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hearted; and that what the American people decide to do can and will be done, capably and effectively, with the best national equipment that modern organizing ability can supply in a country where management and organization is so well understood in private affairs.
My whole purpose in submitting this plan is to improve the administrative management of the Republic, and I feel confident that our Nation is united in this central purpose, regardless of differences upon details.
This plan is concerned with the practical necessity of reducing the number of agencies which report directly to the President and also of giving the President assistance in dealing with the entire executive branch by modern means of administrative management.
Forty years ago in 1899 President McKinley could deal with the whole machinery of the executive branch through his 8 cabinet secretaries and the heads of 2 commissions; and there was but 1 commission of the so-called quasi-judicial type in existence. He could keep in touch with all the work through 8 or 10 persons.
Now, 40 years later, not only do some 30 major agencies (to say nothing of the minor ones) report directly to the President, but there are several quasi-judicial bodies which have enough administrative work to require them also to see him on important executive matters.
It has become physically impossible for one man to see so many persons, to receive reports directly from them, and to attempt to advise them on their own problems which they submit. In addition the President today has the task of trying to keep their programs in step with each other or in line with the national policy laid down by the Congress. And he must seek to prevent unnecessary duplication of effort.
The administrative assistants provided for the President in the Reorganization Act cannot perform these functions of over-all management and direction. Their task will be to help me get information, and condense and summarize it—they are not to become in any sense Assistant Presidents nor are they to have any authority over anybody in any department or agency.
The only way in which the President can be relieved of the physically impossible task of directly dealing with 30 or 40 major agencies is by reorganizationby the regrouping of agencies according to their major purposes under responsible heads who will report to the President, just as is contemplated by the Reorgani. zation Act of 1939.
This Act says that the President shall investigate the organization of all agencies of the Government and determine what changes are necessary to accomplish any one or more of five definite purposes :
(1) To reduce expenditures;
(4) To reduce the number of agencies by consolidating those having similar functions and by abolishing such as may not be necessary;
(5) To eliminate overlapping and duplication of effort.
It being obviously impracticable to complete this task at one time, but having due regard to the declaration of Congress that it should be accomplished immediately and speedily, I have decided to undertake it promptly in several steps.
The first step is to improve over-all management, that is to do those things which will accomplish the purposes set out in the law, and which, at the same time, will reduce the difficulties of the President in dealing with the multifarious agencies of the executive branch and assist him in distributing his responsibilities as the chief administrator of the Government by providing him with the necessary organization and machinery for better administrative management.
The second step is to improve the allocation of departmental activities, that is, to do those things which will accomplish the purposes set out in the law and at the same time help that part of the work of the executive branch which is carried on through executive departments and agencies. In all this the responsibility to the people is through the President.
The third step is to improve intradepartmental management, that is, to do those things which will enable the heads of departments and agencies the better to carry out their own duties and distribute their own work among their several assistants and subordinates.
Each of these three steps may require from time to time the submission of one or more plans involving one or more reorganizations, but it is my purpose to fulfill the duty imposed upon me by the Congress as expeditiously as practicable
and to the fullest extent possible in view of the exceptions and exemptions set out in the act.
The plan I now transmit is divided into four parts or sections which I shall describe briefly as follows:
PART 1. EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT
In my message to the Congress of January 12, 1937, in discussing the problem of how to improve the administrative management of the executive branch, I transmitted with my approval certain recommendations for strengthening and developing the management arms of the President. Those three management arms deal with (1) budget, and efficiency research, (2) planning, and (3) personnel. My accumulated experience during the 2 years since that time has deepened my conviction that it is necessary for the President to have direct access to these managerial agencies in order that he may have the machinery to enable him to carry out his constitutional responsibility, and in order that he may be able to control expenditures, to increase efficiency, to eliminate overlapping and duplication of effort, and to be able to get the information which will permit him the better to advise the Congress concerning the state of the Union and the program of the Government.
