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σειε Κ, Αld.

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εισί δύω την μέν κεν επαινήσειε νοήσας,
η δ' επιμωμητή, διά δ' ανδιχα θυμόν έχουσιν
ή μεν γαρ πόλεμόν τε κακόν και δώριν οφέλλει,
σχετλίη: ούτις τήν γε φιλεϊ βροτος, αλλ' υπ' ανάγκης
αθανάτων βουλήσιν "Έριν τιμώσι βαρείαν.

16 την δ' ετέρην προτέρην μεν εγείνατο Νυξ έρεβεννή, θηκε δέ μιν Κρονίδης υψίζυγος, αιθέρι ναίων γαίης τ' εν ρίζησι και ανδράσι, πολλών αμείνω ήτε και απάλαμόν περ όμως επί έργον εγείρει. 20

20. επι Γέργον 12. έπαινήσειε Α. επαινέσσειε BDFGΙ. επαινέσειε CEH. έπαινήσ

14. φθόνον τε κακόν G (gl. τον ζήλον). 15. τήνδε C. 17. ετέραν προτέρη Ι. 20. απάλαμον BCHI. απάλαμνον the rest.

12. έπαινήσειε. The MSS. vary be- for that reason the better of the two. tween this and έπαινέσσειε or επαινήσ- Nempe existimabant Graeci antiqui σειε. For κεν perhaps τις was originally majores natu esse ceteris praestantiowritten. But see on v. 291-vohoas, res.” Goettling. Compare Scut. H. 260, « on comprehending its true nature.’ των γε μεν αλλάων προφερής τ' ήν πρεσFor at first sight, and without due re- βυτάτη τε. Goettling thinks 18, 19 an flection, all ěpis might seem culpable. interpolation. Certainly την ετέρην

13. διά δ' άνδιχα κ.τ.λ. Literally, šte forms a simpler and more connected . And distinct they keep their disposi- construction; but on the other hand, the tions,' or natures (impulses or tenden- uèy seems to require some antithesis. cies). τουτέστι δίχα, ήγουν ιδία και The poet perhaps adopted a common χωρίς απ' αλλήλων έχουσι την ζωήν, του- epic formula; cf. Ζεύς δέ σφι Κρονίδης τέστι διαφόρως ζώσιν. Moschop. It may υψίζυγος αιθέρι ναίων, Ι. iv. 166. If the be that (as inf. 28) θυμόν means the sense is, 'And the son of Cronos, seated human mind; they keep the mind aloft' (a metaphor from a pilot's high balanced between two different courses.' seat on the poop of a trireme; see Dr. Thuς δίανδιχα μερμήριξεν, ΙΙ. i. 189, and Donaldson on the Athenian Trireme, elsewhere. But in Hom. Hymn. Merc. p. 12), “having his abode in air, in the 315, αμφίς θυμόν έχοντες means dis- lowest regions of Earth (viz. Tartarus, puting.'

Theog. 728), and among men, made it 14. οφέλλει, keeps up, fosters,” (caused it to be) much better, viz. than ‘promotes.' A word often employed by the other épis, then the superiority of Hesiod. So Il. xvi. 631, μύθον οφέλλειν, the one was not a quality inherent in its • to keep on talking,' make a parade of earlier birth, but was specially ordained words.'° Passow compares the Homeric by Zeus. The scholiasts agree in construΕρις, οφέλλουσα στόνον ανδρών, ΙΙ. iv.445. ing ναίων αιθέρι και εν ρίζαις κ.τ.λ. Others

16. τιμώσι, c. άνθρωποι, maintain,' (see Goettling) explain, έθηκέ μιν εν “ uphold it, Schol. χρώνται. The idea γαίη κ.τ.λ. αμείνω ούσαν. According to is, that they do not indeed love it, but this, Zeus placed the better kind of still, by the will of the gods, they do strife on earth and among men. There not let it fall into disregard and neglect. is however much difficulty in explaining Soph. Αntig. 514, πως δήτ' εκείνη δυσ- γαίης εν ρίζησι, which in Theog. 728 σεβή τιμάς χάριν; Εur. Bacch. 885, τους refers to the under side of the world. ταν άγνωμοσύναν τιμώντας. Aesch. Ag. Both in the underworld and among 686, το νυμφότιμον μέλος εκφάτως τίoντας. men, can hardly be the divinely ap

17. apotépny uév. He seems to say, pointed locality for the good "Epis. that both kinds of épis were born from Guietus omits the te. Night, but the one was the elder, and 20. ήτε. On the supposition that 18,

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εις έτερον γάρ τις τε ιδών έργοιο χατίζων
πλούσιον, δς σπεύδει μεν αρόμμεναι ήδε φυτεύειν,
οίκόν τ' ευ θέσθαι ζηλοι δέ τε γείτονα γείτων
Τεις άφενον σπεύδονταγαθή δ' "Έρις ήδε βροτοίσι.

