily the strong one he αθανάτους, υμνείν αγαθών κλέα ανδρών. brings low ; easily too the illustrious he Εur. Alc. 448, εν αλύροις κλείοντες ύμνοις. humbles, and the obscure one he exalts' Iph. Α. 1046, τον Αιακίδαν Κενταύρων For the monosyllable δέα Goettling comν' όρος κλέουσαι. Αr. Pac. 777, Μούσα- pares II. xvii

. 461-2, ρέα μεν γαρ φεύκλείουσα θεών τε γάμους ανδρών τε δαύτας. γεσκεν υπέκ Τρώων ορυμαγδού, δεία δ' The verbal is κλειτος, as from κλύω έπαιξασκε πολύν καθ' όμιλον όπάζων, κλυτός, root κλν and κλεF.

adding that péa ends the verse as a 2. Most MSS. give deŪTE Oń. Of those monosyllable in Il. xii. 381, and xx. 101. I have collated, one only has δεύτε Δί? So also in XX. 263. ρέα διελεύσεσθαι εννέπετε. It is clearly a better reading, κλισίας, Ι. xiii. 144. νέα μέν μοι κατέand is found in some of Goettling's co- αξε, Οd. ix. 283. Inf. v. 462, έαρι πολεϊν. dices. Gaisford however and Schoe- It is singular that nearly all the MSS. mann retain δή.-σφέτερον, (though the agree in ρεία μέν-ρεία δε, or δεία-δέα word is etymologically connected with dě. There may have been an old readvester,) is scarcely used for υμέτερον in ing δείά τε γάρ βριάει, δέα τε βριάοντα the early epic. See Buttmann, Lexil. χαλέπτει.--The transitive use of βριάω p. 422, note. Theocritus (xxii. 67) has and uirúbw is remarkable, especially as πυξ διατεινόμενος σφετέρης μη φείδεο contracted with the intransitive βριάντα τέχνης.

in the same verse. Cf. Theogon. 446, 3. ομως κ.τ.λ. are alike unmentioned ποίμνας δ' ειροπόκων οθων εξ ολίγων and renowned. Gloss. cod. Gal. άδοξοι βριάει. II. XV. 490, ρεία δ' αρίγνωτος Διός και ένδοξοι. The next verse is merely ανδράσι γίγνεται αλκή - ότινας μινύθη. exegetical, and might be omitted without XX. 242, Ζεύς δ' αρετήν άνδρεσσιν οφέλλει detriment to the sense. It is impossible τε μινύθει τε. More commonly μινύθειν to form any sure conclusion respecting is to dwindle,' as inf. v. 244. So repetitions of this kind; but they may βαρύθει, ν. 215.-βριάει, gloss. Cod. Gal. often be merely amplifications or expan- ισχυροποιεί.-χαλέπτει, έλαττοι, id. Lat. sions of the context emanating from the afligit, debilem reddit. Hesych. Kakitel, early rhapsodists. Certain it is, they βλάπτει, εις χαλεπότητα άγει. - The are very numerous in the writings of general doctrine is, that Zeus performs Hesiod as we now have them. Gene- whatever he may will without effort or rally, words or deeds, rather than per- difficulty. Aesch. Suppl. 93, Tây čtrovov Sons, are άρρητα, θ. g. Demosth. p. 612, δαιμόνιον. Εum. 621, ουδέν άσθμαίνων τον δε ομού ρητά και άρρητα κακά (έλε- μένει. The particular reference is to γεν). Soph. Oed. Col. 1000, άπαν καλόν the fortunes of Perses and his brother.. λέγειν νομίζων, ρητόν άρρητόν τ' έπος. If Horace appears to imitate this passage. the verse 4 is genuine, there should be Carm. i. 34, 12, “valet ima summis. a difference of meaning in the verbals. Mutare, et insignem attenuat deus ObBut Ηesychius has άφατον, άρρητον, 8cura promens.