Therefore, I find it necessary and desirable in carrying out the purposes of the act to transfer the Bureau of the Budget to the Executive Office of the President from the Treasury Department. It is apparent from the legislative history of the Budget and Accounting Act that it was the purpose in 1921 to set up an Executive Budget for which the President would be primarily responsible to the Congress and to the people, and that the Director of the Budget was to act under the immediate direction and supervision of the President. While no serious difficulties have been encountered because of the fact that the Bureau of the Budget was placed in the Treasury Department so far as making budgetary estimates has been concerned, it is apparent that its coordinating activities and its research and investigational activities recently provided for by the Congress, will be facilitated if the Bureau is not a part of 1 of the 10 executive departments. Also, in order that the Bureau of the Budget may the better carry out its work of coordination and investigation, I find it desirable and necessary in order to accomplish the purposes of the act to transfer to the Bureau of the Budget the functions of the Central Statistical Board.
By these transfers to the Executive Office, the President will be given immediate access to that managerial agency which is concerned with the preparation and administration of the Budget, with the coordination of the work of the governmental agencies, and with research and investigation necessary to accomplish the five definite purposes of the Reorganization Act of 1939.
I also find it necessary and desirable to transfer to the Executive Office of the President the National Resources Committee, now an independent establishment, and to consolidate with it by transfer from the Department of Commerce the functions of the Federal Employment Stabilization Office, the consolidated unit to be known as the National Resources Planning Board. This Board would be made up as is the present Advisory Board of the National Resources Committee of citizens giving part-time services to the Government, who aided by their technical staff would be able to advise the President, the Congress, and the people with respect to plans and programs for the conservation of the national resources, physical and human. By these transfers to the Executive Office, the President will be given more direct access to and immediate direction over that agency which is concerned with planning for the utilization and conservation of the national resources, an indispensable part of the equipment of the Chief Executive.
On previous occasions I have recommended and I hereby renew and emphasize my recommendation that the work of this Board be placed upon a permanent statutory basis.
Because of an exemption in the act, it is impossible to transfer to the Executive Office the administration of the third managerial function of the Government, that of personnel. However, I desire to inform the Congress that it is my purpose to name one of the administrative assistants to the President, authorized in the Reorganization Act of 1939, to serve as a liaison agent of the White House on personnel management.
In this manner, the President will be given for the first time direct access to the three principal necessary management agencies of the Government. None of the three belongs in any existing department. With their assistance, and with this reorganization, it will be possible for the President to continue the task of making investigations of the organization of the Government in order to control expenditures, increase efficiency, and eliminate overlapping.
PART 2. FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY
Studies heretofore made by me and researches made at my direction, as well as recommendations submitted by me to the Congress, and especially those con. tained in my message of January 12, 1937, indicate clearly that to carry out the purposes of the Reorganization Act of 1939 to group, coordinate, and consolidata agencies of the Government according to major purposes and to reduce the number of agencies by consolidating those having similar functions under a single head, would require the provision of 3 general agencies in addition to the 10 executive departments.
It is my objective, then, by transfer, consolidation, and abolition to set up a Federal Security Agency, a Federal Works Agency, and a Federal Loan Agency, and then to distribute among the 10 executive departments and these 3 new agencies, the major indepdendent establishments in the Government (excepting those exempt from the operations of the act) in order to minimize overlapping and duplication, to increase efficiency and to reduce expenditures to the fullest extent consistent with the efficient operation of the Government.
I find it necessary and desirable to group in a Federal Security Agency those agencies of the Government, the major purposes of which are to promote social and economic security, educational opportunity, and the health of the citizens of the Nation.
The agencies to be grouped are the Social Security Board, now an independent establishment, the United States Employment Service, now in the Department of Labor, the Office of Education now in the Department of the Interior, the Public Health Service now in the Treasury Department, the National Youth Administration, now in the Works Progress Administration, and the Civilian Conservation Corps, now an independent agency.
The Social Security Board is placed under the Federal Security Agency, and at the same time the United States Employment Service is transferred from the Department of Labor and consolidated with the unemployment compensation functions of the Social Security Board in order that their similar and related functions of social and economic security may be placed under a single head and their internal operations simplified and integrated.
