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Dollars United Kingdom..

+2,548,262,000 248,185,612 453,796,497 447,895,662 631,266,263 Germany.

1,304,976,000 42,288,877 57,062, 263 85,563,312 191,072,252 British North America

180,804,000 25,339,254 30,775,871 41,503,812 107,789,333 Netherlands.

766,374,000 6,399.835 17,207,098 22,657,795 84,352,470 France.

813,919,000 45,556, 247 100,063,044 49,977,024 78,923,914 Belgium

436,218,000 7,055,634 34,154,180 26,630,444 49,390,259 Mexico.

61,305,000 5,859,700 7,866,493 13,285,287 36,475,350 Italy ..

290,773,000 6,474.653 12,352,612 13,068,096 34,468,939 Australasia.

351,755,000 3,466,575 4,748,590 11,266,484 30,713,345 Cuba..

65,489,000 14,129,814 11,225,699 13,084,415 25,964,801 British Africa.

142,041,000 354,097 445,436 3,252,875 21,654,458 Japan

109,760,000 571,186 2,552,888 5,232,643 19,000,207 China and Hongkong

* 231,065,000 3,116,381 3,978,775 7,385,382 18,406,025 Denmark.

98,436,000 1,337,448 4,168,999 5,040,047 16,178,613 Spain.

180,751,000 9,782,403 14,657,884 12,758,463 15,484,738 Brazil..

136,181,000 5,774,343 8,605,346 11,972,214 12,034,267 Sweden and Norway.

205,275,000 105,532 2,386,403 3,571,834 11,844,152 Argentina..

112,760,000 2,469,866 1,882,841 8,887,477 11,537,668

317,991,000 4,194,360 13,229,546 10,662,808 9,923, 156 Austria-Hungary

326,600,000 2,469,866 2,306,829 948,353 7,222,650 + Includes imports from colonies. * Hongkong estimated. of such purchases in 1901 with that of 1891, it EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES TO UNITED should materially aid the producer or exporter KINGDOM IN 1891, 1895 AND 1901, INCLUDING ALL in determining where the best markets exist ARTICLES WHOSE VALUE IN 1901 EXCEEDED and what articles are most in demand in those $1,000,000. markets. To do this intelligently, we must show first ARTICLES


1901 the amount of each article exported from the

Dollars Dollars Dollars United States to the country in question in the latest available year and also the exportations

Total exports. . 445,414,026 387,125,458 631,266,263 of that same article to that country at an earlier Cotton.. 170,863,888 140,101,245 147,502, 187 period-say, 1891-thus indicating the growth of Wheat

27,281,400 30,453,104 56,807,930 a decade in the consumption of this particular Flour.

33,781,917 30,529,897| 41,655,649 article of American production in the country Corn.

8,167,775 8,126,526 37,282, 851 in question. For this purpose, I have selected Cattle

28,622,875 28,492,424 35,311,949 all articles whose total exportations to the

Beef, fresh.. 15,221,751| 16,784,936 31,569,007 country in question in the year amounted to Bacon

30.429,839 29,024,682 30,884,512 one million dollars or more and arranged them Hams.

6,546,179 9,245,618 20,269,042 in their order of magnitude in the latest years, Lard..

11,037,910 14,301,618 16,377,255 and also show in adjoining columns the ex


9,242,388 11,021,728 14,875, 112 portations of those same articles to the coun

Mineral oil 7,801,606 13,667,518 13,282,972 try under discussion in 1891 and 1895. This

Machinery. 2,036,780 2,273,289 *10,620,050 will indicate the growth during a decade in


6,465,C27 9,295,946 8,820,624 the exportation to each of these principal coun


1,000,498 4,321,253 7,396,270 tries of all articles whose value to each country Pork

1,370,988 1,089,238 6,830,647 exceeded one million dollars and in some cases

B’rds and pl’ks. 1,848,863 1,972,576 5,359,653 less in the latest available year. In some cases

Fruits ..