.
και κεραμεύς κεραμει κοτέει και τέκτονι τέκτων,
και πτωχός πτωχώ φθoνέει και αοιδός αοιδώ.

25

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a

21. τις έδων Ι. 22. αρόμμεναι BCG. αρόμεναι (ω superscr.) Α. αρόμεναι DI. αρόμεναι (μ superscr.) Η. 24. βροτοίσιν Β. 19 are spurious, we could hardly hesi- špevos, as distinct from a loûtos, the tate to read ή δε και κ.τ.λ. As the text wealth of the farmer is meant. So locustands, ήτε may represent ήτις, as exe- ples difers from dives. Cf. ν. 120, αφgetical of αμείνω. Compare Il. xvii. 173, νειο μήλοισι. ν. 308, εξ έργων δ' άνδρες νύν δε σευ ώνοσάμην πάγχυ φρένας, οδον πολύμηλοί τ' άφνειοί τε. There were έειπες, ός τε με φης Αίαντα πελώριον ούχ two forms of the word, το άφενος and o υπομείναι.και απάλαμος, even the help- άφενος, between which MSS. generally less man, τον άπορον, τον αμήχανον. The vary. The etymology of the word is MSS. generally give åránauvov. See Il. uncertain; Curtius (Gr. Et. 500) refers V. 597.

επί έργον, « to husbandry.' it to the same root as the Latin opes, This, the proper sense of the word, is copia (con-ops), and the Sanskrit ap-nas, clearly intended, because of <pyouo xa- 'revenue.'—It is a question if this verse τίζων, in connexion with αρόμμεναι and (24)be not an interpolation. It breaks up φυτεύειν in the next line.

the sentence awkwardly, and it repeats 21. εις έτερον κ.τ.λ. “For when a man σπεύδοντ’ inharmoniously after σπεύδει. conceives a desire to work from having 25—6. That these verses contain a seen another who has become rich,' &c. sentiment scarcely consistent with the So Schoemann, Com. Crit. p. 15, explains preceding, has been objected by Goettthis verse.

ling after others. He thinks them 22. 8s, for oitos. See inf. v. 429. Il. therefore a later addition, and even exvi. 58, μηδ' όντινα γαστέρι μήτηρ κούρον tends his condemnation (much beyond έόντα φέροι, μηδ' ες φύγοι. Οd. xvii. the bounds of probability) as far as v. 172, και τότε δή σφιν έειπε Μέδων, δς γάρ 41. Schoemann also ejects them from ρα μάλιστα ηνδανε κηρύκων. Ιbid. i. 286 his text, but he thinks (Com. Crit. p. 15) (quoted by Goettl.), δς γαρ δεύτατος they might appropriately follow v. 16. ήλθεν 'Αχαιών χαλκοχιτώνων. It is only He remarks that κοτέει and φθoνέει suit a strengthened form of the demonstra- the bad rather than the good špıs. The tive or article d. The feminine of it, ħ objection is not altogether valid. Menfor αύτη, is used twice by Aeschylus, dicity, as we know from the Odyssey, Theb. 17. Εum. 7.-αρόμμεναι, al. αρό- was a kind of trade or profession, as inμεναι. ΜS. Gale αρόμεναι with ω super- deed was that of the bard or wandering scribed. Whether the double μ be writ- minstrel. Hence one beggar may be ten or pronounced, is of little moment. said to be indignant with a more successSee on ν. 392, and compare τιθήμενον, full rival, and s0 to be stirred up to Il. x. 34. On OUT EVELV, to plant fig- emulate and supplant him, as Irus trees, vines, &c., see inf. 781.

quarrels with Ulysses in Od. xviii. 23. ζηλοι, emulates,’ endeavours to Both Plato and Aristotle refer to these rival, his neighbour who is (as we say) rather celebrated lines, Ar. De Rep. v. on the high road to wealth. Cf. inf. v. 8, and Plat. Lysid. p. 215, c. There is 312. Plat. Resp. viii. p. 550, E, Čteitá a clear reference to them also in Soph. γε, oίμαι, άλλος άλλον καιρών και εις ζήλον Oed. Col. 367-372. It is probable that ιών το πλήθος τοιούτον αυτών απειργά- the ambiguity as to which έρις was

Gloss. ΜS. Cant. μιμείται.-By meant caused the insertion of v. 24;

σαντο.