The unemployment compensation functions of the Social Security Board and the employment service of the Department of Labor are concerned with the same problem, that of the employment, or the unemployment, of the individual worker.
Therefore, they deal necessarily with the same individual. These particular services to the particular individual also are bound up with the public-assistance activities of the Social Security Board. Not only will these similar functions be more efficiently and economically administered at the Federal level by such grouping and consolidation, but this transfer and merger also will be to the advantage of the administration of State social security programs and result in considerable saving of money in the administrative costs of the governments of the 48 States as well as those of the United States. In addition to this saving of money there will be a considerable saving of time and energy not only on the part of administrative officials concerned with this program in both Federal and State Governments, but also on the part of employers and workers, permitting through the simplification of procedures a reduction in the number of reports required and the elimination of unnecessary duplication in contacts with workers and with employers.
Beca use of the relationship of the educational opportunities of the country to the security of its individual citizens, the Office of Education with all of its functions. including, of course, its administration of Federal-State programs of vocational education, is transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Federal Security Agency. This transfer does not increase or extend the activities of the Federal Government in respect to education, but does move the existing activities into a grouping where the work may be carried on more efficiently and expeditiously, and where coordination and the elimination of overlapping may be better accomplished. The Office of Education has no relationship to the other functions of the Department of the Interior.
The Public Health Service is transferred from the Treasury Department to the Federal Security Agency. It is obvious that the health activities of the Federal Government may be better carried out when so grouped than if they are left in the Treasury, which is primarily a fiscal agency, and where the necessary relationships with other social security, employment, and educational activities now must be carried on by an elaborate scheme of interdepartmental committee work.
The National Youth Administration is transferred from the Works Progress Administration to the Federal Security Agency since its major purpose is to extend the educational opportunities of the youth of the country and to bring them through the processes of training into the possession of skills which enable them to find employment. Other divisions of the Federal Security Agency will have the task of finding jobs, providing for unemployment compensation, and other phases of social security, while still other units of the new agency will be concerned with the problem of primary and secondary education, as well as vocational education and job training and retraining for employment. While much of the work of the National Youth Administration has been carried on through work projects, these have been merely the process through which its major purpose was accomplished, and, therefore, this agency under the terms of the act should be grouped with the other security agencies rather than with the work agencies.
For similar reasons the Civilian Conservation Corps, now an independent establishment, is placed under the Federal Security Agency because of the fact that its major purpose is to promote the welfare and further the training of the individuals who make up the corps, important as may be the construction work which they have carried on so successfully. The Civilian Conservation Corps is a small coordinating agency which supervises work carried on with the cooperation of several regular departments and independent units o the Gov. ernment. This transfer would not interfere with the plan of work heretofore carried on but it would enable the Civilian Conservation Corps to coordinate its policies, as well as its operations, with those other agencies of the Government concerned with the educational and health activities and with human security.
PART 3. FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY
In order to carry out the purpose of the Reorganization Act of 1939 I find it necessary and desirable to group and consolidate under a Federal Works Agency those agencies of the Federal Government dealing with public works not incidental to the normal work of other departments, and which administer Federal grants or loans to State and local governments or other agencies for the purposes of construction.
The agencies so to be grouped are: The Bureau of Public Roads, now in the Department of Agriculture; the Public Buildings Branch of the Procurement Division, now in the Treasury Department, and the Branch of Building Management of the National Park Service (so far as it is concerned with public buildings which it operates for other departments or agencies) now in the Department of the Interior; the United States Housing Authority, now in the Department of the Interior; the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works (familiarly known as P. W. A.); and the Works Progress Administration (familiarly known as W. P. A.) except the functions of the National Youth Administration.
