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The publication of a handbook of learned societies was one of the projects recommended to the Carnegie Institution by its Advisory Committee on Bibliography (see Yearbook, no. 1, 1902, p. 182-184). This was approved by the Trustees, and grants were made for the purpose, the expenditure and supervision being entrusted to the Librarian of Congress. After consultation with the authorities of the Carnegie Institution the organization of the work was placed in charge of Mr. J. David Thompson of the Library Staff, who has personally edited this volume and seen it through the press, the material having been compiled under his direction by Mrs. Lucy C. Daniels Thompson, assisted by Miss Mary F. Griffin.

The present volume, devoted to America, was completed for publication first, because printed information for this region is less available. Pending decision as to further publication, the remaining material relating to societies and institutions in the Old World will, for the present, be kept on file available for consultation at the Library of Congress.


Librarian of Congress. Washington, D. C., May 25, 1908.

The scope of this manual may be defined by indicating the geographical region covered, the classes of societies and institutions included or excluded, and the information presented regarding each organization described.

The present volume relates to North and South America and the adjacent islands, including, however, also the American schools at Athens and Rome, and in Palestine, which are associated with the Archaeological Institute of America. Similar material for the rest of the world has been collected but is not yet edited for publication.

With the exceptions noted below, it has been our aim to include all active publishing societies, together with universities, colleges, museums and laboratories issuing contributions to knowledge, and institutions devoted to research. In the case of national scientific societies, however, the test of publication has not been applied, and many local historical societies in North America which do not publish have been briefly noted under the various states and provinces. The plan of the investigation, as approved by the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution, provided for the omission of societies and institutions devoted to medicine and agricultureb; and as the work progressed it was found necessary to exclude also patriotic societies, local bar associations and teachers' organizations, and leagues for civic improvement or charitable purposes. Astronomical and meteorological observatoriese have been included only when forming departments of universities, colleges, etc.

The following outline, accompanied by a circular letter requesting the necessary data, was sent to all organizations known to us within the scope of the Handbook and will serve as a description of the information here published: 1. NAME.–Full official name of the society or institution at the present time. 2. ADDRESS.-Permanent postal address, with name of permanent official (if any) to

whom communications should be sent. 3. HISTORY.—Brief notes, including dates of foundation and incorporation, changes of

name or organization (e. g., fusion with other societies), and any other important events, together with bibliographical references to any published sources of fuller information.

aFor the publications of medical societies reference may be made to the Indexcatalogue of the Library of the Surgeon general's office, U. S. Army, (ist series] v. 10 and 2d series, v. 12—Periodicals (medical and scientific).

bSee U. S. Dept. of agriculture. Library. Catalogue of the periodical and other serial publications and Supplement no. 1 (1901-1905). Washington, 1901-07. 8°.-U. S. Office of experiment stations. Bulletin 180. Washington, 1907. 8o. (Contains List of publications of agricultural experiment stations in the United States to June 30, 1906.)

See American Bar Association. Report of annual meeting.

dSee National educational association. Soth anniversary volume, 1857-1906. Historical chapter, p. 453-506.

eFor further information see Observatoire royal de Belgique. Les observatoires astronomiques et les astronomes. Bruxelles, 1907. 8o.

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4. OBJECT.-Statement given in the constitution or act of incorporation. 5. MEETINGS.-Time and place. 6. MEMBERSHIP.-Number of members, classed as active, honorary, corresponding, &c.,

with entrance fee and annual dues paid by each. 7. SERIAL PUBLICATIONS.-Exact title of each serial publication issued by the society or

institution since its foundation, and a statement for each series of such publica, tions giving change of title (if any), number of volumes (or brochures), period covered, place and dates of publication, and size.

Where the present society has been formed by fusion of earlier societies, a similar statement regarding the serial publications of each of these is desired.

If a publication is now, or has been, issued jointly with other societies, this fact should be noted.

The content of each serial publication should also be noted, if not clearly

defined by its title or by the statement of the object of the society. 8. SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS.-If a published list exists, kindly refer to it or send a copy

if one can be spared. 9. DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLICATIONS.—(a) Conditions of exchange (b) price list and

place of sale. 10. RESEARCH FUNDS AND PRIZES.—Under each fund, a statement as to the special field

covered, the amount and conditions of grants in aid of research or conditions of competition in the case of prizes.

In brief, the Handbook may be said to supply, in regard to societies and institutions, information similar to that contained in bio-bibliographic reference works for individual authors. In contrast with “Minerva,” which is primarily a yearbook of learned institutions (though including also the principal learned societies), and which by reason of its annual issue is able to furnish up-to-date information as to the variable personnel, annual budget, etc., chief importance has been attached in this work, which is principally a handbook of learned societies (including also certain classes of learned institutions), to the information of permanent value, viz.: history, publications, and special funds from which grants are made in aid of research or prizes offered for results attained.

