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66

pronounces the whole

poem,

made up as it is of two parts, the work "recentioris cuiusdam versificatoris, haud magni aestimandum, et vix iterata lectione, nedum diligentiore tractatione et critica cura satis dignum.” It is certainly remarkable that not a single verse of the “Shield” is cited by any ancient author ; whereas the citations from both the “ Works" and the « Theogony frequent, but especially from the former. Only bere and there a scholiast or one of the later grammarians refers to the poem. Stobaeus does not give any extracts from the “Shield ; " Athenaeus once or twice alludes to it.

Another suspicious circumstance is, that to a considerable extent the Shield is a cento of Homeric phrases and expressions; more so even than of Hesiodic. This is precisely what we should expect from an Ionic rhapsodist.

The silence of the ancients generally about the now famous Sbield of Achilles” in the xviii. book of the Iliad, combined with some words and phrases not strictly archaic in character, throws a doubt even on that poem, as possibly a post-Periclean compilation from earlier sources. Even Plato, the first author who cites our Homer definitely, nowhere quotes from the “Shield of Achilles.” Nor can it be altogether the same poem as that known to Euripides, Iph. A. 1067 seqq., because there Achilles is said to have brought όπλα Ηφαιστόπονα, εκ θεάς ματρός δωρήματ' έχων, when he first came to Troy with his myrmidons. The old materials from which both the Hesiodic and the Homeric descriptions were derived, were possibly the same, and this supposition will account for the many coincidences between the two. But to suppose that “Hesiod,” B.C. 700, copied “Homer,” B.C. 850, is, to my mind,

· simply absurd.

The MSS. of the Shield are very few. I have only been able to collate two, and these are recent, and very corruptly written. The only scholia existing are the paraphrase of John the Deacon (who lived as late as the end of the fourteenth century) and the comments of Tzetzes. Of the three Hesiodic poems this alone has any Greek argument prefixed.

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ΥΠΟΘΕΣΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ ΑΣΠΙΔΟΣ.

Α.

1

Τάφιοι στρατεύσαντες επί τας Ήλεκτρύωνος βούς ανείλον τους της 'Αλκμήνης αδελφούς των θρεμμάτων υπεραγωνιζομένους, του δε 'Αμφιτρύωνος βουλομένου αυτη' συνελθείν, ου πρότερον αυτώ υπέσχετο, πρινή παρά των αδελφοκτόνων εισπράξηται τιμωρίαν.3 ο δε επιστρατεύσας άνειλεν αυτούς. κατά δε την αυτήν νύκτα συνέρχονται και αυτή αμφότεροι, και τε Ζεύς και ο 'Αμφιτρύων, ο μεν εκ 5 του πολέμου υποστρέψας, Ζεύς δε βουληθείς τους και ανθρώποις βοηθόν γεννήσαι. η δε κύει εκ μέν 'Αμφιτρύωνος Ιφικλέα, εκ δε Διός Ηρακλέα. ός και επί Κύκνον 'Αρεος υιόν ηνίοχον έχων Ιόλαον στρατεύεται, ός τους τας δεκάδας 8 άγοντας εις Πυθώ περιεσύλα.3 σκεπασθείς ούν ηφαιστοτεύκτα ασπίδα προσεισιν 10 είς Τραχινα προς Κύκα. συμβαλών δε τω Κύκνω αυτόν μεν αναιρεί, τον δε "Αρην υπερασπίζοντα του υιού κατά μηρον τιτρώσκει, και 11 ούτως έρχεται προς Κύκα: ήν δε ο Κύκνος γαμβρός Κήύκος επί θυγατρι Θεμιστονόη.12

Β.

Οι Τάφιοι και οι Τηλεβόαι εις έριν ελθόντες προς τους αδελφούς της 'Αλκμήνης εφόνευσαν αυτούς. αυτή δε τον εαυτής γάμον εκήρυττε γαμείσθαι το δυναμένω διεκδικήσει τον θάνατον των αδελφών αυτής. περιερχομένη ούν επί τούτοις ήλθεν εν Θήβαις, όπου εδούλευεν ο 'Αμφιτρύων τότε.

2

3

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' αυτή βουλομένου συνεισελθείν Ν.

αυτή om. Ν.
πρίν ή τώ αδελφοκτόνα εισπράξαι τιμωρίας Ν.

αμφότεροι συνέρχοντο αυτή Ν.
και από Ν.
6 τοις om. Ν.
7 και om. Ν. τον άρεος υιόν Ν.
8 δεκάτας Schoenmann.
9 εσύλα Ν.
10 πρόεισιν Ν.
11 αλλ' Ν.