30

*Ω Πέρση, συ δε ταύτα τεω ενικάτθεο θυμώ, μηδέ σ' "Έρις κακόχαρτος απέργου θυμόν ερύκοι νείκεοπιπεύονταγορης επακουόν εόντα. ώρη γάρ τ' ολίγη πέλεται νεικέων ταγορέων τε ότινι μή βίος ένδον επηετανός κατάκειται ωραίος, τον γαία φέρει, Δημήτερος ακτήν του κε κορεσσάμενος νείκεα και δώριν οφέλλοις κτήμασέπ' αλλοτρίοις· σοι δ' ουκέτι δεύτερον έσται

28. άεργον θυμόν ?

31. έπαιFετανός

27. τει ένι κάτθεο FH.

29. οπιπτεύοντ' all. 33. κεκορεσσάμενος all.

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Inf. v.

and hence it has been marked in the Demeter.' The scholiasts agree in extext as doubtful.

plaining ώρη by φροντίς. Some MSS. 27. ταύτα, the true distinction be- are said to give ώρη, which might mean tween the good and the bad έρις. • little time for.'

28. κακόχαρτος, rejoicing in another's 31. επηετανός. Curtius, Gr. Et. 388, misfortune, viz. the bad kind of έρις. connects this word with αεί and αιών. Hesych. και κακοίς χαίρων.- απ’ έργου, He supposes the original form was έπfrom farm-work. See v. 20 and 299. αιFo-τανός, and rejects the etymology But this verse is in some way corrupt, from Féros, vetus. Inf. 607 the word is since épyov_invariably takes the di- of four syllables. The Boeotian form gamma in Hesiod. See inf. on v. 382. of aiel was nt, whence en Fravdy seems Bentley proposed άεργον θυμό ερύκοι. to have been one mode of pronunciation. Schoemann μη κ. Έρις σαπό Fεργου, or 32. ωραίος, gathered in season, or the Fεργου σαπό.-οπιπεύοντα is given from produce of the season. Cf. inf. v. 307. one of Goettling's MSS. for the vulg. But this verse looks like the interpolaοπιπτεύοντα. Watching closely the tion of a rhapsodist. If it had been progress of law-suits as a listener about genuine, the poet would probably have court, viz. the appeals to judges in the proceeded της κε κορεσσάμενος, κ.τ.λ. agora. Gloss. MS. Gale, επιτηρούντα. For the genitive cf. inf. ν. 368, αρχο

806, Δημήτερος ιερόν ακτήν εν μένου δε πίθου και λήγοντος κορέσασθαι. μάλ' οπιπεύοντας (MSS. οπιπτεύοντας) Ιb. 593, κεκορημένον ήτορ έδωδής. Αr. ευτροχάλη έν άλωή βάλλειν. We have Ρac. 1283, επεί πολέμου έκόρεσθεν. Εur. the compound παρθενοπίπης, said of Hipp. 112, βοράς κορεσθείς. Goettling Paris, 1. xi. 385, and πυροπίπης, corn- supposes an allusion to the saying TiKTEL inspector,' Ar. Equit. 407. Photius, τοι κόρος ύβριν. But the resemblance οπιπεύειν, παρατηρείν. In Il. iv. 371, is probably accidental. vii. 243, and Od. xix. 67, Bekker has have got enough of that, you may propreferred the form oπιπεύειν. It is a mote quarrels and strife about the posreduplicated form of the root or=oc sessions of others,' i.e. as you now do (Curtius, Gr. Et. 456).—As in the later about mine, even while you neglect times of the Attic Republic, so there your own means. — opédois, sup. 14. was a clear distinction to be drawn in Gloss. MS. Gale aŭgave. rural Boeotia between the active farmer 33. οφέλλοις, Schnemann, Com. Crit. and the idle loiterer in the agora. p. 16, suggests οφέλλοι, and έστιν for

