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locks. The surface of Seneca Lake is 441 feet, and of Crooked Lake 714 feet above tide-water; and the lengih of the former, froin Geneva to Havana, 37 miles, and of the latter, from Penn Yan to Hammondsport, 22 miles. This canal was commenced in 1830, and completed in 1833. STATEMENT of the Receipts and Payments on account of the Crooked Lake Canal, from the

commencement of the work to the 30th September, 1859. Receipts

Payments-
Loans ($100,000,'31, and $20,000, '33). $120,000 Principal of loan (1850).

$120,000 Preiniums on loans 20,102 | Interest on loans

112,788 From Sinking Fund.

143,000 | Canal Commissioners (construction). 304,778 Gross Tolls 38.120 | Superintendents of repairs.

125,223 Miscellaneous 13,408 Collectors.

19.766 Deficiencies paid by General Fund 69,818 Miscellaneous

22,557 paid by E. and C. Canals · 300,799 | Balance on hand 30th Sept., 1859

415

Total...
.8705,547 Total.

$705,547
Cost, MILEAGE, TONNAGE, REVENUE AND EXPENSES.
Cost of Mile-

Re- Ex-
Cost of Mile-

Re- ExYear. Works. age. Tonnage. venues. penses. Year. Works. age. Tonnage, venues. penses. 1834. $140,012 7.69

$1,008 $2,438 | 1847. $213,672 7.69 36,318 $1,774 $6,941 1835. 140,014 7.69

1,804 4,045 1648. 271,166 7.69 34,155 1,858 9,441 1836. 140,270 7.69 1.954 5,489 | 1819. 273,329 7.69

36,317 1,819 11.072 1837. 140.672 769 24,258 1,548 6,469 i 1850. 283,461 7.69 39.797 1,796 5,761 1838. 140,672 7.69 30,336 1,566 5,603 | 1551 289,990 7.69 29,309 1,714 7,073 1839. 140,672 7.69 26.823 1,894 3,663 1852. 291,641 7.69 35,757 1,246 8,900 1840. 140.672 7.69 24,026 1,613 5,433 | 1853. 291.641 7.69 53,995 1,657 6,308 1841. 140,674 7.69 33,030 2,023 10,451 | 1854. 293,361 7.69 25,319 1,304 6,044 1842. 140.674 7.69 19,660 1,217 8.935 1855. 295,926 7.69 25,850 837 6 208 1843. 140,674 7.69 31,856 1,342 4,554 1856 296,706 7.69 28,559 1,154 1,582 1844. 140,674 7.69 32,539 1,367 4,743 | 1857. 301,047 7.69 16,571 879 904 1815 140,683 7.69 39,489 1,063 5,702 | 1858. 304,631 7.69 16,318 521 542 1846. 167,041 7.69 35,556 1.846

6,259 | 1959. 304,778 7.69 17,933 715 440 13 ys. $1,853,404 99.97 296,623 $20,845 $73,759 | 13 ys $3,714,249 99.97 395,218 $17,274 $71,316 Aver. 142,569 7.69 29,662

1,603 5,676 | Aver. 285,711 769 30,401 1,329 5,486

CHEMUNG CANAL.

LENGTH_Seneca Lake to Elmira.....

Feeder from Canal at Horseheads to Knoxville..

.23.00 miles. .16.75

The Chemung Canal enters the valley of Catharine Creek, at the head of Seneca Lake, which it follows to the village of Horseheads, 15 miles; and thence, by the valley of Marsh Creek, is conducted to Elmira, on the Chemung River, 6 miles—forming part of a chain of communication reaching from the Erie Canal to the Susquehanna, and thence to Chesapeake Bay and the Ocean. In the first 11 miles, the rise from the Lake is 413 feet, which is overcome by 44 lift locks; the summit level is about 5 miles long, and thence to Elmira the fall is 48 feet, by 5 locks.

A navigable feeder, taking its water from the Chemung River, at Knoxville, extends thence to the suminit level, at Horseheads, a distance of 163 miles, making, with the main line, nearly 40 miles of navigation. It has three lift locks at its eastern terminus, where it joins the canal, and a guard lock, the latter connecting it with the Chemung. The total lockage on the feeder is 27 feet.

The total distance from Montezuma, by way of the Cayuga Seneca Canal, the Seneca Lake and the Chemung Canal is 83 miles.

The construction was commenced in 1830, and completed in 1833.