12 προς κήυκα, τον πενθερον κύκνου τον (1. του) γήμαντος Θεμιστονόην Ν. (Vulg. Θεμιστονόμη.)

κακείνος υπέσχετο αυτη. * * * 1 ο 'Αμφιτρύων και της 'Αλκμήνης σύν ευνος τον της εαυτου γυναικός πατέρα Ηλεκτρύωνα αποκτείνας.

Γ.

Της 'Ασπίδος η αρχή εν τω δ' Kαταλόγω φέρεται μέχρι στίχων ν και 5.2 υπόπτευκε 3 δε 'Αριστοφάνης, ουχ ο κωμικός, αλλά τις έτερος, γραμματικός, ώς ουκ ούσαν αυτήν Ησιόδου, αλλ' ετέρου τινός την Ομηρικήν ασπίδα μιμήσασθαι προαιρουμένου. Μεγακλής δε ο Αθηναίος γνήσιον μέν οίδε το ποίημα, άλλως δε και επιτιμά τω Ησιόδω. άλογον γάρ φησι ποιείν “Ήφαιστον τοίς της μητέρος εχθρούς όπλα παρέχοντα. 'Απολλώνιος δε ο Ρόδιος εν τω γ φησίν αυτού είναι, έκ τε του χαρακτήρος και εκ του 8 τον Ιόλαον εν τω Καταλόγο ευρίσκειν ηνιοχούντα το Ηρακλεί. ώσαύτως δε και Στησίχορός 9 φησιν Ησιόδου είναι το ποίημα.

5

6

1 «Videtur addendum και εγένετο' Goettling.
2 ν και σ Ν. Αld., with the Vulgate text. ν' και ε' Heinrich after Petit.
3 διό και υπόπτευκεν Ν., and om. ουχ ο-γραμματικός.

* add. N. κέχρηται δε εν αρχή υποθέσει τοιάδε. τάφιοι στρατεύσαντες, &ο. (arg. Α.)

5 και άλλως επιτιμάται ησιόδω N., which has this part of the argument (Μεγακλής -ποίημα) on ν. 139 of the poem.

6 ποιείν όπλα ηφαιστον τοίς της μητρός εχθρούς Ν., om. παρέχοντα.
1 αυτήν Ν.
8 και του πάλαι τον Ιόλαον Ν.
9 και στησίχορος δέ φησίν Ν. The name is probably corrupt.

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ΑΣΠΙΣ ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ.

ολη προλιπούσα δόμους και πατρίδα γαίαν ήλυθεν ές Θήβας μετ' άρήίον 'Αμφιτρύωνα

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6

1. In the Γυναικών κατάλογοs, from μετ' αμύμονος Or αρηΐου 'Αμφιτρύωνος, which the first part of this poem is with her husband Amphitryon. There stated, in one of the Greek arguments, is some confusion in the legend. Here to have been borrowed, Hesiod had Amphitryon is represented as banished commenced each description of his (by Sthenelus, king of Argos) for slayheroines with oin, 'or like as '-, ing Electryon, after he had married whence the name Eoiae, μεγάλαι 'Hoίαι, Alemena ; so that his wife followed him was given to that portion of the poem, into exile, from Argos to Thebes. – for there is every probability that the Tzetzes ; φεύγει εις Θήβας μετά 'Αλκμή'Hoîai and the Katároyos are two names νης, ου πριν μιγείς ταύτη, πριν είς τέλος of the same or parts of the same poem, αφανίσαι Ταφίους δίκην δόντας των φόνων at least in their later recension. The τών της 'Αλκμήνης αδελφών. But aclong description of Alcmena's beauty cording to another account, he slew and of the amour of Zeus has no con- Electryon, in conjunction with the nexion with the general subject, beyond Taphii, in a dispute about his patrishowing cause for the innate valour of mony, which also caused the death of Hercules. Goettling therefore distin- his sons, the brothers of Alcmena. In guishes 1–56 from the rest, as probably consequence of this, Alcmena promised prefixed by a rhapsodist. K. Müller her hand to the avenger of her brothers. also (Hist. Gr. Lit. p. 98) says, “It is Amphitryon undertook and performed clear to every reader of the poem that the task, by slaying his former allies the first 56 verses are taken out of the the Taphii, and so received her hand Eoiae, and only inserted because the after the banishment. Apollonius, i. poem itself had been handed down 747, represents the quarrel about the without an introduction." On the oxen as between the Teleboae and the highly probably supposition, that the brothers of Alemena ; έν δε βοών

Shield of Hercules was composed in έσκεν λάσιος νομός, αμφί δε βoυσι Τηλεa much later age than Hesiod's, we may βόαι μάρναντο και υπέες Ηλεκτρύωνος, οι still have in this pro0emium & consider- μέν αμειβόμενοι, άταρ οίγ' εθέλοντες able fragment of a genuine lost poem. αμέρσαι, ληϊσται Τάφιοι. Τhat the whole

2. uerà with an accusative necessarily story is a solar myth, and Electryon means 'after,' or 'following Amphi- another name of ’HA6KTwp, the sun, is tryon. We should have rather expected self-evident.