30. ώρη ολίγη. “For a man can έσται in the next line. Rich men only attend little to law-suits and law- can afford to go to law to get other courts, if substance sufficient for the men's goods ; you are too poor to do year has not been stored up by him this a second time.' within, the produce of the year's crop 34-5. δεύτερον κ.τ.λ. But it shall wbich the earth bears, the bread of not again after this be in your power to

• When you

35

ώδ' έρδειν· αλλ' αύθι διακρινώμεθα νείκος
ιθείησι δίκαις, αίτ' εκ Διός είσιν άρισται.
ήδη μεν γαρ κλήρον έδασσάμεθ', άλλα τε πολλά
αρπάζων εφόρεις, μέγα κυδαίνων βασιλήας
δωροφάγους, οι τήνδε δίκην τέθέλουσι δικάσσαι:
νήπιοι, ουδε ίσασιν όσω πλέον ήμισυ παντός,
ουδ' όσον έν μαλάχη τε και ασφοδέλο μέγ' όνειαρ.

40

40. Fίσασιν

36. δίκησιν Α. 37. εδάσσάμεθα K, which indicates & correction of εδάσσαμεν. έδασσάμεθα Αld. 39. δικάσσαι Β. δικάσαι ΑΚ. δικάσαι DI, Αld. δικάσαι the rest.

act as you have done: rather let us αρπακτά, θεόσδοτα πολλών αμείνω. Cf. once more get our dispute decided (and V. 275, βίης δ' επιλήθεο πάμπαν. The this time) by an impartial award, such Te seems to represent the more usual as coming from Zeus (not from corrup- και in the sense of “when. Gaisford, tible judges) is best. There is a kind after Guietus, reads αλλά τα πολλά, for of subtle irony in the hortative subjunc- which we should rather have expected tive, I call upon you to have the τα πλείω. quarrel settled. It was not the object 39. εθέλουσι. One might easily read of Perses to go before an impartial εθέλωσι, praising those who may be judge; but the poet says, 'let us make willing' &c. The sense would thus be, an end of these disputes, and this time κυδαίνω (i. e. δωρούμαι) υμάς, ήν εθέλητε let us have a fair hearing.' αύθι is ex- δικάσαι εμοί τήνδε δίκην. Schoemann plained by the Schol, αυτόθι and εν τω reads εθέλοντι δίκασσαν, Hermann havπαρόντι. And so Hermann, followed by ing proposed εθέλουσι δίκασσαν, who Goettling, extemplo, illico. But it is decided this suit for us consenting to very doubtful if it can bear this sense. it.' We certainly should have expected

37. ήδη μέν κ.τ.λ. “For we had just ήθελον rather than εθέλουσι. But he shared between us our patrimony (lite- may mean, that these same judges are rally had each of us got our portion willing enough to hear the suit over assigned'), when you began to plunder again on the same terms.-Swpopávous, and carry off many other things (i.e. a strong and satirical expression for beside your just right), paying great δωροδόκους. Cf. 221, 264. compliments to the kings, bribe-swal- 40-1. These two lines embody some lowers as they are, who are willing old adage; but whether the application enough to decide this suit' (a suit of of it is to the kings, who do not know this kind). Gloss. MS. Gale, εκ πάλαι the happiness of honest contentment, or την κληρονομίαν έμερίσαμεν. The aorist to the poet himself, whom the corrupt έδασσάμεθα and the imperfect εφόρεις judges wrongly supposed they could are doubtless carefully employed; but really injure, is not very clear. • Fools the plundering of Perses would rather that they are, neither do they know take place at the time of the distribu- how much more the half is than the tion than after it. We might express whole, nor what great blessedness there the meaning thus; We had no sooner is in a diet on mallows and squills.' divided our inheritance than you began These herbs were the food of the very to rob me.' He wished to get back part poor, (Ar. Plut. 544,) and the poet proof the property awarded to Hesiod. bably means, that the kings do not Perhaps there was some act of open know how much better it is to have a violence on Perses' part; for there is a little with an easy conscience,than much similar allusion inf. ν. 356, δώς αγαθή, gained by injustice. Moschopulus :άρπαξ δε κακή. ν. 320, χρήματα δ' ουχ ουδ' όσον μέγα όφελός έστιν εν τη ζωή τη

κρύψαντες γαρ έχουσι θεοι βίον ανθρώποισι.
ρηϊδίως γάρ κεν και επ' ήματι εργάσσαιο,
ώστε σε κ' είς ενιαυτόν έχειν και άεργον εόντα:
αλψά κε πηδάλιον μεν υπέρ καπνού καταθείο,
έργα βοών δ' άπόλοιτο και ημιόνων ταλαεργών
43. Fεργάσσαιο

44. απεργών 46. Γέργα βοών ταλαπέργων 43. εργάσσαιο BC. εργάσαιo the rest.