STATEMENT of the Receipts and Payments on account of the Chemung Canal, from the

commencement of the work to the 30th September, 1859. Receipts

PaymentsLoans $663,601 | Principal of loang...

$470,184 Premium on loang.

$41,380
Temporary loans

20,000 Discount on loans 14,292— 27,088 | Interest on loans

559,465 Temporary loans

20,000 Canal Commissioners (construction).. 879,816 From Sinking Fund 677,626 | Superintendents of repairs..

741,742 Interest on deposits. 526 | Collectors

43,210 Gross Tolls... 322,019 Miscellaneous.

34,592 Miscellaneous

39,531 Deficiencies paid by General Fund... 241,145

paid by E. and C. Canals 757,438

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Total.
• $2,743,974 Total

• $2,748,974
Cost, MILEAGE, Tonnage, REVENUES AND EXPENSES.
Cost of Mile- Ton- Re- Ex-

Cost of Mile- Ton- Re- ExYears. Works age.

1 nage. venues. penses.

Years. Works.

age. nage. venues. penses. 1834. $340,696 23

$2,393 $50,848 1847. $664,835 23 189,165 $13,677 $17,046 1835. 342,955 23

4,153 12,212 | 1818. 669,196 23 150,691 16,821 29,110 1836. 342.964 23

5,078 10,661 | 1849. 669,425 23 135,867 16,019 26,033 1837. 342.964 23 20,288 4,343 16,285 | 1850. 689,302 23 128,263 16,276 30,782 1838. 346,523 23 30,256 4,478 13,099 | 1851. 743,640 23 159,563 15,986 44.897 1839. 348,183 23 36,089 4.768 15,503 1852. 754,655 23 187,577 15,693 35,150 1810. 348,183 23 34,217 5,011 13,237 1853. 756,829 23 249.980 20,810 26,098 1841. 348, 251 23 63,042 7,158 24,377 1854. 769,594 23 270,978 19,635 35,287 1842. 448,308 23 54.866 7,206 34,528 | 1855. 792.641 23 223,271 19,772 25,348 1843. 634.295 23

66.247 9,188 15,645 | 1856. 799,613 23 245,621 17,111 7,055 1844. 659,712 23 88,231 12,951 13,259 | 1857. 812,836 23 187,201 17,102 68,526 1845. 663,179 23 114,740 20,281 18,519 | 1858. 852,824 23 205,168 13,348 164,307 1646 663,189 23 124,768 15,863 16,144 | 1859. 879,816 23 256,323 16,868 20,981

13 ys. $5,829,402 299 632,744 102,886 254,196 | 13 ys. $9,855,236 299 2,589,670 219,138 599,030 Aver. 448,415 23 63,274 7,914 19,553 | Aver. 758,095 23 199,205 16,857 46,079

GENESEE VALLEY CANAL.

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LENGTH-Main Line : Rochester to Olean...

.107.00 miles. Ectension : Olean to Millgrove.

11.20 Branch : Dansville to Shakers..

6.75 The Genesee Valley Canal connects the Erie Canal at Rochester, with the Alleghany River at Olean and Millgrove, and has a branch extending from the main line at Shakers, four miles south of Mount Morris, to the village of Dansville.

The lockage from Rochester to the summit level in Alleghany county is all ascending, as is also that by the branch to Dansville. The ascenť to Mount Morris and Shakers is 931 feet, reached by 10 locks, and thence to the summit 88+} feet, reached by 87 locks. The summit level extends from New Hudson to North Hinsdale, a distance of 12 miles, and thence the canal descends to the Alleghany River, 86 feet, by 9 locks. Elevation above tide -Rochester 5074 feet, Mount Morris and Shakers 601 feet, the summit 1,4854 feet, and the Alleghany at Olean, 1,397! feet. The ascent from Shakers to Dansville is 82 feet, reached by 8 locks. All the work of construction on this canal is completed, except two lift locks intended to connect the same with the Alleghany.

The water supply for the main line is derived from the following sources. a feeder from Allen's Creek at Scottsville; the Genesee River a mile north of Mount Morris; a feeder from Wiscoy Creek at Mixville; a feeder from

the Genesee at Oramel; the Rocksville reservoirs; a feeder from Oil Creek reservoir two miles north of Cuba; Champlain and Chamberlain's Creeks in the village of Cuba, and a feeder from Ischua Creek near Hinsdale. The last four enter the canal on the summit level. South of the summit, at Smith's Mills, there is a short feeder from Olean Creek. The Dansville Branch is supplied by a feeder from Mill Creek at Dansville, and one from the Canasaragua, two miles north of that place. The supply for the branch is short during the dry season, and is about to be increased by new works.