961,311 2,908,277 4,605,803 it is not practicable to present these detailed fig

Oil cake

5,157,178 3,216,971 4,442,469 ures for 1901, and in such cases those of 1900


3,298,263 2,568,201 4,089,618 are given.


1,374.044 2,410,661 *3,274,683 UNITED KINGDOM.-The first country to be Turpentine .. 2,570,838 2,138,641 3,221,737 considered is, naturally, the United Kingdom. Canned beef. 6,669,673 3,562,993 *3,052,430 She took last year more than 40 per cent. of †Furs.

2,534,310 3,025,541 *3,046,547 our exports, more than all the remainder of Tallow


227,908 *2,163, 258 Europe, more than three times as much as any Builders' hrdw. 616,378 802,494 *2,156,661 other country of the world, three times as Seeds.....

771,624 1,315,254) *2,150.675 much as all North America, and four times as Canned salmon. 1,792,938 1,902,425 *1,870,004 much as South America, Africa and Asia and Agr'l implem'ts 471,773 750,682 *1,350, 443 Oceania combined. Of our total exportations

*1900. t Includes fur skins. during the year, which amounted to $1,487,755,557, those to the United Kingdom were $631, est manufacturing country of the world would 266,263, Foodstuffs and cotton of course form be a large purchaser of manufactures. the principal features of these enormous sales, Yet, even in manufactures we have made some for it could scarcely be expected that the great headway in the markets of the United King


dom, though as a rule the manufactures there sold are composed of materials more plentiful in the United States than in England, such, for instance, as paraffin, mineral oil, copper, lumber, etc. However, in articles which may be classed purely as manufactures, the growth has been very gratifying. Agricultural implements, for example, increased in export value from less than half a million in 1891 to about a million and a half dollars in 1901; builders' hardware, from about half a million to over two millions; turpentine, from two and a half millions to three and quarter millions; leather and manufactures of, from nine millions to nearly fifteen millions; copper and manufactures of, from one million in 1891 to over seven millions in 1901, and machinery, from two millions in 1891 to over ten millions in 1900.

GERMANY.-To Germany tbe export record of the decade and of the thirty years' period covered by the table has been gratifying. This is especially true in view of the frequent assertions meantime that the trade relations between Germany and the United States were being interrupted or likely to be interrupted by hostile legislation or the adverse construction of existing laws and regulations. The exports from the United States to Germany increased from forty-two millions in 1870 to one hundred and ninety-one millions in 1891, and even during the decade 1891-1901, have doubled, being in 1891, $92,795, 156, and in 1901, $191,272,352. Considering the list of those exports which exceeded $1,000,000 in value in 1901, it is again found that foodstuffs and cotton are the most important, but that manufactures form quite as large a percentage as in the case of Eng. land. Our exports of lumber to Germany, for instance, increased from about a quarter of a million in 1891 to over a million dollars in 1900; paraffin, from a quarter of a million to

a million and a quarter: turpentine, from a half million to over a million; oleomargarine, from a million and a quarter to over two and a half millions; agricultural implements, from a quarter of a million to two and a half millions; sewing machines, from a little over a half million to over a million; oil cake (though this is not usually included in the official list of manufactures), from a little over a million to over five millions; copper from less than a half a million to over seven and one-half millions, and machinery, from a little over a half million to over four and one-half millions, the comparisons in most cases being between 1891 and 1901.