ρεία δ' αρίζηλον μινύθει και άδηλον αέξει,
ρεία δέ τ' ιθύνει σκολιών και αγήνορα κάρφει
Ζευς υψιβρεμέτης, δς υπέρτατα δώματα ναίει.
κλύθι ιδών αΐων τε, δίκη δ' ιθυνε θέμιστας
[τύνη: εγώ δέ κε Πέρση ετήτυμα μυθησαίμην].

Ουκ άρα μούνον έην Έρίδων γένος, αλλ' επί γαίαν

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10. IIépon all (but in a few the i subscript is omitted).

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6, 7. Hesiod not unfrequently has 11-26. There are, it seems, two disthree consecutive lines commencing with tinct kinds of contention on earth; the the same word; see inf. on v. 579.- one good, the other bad ; the one a source αρίζηλον, for άρισ-δηλον, i. e. αρίδηλον, Or of war and strife, the other the origin of perhaps (Curtius, Gr. Et. 604) for åpı- an honourable emulation. This is said djnnos, the root being dif. Buttmann as introductory to the subject immediregards åpīdndov as contracted from åple ately on the poet's mind, viz. the unjust ιδηλον. But άρις for άρι may be com- quarrel raised against him by his own pared with αμφίs and μέχρις.-αγήνορα brother. To divert him from the bad κάρφει. Ρroclus, τον αυθάδη και υπερόπ- kind of strife to the good, and to stimuτην ευτελή ποιεί και ταπεινόν. Inf. V. late him to honest industry, the whole 575, ότε τήέλιος χρόα κάρφει. Οd. xiii. of the precepts in this didactic poem 430, κάρψεν μέν χρόα καλόν ενί γναμπ- are directed. There is an interesting τοϊσι μέλεσσι. Properly, to shrivel allusion to this twofold έρις in Soph. up, or contract; whence képpos, a bit Oed. Col. 367–72, where the j aplv of stick or straw.

(αγαθή) έρις μή χραίνεσθαι πόλιν, is con8. This verse reads very tamely as the trasted with the ý vův kak) épis åpxñs subject to the verbs which have pre- λαβέσθαι. In the former verse most ceded. Perhaps it was interpolated editors have adopted Tyrwhitt's contogether with y. 10, or perhaps the first jecture špws.-In Theog. 225 only one reading was κλύθι ιδών αΐων τε, δίκη δ' "Έρις is spoken of, as the daughter of Yθυνε θέμιστας, Ζεύς υψιβρεμέτης, δς υπέρ- Night (inf. v. 17). τατα δώματα ναίεις. This clause is 11. ουκ άρα. Goettling would render quoted by the Schol. Med. on Aesch. this, “To begin then, there was not Suppl. 73.

merely one kind of Contentions sent 9. θέμιστας, which the scholiasts refer from the first to men, but two distinct to the divine law, must here mean the kinds. There seems however no good decisions of men, as inf. v. 221. Theo- reason for departing from the common gon. 85 (where see the note).-τύνη, an and idiomatic use of ήν άρα, “Well ! it epic and Aeolic form for or , not seems that, after all, Contention is of uncommon in Homer. The quantity of two kinds, not of one only, as the first syllable has an analogy in the thought. Schol. on Apoll. Rhod. ii. Latin tu. Cf. Theog. 36, Τύνη, Μουσάων 440 (quoted by Gaisford), ουκ ήν, ώς αρχώμεθα. Tzetzes compares έγώνη. Of έοικε, μία έρις. Cf. Χen. Oecon. i. 20, course, Zeus is addressed, not Perses. αι πρϊόντος του χρόνου-καταφανείς γίγThat idea was entertained by some who νονται, ότι λυπαι άρα ήσαν ήδοναίς περιfound the vocative Πέρση in place of πεπεμμέναι. Οd. xvii. 454, ώ πόποι, ουκ the dative. Though an inferior reading άρα σοί γ' επί είδεϊ και φρένες ήσαν.-επί (since ool must thus be supplied) Goett- yalay, ‘over the earth,' with the notion ling adopts it, with Gaisford, adding of progress and wide dissemination, not “ Pauci codd. Diépon.All the MSS. I of any fixed locality, which would be have collated give this latter reading. επί γαία or γαίας. See on Theog. 95.

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