45

έν μαλάχη και ασφοδέλφ, αντί του ευτελεί (έτερόν τoι εγώ λόγον εκκορυφώσω, ν. και απερίττω διαίτη, τη μετά δικαιοπρα- 106,) are apparently meant to show the γίας δηλονότι, και έξω πλεονεξίας. Ρlato origin of evil on earth; and thus indirefers to this passage, De Rep. v. p. 466, rectly, how the poet has been made the Β, εί ούτως και φύλαξ επιχειρήσει ευδαίμων victim of injustice. Since, then, he γίγνεσθαι, ώστε μηδέ φύλαξ είναι,-γνώ- had just before dwelt on the wickedσεται τον Ησίοδον ότι το όντι ήν σοφός ness of the unjust kings, he goes on to λέγων πλέον είναι πως ήμισυ παντός. See argue thus :

-The reason of all which also Phaedr. p. 266, c. Theophrastus, wickedness is, that Zeus made life laΗist. Plant. vii. 11, πολλά δε εις τροφήν borious through the fraud of Promeπαρέχεται χρήσιμα (ο ασφόδελος): και theus, and so men prefer to gain by γάρ ο άνθέρικος εδώδιμος σταθευόμενος, injustice rather than by honest toil και το σπέρμα φρυγόμενον· πάντων δε Schnemann (Com. Crit. p. 18) is satisfied μάλιστα η ρίζα κοπτομένη μετά σύκου that the whole passage 40-105 is the και πλείστην όνησιν έχει καθ' Ησίοδον.- interpolation of an inferior poet. The asphodel is a liliaceous plant, allied 43-4. επ' ήματι, τουτέστιν εν μια to the squill

. There are many species; quépą. Proclus. This is rather a rare that alluded to grows wild in Greece use. Cf. ΙΙ. Χ. 48, άνδρ' ένα τοσσάδε and the Levant.

μέρμερ' επ' ήματι μητίσασθαι. Οd. xii. 42. Goettling has an idea, in which 105, τρίς μέν γάρ τ' ανίησιν επ' ήματι, it is dificult to acquiesce, (though it τρίς δ' άναροιβδεί. Inf. v. 102, εφ' ημέρη receives some countenance from Tzetzes, ήδ' επί νυκτί. Soph. Oed. Col. 688, αιέν ο δε νούς τοιούτος & Πέρση, μη αργος εν επ' ήματι ωκυτόκος πεδίων επινίσσεται ταϊς αγοραίς διάτριβε-οι θεοί γάρ, ήγουν (Κηφισός). It would be easy here to η ειμαρμένη, απέκρυψε και δυσπόριστον read γάρ κεν και εν ηματι. The sense εποίησε τον βίον τους ανθρώποις), that the is, “You might easily make enough by thread of the argument is here resumed your farm even in a single day, (or .for from v. 24 ; as if the poet were now a day, with a view to no more than a giving a reason why men require some day's maintenance,) so as to have substimulus to industry, viz. because the sistence for a year without working,' gods have made it hard to get a liveli- i.e. if Zeus had not made farming a hood. He seems to have two theories slow and difficult process. Goettling on the subject; (1) That v. 25—41 is proposes to read keis for the vulg. k' eis an interpolation; (2) That we should (κε εις). And the Aldine has κείς. Yead κακκρύψαντες έχουσι κ.τ.λ., to Schoemann edits ώστε και είς. avoid the gàp, which seems to give 45-6. αίψα κε.

The Schol. on Ar. as a reason why there is happiness Av. 712 preserves a variant aŭrika. See in poverty, the fact that men live on v. 12. 'Quickly (in that case, viz. only by hard labour. " Quæ nullo if it had been easy to get a livelihood) modo," he objects, “componi possunt.” would you store away your boat-paddle One thing is clear; whatever be the over the smoke (to dry and preserve it), point of the fable of Prometheus, as and the fields tilled by oxen and by paapplicable to Perses, the present pas- tient mules would go to ruin,' (or, sage is introductory to it; cf. v. 47. 'there would soon be an end of farmNow both this fable and that which work for our oxen and mules.') It was follows, addressed specially to Perses, the custom to remove the rudder or

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