CANADA.-Canada, or British North America, as it is officially designated in the report of the Bureau of Statistics, is the third largest of our ('ustomers. Our exports to British territory lying north of the United States were in the year just ended one hundred and seven million dollars, against twenty-five million dollars in 1870, thirty million dollars in 1880 and forty-one million dollars in 1890, an increase since 1830 of more than 300 per cent. It is not practicable to state in detail the exports article by article to all of British North America, since the reports of the Bureau of Statistics include under 'that general term several distinct provinces or sections, and state each of them separately. To Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Northwest Territory, however, which take the lion's share of our exports to Canada, the total figures for the year are eighty-three million dollars, against thirty-two million dollars in 1891, and to this extent it is practicable to analyze the export trade with our Canadian neighbors. Of this total of eighty-three million dollars exported in 1901, the largest single item is coal, amounting to over fourteen million dollars and about equally divided between bituminous and anthracite. This has rapidly increased during the decade, the total for 1891 being but a little over four million dollars. Naturally manufactures form a larger share of our exports to Canada than to the great manufacturing countries of Europe, both because manufacturing interests of Canada are less devel. oped than those of the older countries and also because her food supply is proportionately larger and her demand upon us for food is proportionately less. Of the total exportations to Quebec, Ontario, etc., amounting to eighty. three million dollars in 1900, machinery formed over five million dollars; rails for railways about two and one-half millions; cotton manufactures nearly two and one-half millions; chemicals, a million and a half; manufactures of wood, over a million. Of the list of those articles exported. whose value in 1900 exceeded a half million dollars, fully one-third in value was manufactures, and in the smaller items a much larger proportion is manufactured articles. In 1891 the proportion of manufactures was much smaller, machinery amounting to but about a half million dollars in value, against over five millions in 1900; rails for railways, three hundred and eighty-three thousand dollars, against about two and one-half millions in 1900, and cotton manufactures, three hundred and seventy-seven thousand dollars. against nearly two and one-half millions in 1900.

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Dollars Dollars Dollars Total exports..'92,795,456 92,053, 753 191,072,252 Cotton..

50,401,021 43,078,399 76,234,319 Corn..

2,042,404 1,672,539 17,305,229 Lard.

7,048,606 8,018,516 13,700,815 Mineral oil 9,422,356 4,712,990 8,833,931 Wheat.

295,953 1,522,736 7,871,573 Copper

399,676 1,604,390 7,785,490 Oil cake

1,182,041 2,339,885 5,242,624 Vachinery.

702,442 488,891 *4,786,409 Tobacco.

3,757,770 3,910,388 3,913,656 Agr'l implem'to 233,781 556,914 2,677,319 Oleomargarine. 1,253,556 1,962,673 2,647,375 Flour.

41,039 740,264 2,011,259 Timber.

560,422 777,925 *1,623,179 Cotton seed.. 168,075 931,560 *1,330,240 Parattin..

259,921 254,061 *1,295,056 Turpentine. 583,761 463,263 *1,264,639 Lumber....

262,088 341,125 *1,139,840 Sewing mach's 609,750 472,203 *1,016,591 Dried apples... 100,861

932,524 *1900.

103,326' *

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EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES TO QUEBEC, Netherlands' ports. Manufactures form ONTARIO, ETC., IN 1891, 1895 AND 1900, INCLUDING much larger share of our exports to the NetherALL ARTICLES WHOSE VALUE IN 1900 EXCEEDED lands than to the other European countries al$500,000.

ready discussed. Of the total exports to the

Netherlands in 1990, amounting to $89,386,676, ARTICLES


more than sixteen millions represented copper,

more than eight millions mineral oil, more than Dollars Dollars Dollars

five millions oleomargarine oil, while turpenTotal exports. 32,100,016 46,712, 70683,009,739

tine, leather, and other articles of manufacture Coal, bituminous.. 1,979,622 3,247,701 7,663,715 also figure prominently in the list. Coal, anthracite 3,330,077 5,244,251 6,994,598

FRANCE.-To France, the exports of the Machinery. 673,127 1,292,237/ 5,224,608

United States have made a less rapid growth Corn 2,466,941 1,418,747/ 4,206,639

than to almost any other of the European Cotton, raw. 2,586,722 2,840,392 3,392,327

countries. A self-contained country which proRails, for railways 383,344 18,973 2,424,736

duces nearly all that its people require except Cotton mnfrs.... 377,130 1,929,839 2,321, 763 tropical and subtropical products and which Wheat... 2,549,834 2,516,609 1,924,517

obtains much of those from its own colouies, Lumber.. 357,542 486,467 1,633,214

and which for its manufactures relies upon its Chemicals.