The construction of the Genesee Valley Canal was commenced in 1837, and completed as follows: Rochester to Shakers, 41 miles, and Shakers to Dansville, 11.2 miles, in 18-40 ; Shakers to Oramel 36.4 miles, in 1851; Oramel to Belfast, 1.95 mile, in 1853; Belfast to Rockville, 12.8 miles, in 1854; Rockville to Olean Basin, 25.4 miles, in 1856, and to the Alleghany in 1860.

The Extension Canal was commenced in June, 1857, and completed to Portville, about 5 miles, in August, 1859. STATEMENT of the Receipts and Payments on account of the Genesee Valley Canal, from

the commencement of the work to the 30th September, 1859 Receipts

Payments-
Loans..
• $3,885,000
Loans repaid....

$1,356,756 Discount on loans. 856,380

Temporary loans repaid

555,000 Premium 15,106— 41,274--$3,843,726 | Interest on loans..

3,563,367 Temporary loang... 555,000 Surplus tolls to Erie Canal.

24.294 From Sinking Fund. 3,567,673 | Canal Commissioners (cost)

5,522,656 From other Funds 1,693,209 | Superintendent of repairs

582,106 Gross tolls (1841-59). 449,362 | Collectors

43,893 Interest on deposits 189,950 | Miscellaneous

120,709 Miscellaneous

45,855 Deficiencies paid from general fund. 122,192

** from E. & C. Can. funds 1,375,951

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Total
·$11,868,788 Total

$11,568,768
Cost, MILEAGE, Tonnage, RevenuES AND EXPENSES.
Cost of Mile- Ton- Reve- Ex-

Cost of Mile- Ton- Reve- Ex-
Year.
Works. age.

nage. nues.
penses. | Year. Works.

age. nage. nues. penges. 1840. 82,167,380 52.2 13,653 $.. $2,176 | 1850.84,351,376 52 2 89,504 $28.822 $18,737 1841. 2,780,140 522 26,892 12,275 13,675 1851. 4,580,756 68.6 100,722 25,451 36,706 1842. 3,300,549 52.2 41,860 12,076 19,371 | 1852. 4,789,687 69.6 122,901 25,064 76,383 1843. 3,471,217 52.2 48,313 13,734 15,261 | 1853. 4,972,233 905 157,164 30,184 62,093 1844. 3,673,324 522 65,077 18,587 17,260 | 1854. 5,071,173 93.3 158,942 30,662 47,983 1845. 3,708,635 52.2 73,546 20,484 17,157 | 1855. 5,194,354 93.3 102,321 23,391 54,295 1846. 3,747,964 52.2 87,615 24,183 19,078 | 1856. 5.318,675 93.3 113,731 23,566 25,560 1847. 3,758,406 522 95,632 25,055 17,288 | 1857. 5,388,554 1177 114,576 25,966 44,923 1848. 3,791,442 52.2 98,467 26,012 28,533 | 1858. 5,462,810 117.7 118,303 25,652 53,771 1849. 3,976,211 52.2 84,674 25,234 18,791 | 1859. 5,522,656 122.7 124,263 24,164 36,063

10 ys.$34,375,263 522.0 635,729 177,640 168,590 | 10 ys 50,652,774 957.9 1,202,727 271,722 457,414 Aver. 3,437,526 52.0 63,573 17,764 16,859 | Aver. 5,065,277 95.8 120,272 27,172 45,641

JUNCTION CANAL.

LENGTH_Elmira to State line of Pennsylvania...

.13 miles. The Junction Canal was constructed by an incorporated company with the design of connecting Chemung Canal, at Elmira, with the Wyoming or Upper North Branch Canal of Pennsylvania, and completed in 1858. By means of this short but important link in the chain of canals, a continuous navigation for boats of 180 tons is secured from the Erie Canal, at Montezuma, to Chesapeake Bay and the (cean.

STATE OF NEW JERSEY.

BELVIDERE DELAWARE.
BURLINGTON AND Mount HOLLY.
CAMDEN AND AMBOY.
CAMDEN AND ATLANTIC.
CAMDEN AND WOODBURY.
CENTRAL
ELIZABETH AND SOMERVILLE.
FLEMINGTON.
FREEHOLD AND JAMESBURG.
MILLSTONE AND NEW BRUNSWICK.
MILLVILLE AND GLASSBORO'.