5

'Αλκμήνη, θυγάτηρ λαοσσόου Ηλεκτρύωνος.
ή ρα γυναικών φύλον έκαίνυτο θηλυτεράων
είδε τε μεγέθει τει νόον γε μέν ούτις έριζε
τάων, ας θνηται θνητοίς τέκον εύνηθείσαι.
της και από κρηθεν βλεφάρων ήτ’ απο κυανεάων
τοιον άηθ' οδόν τε πολυχρύσου Αφροδίτης.
η δε και ως κατά θυμόν εoν τίεσκεν ακοίτην,
ως ούπω τις έτισε γυναικών θηλυτεράων.
ή μήν οι πατέρ' εσθλόν απέκτανε ίφι δαμάσσας

10

3. λαδοσσόβου

3. Fείδεϊ

8. άνηθο

9. FOV

11. Foι Fιφι

9. και ος Ν.

5. γέ μιν Ν. 7. κυανέων N, Αld. κυαννέων Ο. 11. ή μέν Ο. οι om. Αld. απέκτεινεν Ν.

4. εκαινυτο, “surpassed.' Hesych. Κρονίων. Or, βλεφάρων απο κυανέων τε. ενίκα. This word is once used in Homer, One or two ΜSS. give κυανεόντων or Od. iii. 282, φρόντιν 'Ονητoρίδην, δς -ώντων. εκαίνυτο φύλανθρώπων να κυβερνήσαι. 8. άητο, spiravit. Virg. (Aen. i. 403) Also by Moschus, Europα, ν. 91, του δ' “ Ambrosiaeque comae divinum vertice άμβροτος οδμή τηλόθι και λειμώνος έκαί- odorem Spiravere.Fragrance was a VUTO napdv åütuhu. It is of rare oc- peculiar attribute of a divine person. currence in this tense, which is perhaps τίς αχώ, τίς οδμά; asks Prometheus (ν. the only one in use ; for it seems that 115). & Ociov oduñs aveŪua, Hippolytus kékaouai (root kas or kad) is erroneously exclaims of Artemis, v. 1391.

And so referred to Kalvvual, though it takes the the gift of fragrance is imparted to Besame construction, as Il. xiii. 431, renice by Venus, Theocr. xvii. 36, rds πάσαν γάρ ομηλικίην έκέκαστο κάλλεϊ και μέν Κύπρον έχoισα Διώνας πότνια κώρα έργοισιν. Analogous deponent forms Κόλπον ες ευώδη ραδινάς εσεμάξατο χείρας. are αΐνυμαι, λάζυμαι.- θηλυτεράων, from Theognis says all Delos was illed with a positive θηλύτερος, like oρέστερος, fragrance wlien Apollo was born, v. 5-9. αγρότερος, αμφότερος.

The construction is the same as the 5. γε μέν, “but, verum. See Opp: neuter adjective and the double genitive 772. The connexion is “She surpassed with όζειν, e. g. ηδύ όζει χιτώνος μύρου. mortal women in grace; but as for in- So here Alemena is said όζειν κρατος tellect, none could vie with her in that τoίoν οίον 'Αφροδίτης. This seems a except goddesses.'

truer explanation than the supposing 7. κρήθεν, for κάρηθεν, a synonym of an ellipse of άημα or πνεύμα. κρατός.- βλεφάρων, if from βλέφαρον, 9. και ώς, even though he was in should not take the purely feminine banishment for having slain her own form κυανεάων. Hence some have sup- father. So Goettling. Quamvis pulposed a nominative Ý Brepápa orý cherrima esset," says Robinson, who Brépapos. The Schol. B. on Il. xix. 1, finds here a sarcasm on fair women. says the termination in áw is the But the sense really depends on the univ Boeotian dialect, and he cites Κρητάων following, which is equivalent to καίτοι. for Κρητών, νησάων for νήσων, and the She loved her husband, though he was present passage as proving that it was the slayer of her own father. As if the also the neuter genitive. Perhaps, από poet had said, “In truth, he had slain κρηθέν τ' οφρύων ταπό κ.τ.λ., since her father ; but even as the homicide Theocritus has κυάνοφρυς νύμφα, iii. 18, she loved him. and Homer, κυανέησιν επ' οφρύσι νεύσε

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