337,143 1,123,768 1,403,464 own industry, except in the case of those arWood mnfrs. 535,327 881,430 1,046,314 ticles not produced from its mines and forLeaf tobacco.. 1,129,424 1,003,629 902,533 ests, France has demanded less in the markets Fruits and nuts. 374,031 596,294

832, 703

of the United States and shown less growth in Horses...

170,270 680,378 779,191 her demands upon us than have the other EuTimber..

1,774,993 968,176 765,908 ropean countries. Indeed the figures of 1901 Flaxseed.

763,817 are actually less than those of 1880, and but Builders' hardw're 226,610 348,589 544,242 75 per cent. more than those of 1870. Of the


seventy-nine million dollars' worth of our prodNETHERLANDS.- To no country of the world ucts exported to France in the fiscal year just have our exports grown with greater rapidity ended, practically one-half represented raw cotduring the last few years than to the Nether ton and copper for use in her home industries lands. In 1870, our exportations to the Nether the total value of cotton being in round numlands were $6,399,835; in 1890, $22,657,795, and bers thirty-five millions, and copper over seven in 1901, $84,352,470. That this little nation of million dollars. Even of mineral oil which she six million people should have increased their must buy from abroad, her purchases from purchases from the United States more than us are almost exclusively in the crude state, 1,000 per cent, since 1870 and quadrupled them heing refined by her own manufacturing esin a decade is difficult of explanation except in tablishments; while nearly all of the other the assumption that a considerable share of European countries purchase their oil from us the exports accredited to the Netherlands in in the refined state. Manufactures, however, the official reports to the Bureau of Statistics are now forming a larger percentage of our pass on through that country to the markets exports to France than in earlier years. Wheat of other countries most readily reached by the exports to France, which in 1891 were over

twelve million dollars in value, were in 18:35

and 1901 less than one million, but seem not EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES TO NETHER

unlikely to again advance in view of recent LANDS IN 1891, 1895 AND 1900, INCLUDING ALL

reports to the State Department, which indiARTICLES WHOSE VALUE IN 1960 EXCEEDED $500,000.

cate that the crop of France of the present

year will be materially short and that she will ARTICLES


1900 be compelled to import about fifty-six million Dollars Dollars Dollars

bushels of wheat during the year. Total exports..... 24,113,977 31,011,775/89,386,676 Copper. 1,115,795 4,054,943 16,405,291

EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES TO FRANCE Corn... 1,002.870 1,203,165 9,556,637

IN 1891, 1895 AND 1901, INCLUDING ALL ARTICLES Mineral oil 2,998,897 2,072,969 8,542,659

WHOSE VALUE IN 1901 EXCEEDED $1,000,000. Wheat

412,436 2,433,063 6,871,652 Oleomargarine oil. 5,759,672 3,907,712 5,912,334



1901 Flour.. 1,364,519) 2,762,014| 5,005,492

Dollars Dollars Dollars Lard.. 1,948,183 2,294,213 4,667,085

Total exports ..

60,693,190 45,149,137 78,923, 914 Cotton.

2,150,580 764,698 2,818,248 Cottonseed oil 571,740 2,182,761 2,766,774 Cotton, raw. 27,329,043 21,938,213 34,934,658 Oil cake:.. 182, 189 508,297/ 2,650,371 Copper .

1,516,544 2,628,532 7,323, 208 Timber.

178,437 325,205/ 1,404,206 Crude mineral oil. 3,485,659 3,308,095 5,187,249 Tobacco

981,353 1,127,383 1,380,881 Cottonseed oil... 1,085,709 776,317 3,371,083 Boards and planks 177,759 368,968) 1,367,196 Tobacco, unmfd. 2,522,456 2,901,098 3,062,816 Fruits and nuts 980 218,046 1,222,186 Machinery..