The transfer of both the Public Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration to the new Federal Works Agency would provide for both principal types of public works that have been carried on by the Federal Government directly or in cooperation with the State and local governments. I find that it will be possible to reduce administrative costs as well as to improve efficiency and to eliminate overlapping by bringing these different programs of public works under a common head. But, because of the differences that justified their separate operation in the past and differences that will continue in the future to distinguish certain phases of major public works from work relief, I find it necessary to maintain them at least for the present as separate subordinate units of the Federal Works Agency.
The present Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works is placed under the Federal Works Agency under the shorter name of Public Works Administration.
The name of the Works Progress Administration has been changed to Works Projects Administration in order to make its title more descriptive of its major purpose.
The Bureau of Public Roads is transferred from the Department of Agriculture to the Federal Works Agency and as a separate unit under the name of
Public Roads Administration. This will bring the administration of the Federal roads program with its grants-in-aid to the States into coordination with other major public-works programs and other programs of grants and loans to the States.
The construction and operation of many public buildings is now carried on in two agencies which are consolidated under the new Federal Works Agency, namely the Public Buildings Branch of the Procurement Division of the Treasury Department (which is concerned with the construction of Federal buildings and with the operation of many public buildings outside the District of Columbia) and the Branch of Building Management of the National Park Service, of the Department of the Interior, which is concerned with the operation of public buildings in the District of Columbia. These two separate activities are consolidated in one unit to be known as the Public Buildings Administration. Improved efficiency, coordination of effort, and savings will result from this transfer and consolidation,
Then, also, there is transferred from the Department of the Interior to the Federal Works Agency the United States Housing Authority. The major purpose of the United States Housing Authority is to administer grants-in-aid and loans to local public housing authorities in accordance with its established standards of construction in that part of the housing field which cannot be reached economically by private enterprise. For these reasons, it should be grouped with those other agencies which have to do with public works, with grants and loans to State and local governments and with construction practices and standards.
PABT 4. FEDERAL LOAN AGENCY AND TRANSFERS OF INDEPENDENT LENDING AGENCIES
In order to carry out the purposes of the Reorganization Act of 1939, I find it necessary and desirable to group under a Federal Loan Agency those independent lending agencies of the Government which have been established from time to time for the purpose of stimulating and stabilizing the financial, commercial, and industrial enterprises of the Nation.
The agencies to be grouped in the Federal Loan Agency are: The Reconstruction Finance Corporation, the Electric Home and Farm Authority, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, the Federal Housing Administration, and their associated agencies and boards, as well as the Export-Import Bank of Washington.
Since 1916 the Congress has established from time to time agencies for providing loans, directly or indirectly, for the stimulation and stabilization of agriculture, and such agencies should in my opinion be grouped with the other agri. cultural activities of the Government. For that reason I find it necessary and desirable to accomplish the purposes of the act to transfer the Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Farm Mortgage Corporation, and the Commodity Credit Corporation and associated agencies to the Department of Agriculture.
ECONOMY AND EFFICIENCY
One of the five purposes of the Reorganization Act of 1939 is "to reduce expenditures to the fullest extent consistent with the efficient operation of the Government." This purpose is important in each phase of the plan here presented. The Reorganization Act prohibits abolishing functions—in other words basic services or activities performed. Therefore the reduction in expenditures to be effected must necessarily be brought about chiefly in the overhead administrative expenses of the agencies set up to perform certain functions. The chance for economy arises therefore not from stopping work, but from organizing the work and the overhead more efficiently in combination with other similar activities. Only the Congress can abolish or curtail functions now provided by law.
The overhead administrative costs of all the agencies affected in Reorganization Plan No. I is about $235,000,000. This does not include the loans they make, the benefits they pay, the wages of the unemployed who have been given jobs; it does not include the loans and grants to States or, in short, the functional expense. It does include the overhead expense of operating and administering all these agencies.
The reduction of administrative expenditures which it is probable will be brought about by the taking effect of the reorganizations specified in the plan is estimated as nearly as may be at between $15,000,000 and $20,000,000 annually, a substantial lowering of the existing overhead. Certain of these economies can be brought about almost immediately, others will require a painstaking and gradual readjustment in the machinery and business practices of the Government.