The material furnished in response to the above circular and supplementary inquiries has been verified from printed sources wherever possible and the serial and special publications of societies and institutions included have been examined as far as they were available in the Library of Congress and other government libraries in the District of Columbia. As a further precaution to secure accurate and adequate statements, portions of the galley proof were sent to the secretaries and librarians of many of the principal societies in the United States and Canada for additions and corrections.

To all officers of societies and institutions who have contributed information relating to the organizations which they represent, for use in the preparation of this Handbook, we desire to express our sincere appreciation of their kind cooperation. We are especially indebted to many secretaries of State historical societies for notes in regard to the local historical societies in their respective states; to Mr. R. W. McLachlan, Hon. Curator of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal, who furnished a list of Canadian societies and assisted in the collection of information about those

in Montreal and Quebec; to Mr. Luis M. Perez, of Havana, who revised the Cuban material; to the American diplomatic representatives in Central and South America, who, through the courtesy of the Department of State, communicated with the learned societies and institutions in the countries to which they were accredited and forwarded the information supplied; to Dr. H. von Ihering, Director of the Museu Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil, who supplied the data relating to that state.

In the use of a reference work of this character, it is important to notice at the outset the arrangement of the material it contains. A glance at the table of contents will suffice to show that the primary division is by countries in the order there indicated. Under each country, the national societies or those without fixed headquarters or meeting place (and, in the case of the Latin American republics, also the societies and institutions of the capital city) are placed first, alphabetically by official name; and the local societies and institutions follow, entered by city or state according to the plan described in a note at the head of page 97. If the information required is not found immediately, reference should be made to the index where the names of societies and institutions, serial publications, research funds, prizes and medals, expeditions, cities, counties and states are arranged in a single alphabet, together with subject headings under which are collected the references to all organizations or serial publications treating of a particular region of knowledge or special subject.

As the final proof of the early pages of this volume was read over a year ago, the "additions and corrections” (p. 548-562) form an integral and essential part of the book and should be consulted in connection with the body of the text, with which they are indexed.


List of the principal reference works on American Learned Societies

and Institutions. AMERICAN HISTORICAL Association. Report of Committee on methods of organization

and work on the part of state and local historical societies. Washington, 1906. 89.

(In its Annual report, 1905, v. 1; also separate.) Bolton, H. C. A catalogue of scientific and technical periodicals, 1665-1895. 2d ed.

Washington, 1898. 8°. (Smithsonian miscellaneous collections, v. 40.) BOW KER, R. R. ed. Publications of societies; a provisional list of the publications of

American scientific, literary, and other societies from their organization. New York,

1899. 8°. CATTELL. J. McK. Scientific societies and associations. (Albany, N. Y., 1899.) 8°.

(Monographs on education in the United States, ed. by N. M. Butler. 17.) GOODE, G. B. The origin of the national scientific and educational institutions of the

United States. New York & London (1890). 8°. (Papers of the American histori

cal association. V. 4, pt. 2.) GEOGRAPHEN-KALENDER, hrsg. von Dr. Hermann Haack. 4. Jahrg. 1906/07. Gotha,

1906. 16o. (Contains B. Lehrstühle, wissenschaftliche Anstalten und Gesellschaften der Erdkunde und verwandter Wissenschaften; C. Geographische und verwandte

Zeitschriften.) Griffin, A. P. C. Bibliography of American historical societies (the United States

and the Dominion of Canada). 2d ed., rev. and enl. Washington, 1907. 8°.

(American historical association. Annual report, 1905. V. 2.) GROWOLL, A. American book clubs, their beginnings and history, and a bibliography of

their publications. New York, 1897. 8°. MERRILL, F. J. H. Natural history museums of the United States and Canada. Albany,

1903. 8°. (New York State museum. Bulletin no. 62.) MEYER, A. B. Studies of the museums and kindred institutions of New York City,

Albany, Buffalo and Chicago, with notes on some European institutions. (In U. S.

National museum. Report, 1903. Washington, 1904. 8o. p. 311-608. Also separate.) MINERVA. Jahrbuch der gelehrten Welt. 1.-17. Jahrg., 1891/92-1907/08. Strassburg,

1891-1908. 16o. MURRAY, D. Museums: their history and their use. Glasgow, 1904. 3v. 8°. (v. 2-3

contain Bibliography.) SCUDDER, S. H. Catalogue of scientific serials of all countries including the transactions

of learned societies in the natural, physical and mathematical sciences, 1633-1876.

Cambridge, 1879. 8°. (Harvard university. Library. Special publications. 1.) U. S. BUREAU OF EDUCATION. Report of the Commissioner of education for the year

1893/94, v. 2. (chap. XIII, p. 1493-1661: A preliminary list of American learned and educational societies, prepared by S. B. Weeks.)

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