314,399 359,769*3,016,472 Flaxseed

*1,110,576 +1.156,5451,093,579 Agr'l implements. 364,821 530,197| 2,068,277 Turpentine 665,317 517,215 900,571 Corn ...

91,668 306,689 1,950,546 Fertilizers.

11,974 587,710 804,791 Refined mineral oil 824,203 1,027,113 1,578,366 Leather

143,749 238,000 794,579 Scientific inst'm'ts 14,113 157,625 *1,257,719 Bacon and hams 854,965 823,678 736,455 Lard

3,909,077 2,681,659 1.148,518 Casingsforsaus'g's 188.230 403,913 685,983 Wheat.

12,590.322 306,689 871,237 *1892; +1894.


BELGIUM.-Belgium, like her neighbor, the Netherlands, has increased her importations from the United States with wonderful rapidity since 1870, in which year our exports to that country amounted to seven million dollars, while in 1901 they were forty-nine millions, or seven times as much as thirty years earlier. Presumably this increase is due in part to the conditions and circumstances mentioned in the discussion of the phenomenal growth of our exports to the Netherlands. Of our total exports to Belgium during the year 1900, which amounted to $48,307,011, foodstuffs and raw cotton formed the largest share, wheat standing at the head of the list with over six million dollars: cotton following, with more than five millions; corn, nearly four millions, and bacon and lard, four million dollars. Manufactures, however, formed a much larger share of our total exports to Belgium in 1900 than in 1891.

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MEXICO.-Mexico ranks seventh in the order of magnitude in the list of countries receiving our exports, and being like Canada comparatively new country and supplying her own food products but requiring the products of the factory, manufactures form a much larger share of our exports to her than to the other countries thus far discussed. Our total exports to Mexico in 1900 amounted to over thirty-four million dollars and of this sum, the value of five and one-half millions represented machinery; one and one-fourth millions steam engines; over a million dollars (arriages and cars; another million vegetable oils; over a million dollars lumber; nearly a million dollars gunpowder and other explosives; while chemicals, hardware, cotton cloth and manufactures of wood are important items in the list of our exports to that country during the year. Contrasting 1900 with 1891 the growth is strongly marked. Machinery, for instance, showed exports to Mexico valued at less than one million dollars in 1891, and in 1900, $5,619,633; steam engines less than half a million dollars in 1891 and $1,204,816 in 1900, and manufactures of wood, a little over a quarter of a million dollars in 1891 and nearly one million, in 1900.






Dollars Dollars Dollars Total exports..... 14,969,620 15,005.096 31,974,964 Machinery.

917,037 1,672,685 5,619,633 Bituminous coal 600,477 272,601 1.746,116 Steam engines.. 431,551 163,713 1,204,816 Boards and planks 938,946 281,919 1,133,089 Vegetable oils.... 84,668 427,956 1,071,022 Cars and carriages 771,625 170,540 1,010,096 Wood mnfrs .... 290,741 277,273 975,631 Chemicals and Drugs.

377,586 408,755 815,628 Cotton, raw.. 1,281,972 2,352,299 814,231 Gunpowder

393,400 615,059 720,805 Coke

247,593 711,588 Builders' hardw're 351,585 343,294 510,793 Cotton cloths

444,329 389,544 470,471 Crude mineral oil. 344,411 283,233 455,372 Lard....

109,814 128,779 440,471

ITALY.-Italy ranks next after Mexico in the value of our exports in 1901, the total figures for that year being $34,468,939, against $6,474,653 in 1870 and $13,068,096 in 1890. Natural products form a very large proportion of our exports to Italy, raw cotton alone in 1900 being more than half the total, or $17, 141,121 out of $33.256,620; while tobacco came next, $3,665,692, followed by mineral oil, chemicals, copper, cottonseed oil, and fertilizers ranging on downward in the order named with respect to magnitude.