MORRIS AND Essex.
NEW JERSEY.
NEWARK AND BLOOMFIELD.
NORTHERN.
PATERSON AND Hudson.
PATERSON AND RAMAPO.
RARITAN AND DELAWARE BAY.
SOMERVILLE AND EAston.
Sussex.
WARREN.
WEST JERSEY.

The Railroad first constructed in the State of New Jersey was the Camden and Amboy, which was chartered in 1830, and completed between Bordentown and Hightstown, 14 miles, on the 220 December, 1832, and between Camden and South Amboy, 611 miles, in 1834. The Trenton Branch, 6 miles, and the line between Trenton and New Brunswick were completed in 1839. The Philadelphia and Trenton, which is owned by the Camden and Amboy, and forms a part of its line, was purchased in 1837. This road is probably the most productive work of the kind ever constructed. It has paid dividends averaging nearly 12 per cent. annually for twenty-seven years, accumulating in the mean time a very large surplus. Its extraordinary revenues are in a great measure due to the monopoly it enjoys of the right of way between the cities of New York and Philadelphia. This monopoly was not created in the act incorporating the Company, but was subsequently purchased by a grant to the State of stock in the road to the amount of $200,000, and by an agreement to pay certain transit duties on persons and property passing through its territory. The parties connected with this work were not long in perceiving the value of the exclusive right of way across the State, which may be regarded as the key to the great routes of commerce and travel for the whole country, with the power to levy exorbitant tolls. The State became a willing party to the scheme, under the idea that it could thereby draw the means for supporting its government from citizens of other States, thus relieving its own from the burdens of taxation. Such a result has been gained. The State now derives a revenue of over $200,000 annually from transit duties and dividends on the stock presented to it. The effect, however, has been to build up within it a power, to which, in all matters touching real or fancied interest, the Legislature itself is the subordinate one—no act being allowed to pass that body against the wishes of the Company. Such a relationship, however, cannot exist without serious injury to the moral and material welfare of the people of the State. It is fortunate that this policy of imposing a tax for the privilege of passing through its territory is contined to two States-New Jersey and Maryland-otherwise the internal commerce of the country might be almost entirely destroyed, and our States converted into hostile communities, intent only in plundering each other. Such precedents are rarely departed from. Although there is no doubt that the State of New Jersey has suffered vastly more than she has gained by the monopoly, the prospective advantages of a liberal policy, necessary to a full development of the energies and resources of the State, weigh nothing against an absolute payment of more than $200,000 annually. The total amount received into the State Treasury from transit duties and dividends on its stock, and including the same, has been $3,870,250. This Company makes no reports, except the meagre ones to the Legislature. It has published no general statement for twenty years past, so that nothing can be known as to the condition of its affairs. All enquiries for information, even to the amount of equipment on the road, were refused.

The railroad next constructed was the New Jersey Transportation, which was commenced in 1832, and opened between Jersey City and Newark, 8.10 miles, in 1834, and to New Brunswick, 33.80 miles, in 1836. This road has been a successful work, and is one of the most productive roads for its length in the United States. It has paid dividends averaging 8 per cent. annually from the date of its opening; and also to the State in transit duties, $1,334,692.

The third railroad constructed in the State was the Paterson and Hudson, which was opened for its whole length, 14 miles, in 1834. In 1852, it was leased for the period of its charter to the New York and Erie Railroad, at an annual rental of $53,400, which is about 8 per cent on its cost. No accounts of this road were obtainable prior to the date of the lease.

The fourth railroad constructed was the Morris and Essex, which was opened, from Newark to Morristown, 23 miles, in 1834. It was extended to Dover, 9 iniles, in 1848, and to Hackettstown, 29 miles, in 1854. No statement of the affairs of this Company prior to 1853 could be obtained. Since that time it has paid dividends averaging 5 per cent. annually.

In 1839 two roads were opened--the Carden and Woodbury, 9 miles, and the Elizabeth and Somerville, 25 miles, The Camden and Woodbury, after having been operated some years, was abandoned. Its route is now occupied by the West Jersey Railroad. The Elizabeth and Somerville was merged in the Central New Jersey Railroad in 1850.

No further additions were made to the railroad mileage in the State till 1848, when the Somerville and Easton was openod 9 miles, and the Paterson

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