Dollars Dollars Dollars Total exports.....16,046,925 16,363,125 33,256,620 Cotton, raw.. 9,642,281 9,771,190 17,441,121 Tobacco, unmfd... 2,690,300 2,288,432 3,665,692 Mineral oil, refin’a 1,569,578 1,365,780 1,475,270 Chemicals and Drugs

44,147 237,640 1.209,436 Copper

33,813 117,223 906,706 Cottonseed oil 411,439 288,378 874,758 Fertilizers..

29,944 165,415 649,663 Machinery..

50,726 50,030 505,624 Shooks, staves, etc. 230,237 416,152 500,722

BRITISH AUSTRALASIA.-To British Australasia, which ranks ninth among the countries of the world in the magnitude of its imports from the United States, the proportion of manufactures is naturally larger, as that country produces practically all of its foodstuffs and raw materials, but up to this time, comparatively little of its necessary manufactures. Of the $26,725,702 worth of exports from the United States to British Australasia in 1900, two and one-fourth millions represented machinery; two and three-fourths millions mineral oils; about two millions leather: Over one and one-half millions manufactured tobacco; one and one-half millions paper: cars and car

riages, agricultural implements and manufactures of wood, each nearly a million dollars; cotton manufactures and chemicals, each more than half a million; sewing machines, nearly a half million; saws and tools nearly another half million; while in the entire list of articles whose value exceeds five hundred thousand dollars, there is scarcely an article which should not be classed under the head of manufactures. The exports from this country to Australasia are growing rapidly, having been in, 1870, $3,466,575; in 1880, $4,748,590; in 1890, $11,264,484; and in 1901, $30,713,315.


thousand dollars. Flour exports have increased greatly, having been but five hundred and ninety-one thousand dollars in 1891, and over two millions in 1900.

BRITISH AFRICA.–To British Africa, our exports have grown with phenomenal rapidity during the last twenty years, and especially during the last decade. In 1880, they were less than half a million dollars; in 1890, less than three and one-half millions; in 1900, over sixteen millions, and in 1901, over twenty-one and one-half millions. Foodstuffs and manufactures, of course, form a large part of these sums. The details of the 1900 figures are the latest available. Of the more than sixteen million dollars' worth of goods exported from this country to British Africa in that year, the value of two and onefourth millions represented breadstuffs; nearly a million canned beef; almost another million flour; three-fourths of a million machinery; another three-quarters of a million mineral oil, and a half million dollars cigarettes. Breadstuffs (exclusive of flour) increased from twentyfive thousand dollars in 1891 to $2,309,923 in 1900; flour, from thirty-five thousand to eight hundred and eighty thousandi canned beef, from ninety-six thousand to nine hundred and eighty-two thousand; machinery, from two hundred and thirty-five thousand to seven hundred and eighty-six thousand; mineral oils, from three hundred and thirty-nine thousand to seven hundred and sixty-nine thousand: cigarettes, from eighty-two thousand to five hundred and five thousand, and furniture from sixtyfive thousand to two hundred and forty-nine thousand dollars.

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CUBA.–To Cuba our esports during 1901 were valued at $25,964.801. Foodstuffs and manufactures, of course, formed the principal part of this sum. The largest item in the 1900 figures, the details of 19901 being not yet available, was lard, over two millions; the next largest, flour, over two millions; lumber, a little over a million; machinery, a little less than a million; bacon, over three-fourths of a million, and malt liquors, bituminous coal, hams and furniture ranging in value above six hundred


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HAWAII.-The Hawaiian Islands stand next in the order of magnitude of exports from the United States in 1901, though for the exact figures the Bureau of Statistics is obliged to rely upon the estimate furnished by the Collector of Customs at Honolulu, exporters to that island having taken advantage of the letter of the law which made the Hawaiian Islands a customs district of the United States, and refused to furnish the usual data with respect to our exports to those islands. The 1900 figures, however, show that of the total exports to those islands, valued at $13,509,148,

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