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The presence of this statue at Peirene must indicate that Herodes and his wife had performed some public service here, and in view of the fact that he clothed the stadium at Athens with marble, it has been suggested that the marble revetment of Peirene may also be due to him.
On another block of marble is found the inscription 1]øv 'EBpal[wy. The stone seems to be a lintel block, and one can hardly question that it read originally"Synagogue of the Hebrews." Assuming that this is the case, we may well think that it stood over the door of the synagogue where Paul preached, when he laid the first foundations of the Christian Church at Corinth.
BUILDINGS.-Of the remains of ancient buildings which have been laid bare, by far the
most interesting are those connected with public fountains. The discovery of Peirene has already been mentioned. Here the fountain house consisted of a series of six chambers, supplied with water from the stream in a channel behind them. In Greek ays the very simple façade consisted of the roughly hewn stratum of rock, constituting the roof of the chambers, and very plain pilasters which formed the front of the walls separating the chambers. The front was thus extremely simple, but before Roman days columus and architrave of the Ionic order were added at the back of each chamber. When Corinth was rebuilt by the Romans an elaborate facade of two stories, Doric below and Ionic above, was built in front of the Greek facade, concealing most of the natural rock. Originally the new front was built of poros stone, but later this was faced with marble. The Romans also constructed an elaborate building in front of the original spring house. The main building is nearly square (50 feet each way); one side is formed by the spring house, and in each of the other sides is a large apse with three niches for statues. These apses were no doubt covered, while the central square, with its large round pool of water, was open to the sky. When all the building was covered with marble, the marble pavement complete, and statues adorned the niches in the walls, it is no wonder that the traveller, Pausanias, was much impressed by its magnificence.
A second fountain house, the Glauce mentioned by Pausanias, was discovered to the southwest of the old temple. The structure is not entirely understood, but apparently the rock
was cut away underneath a thick stratum, and this roof was supported by five simple pillars at the top of a short flight of steps in front. A few feet back under this rock roof were four chambers, also cut in the rock, and separated by walls of the original rock. Between these walls a parapet three or four feet high confined the water, and in the front of this parapet were set the usual lions' heads which served as spouts beneath which water jars were filled. This simple structure was modified in later days, but it never received the rich ornamentation which made Peirene conspicuous.
Still another fountain house has been discovered in the market-place itself. The special interest of this is that the later structure is built directly over a simple underground chamber in which tb older fountain is preserved unchanged. Two lion's heads of bronze are still in place in the wall, and under them in the stone pavement are the holes in which were set the jars to be filled. No other fountain from ancient Greek times has been found so free from any later rebuilding.
Besides these fountains there are foundations of several buildings, which as yet are not thoroughly understood. Of the theater the remains of the Greek building have been found beneath the later Roman building. The Baths of Eurycles, to the north of Peirene, have not yet been fully explored. The sculptured remains of the entrance to the market place have been mentioned above, and farther study may make it possible to reconstruct this propylæa. But the Temple of Apollo, dating back to the sixth century B. C., is still the most interesting of the remains at Corinth. This building has been systematically uncovered so that its structure is now plain, and two more (monolithic) columns have been found prostrate near by.
TOPOGRAPHY.–The most important result of the excavations, however, is the light they throw on the topography of Corinth. A reference to Smith's Classical Dictionary or to any of the plans of Corinth published in atlases, shows a striking contrast with what we now know. A comparison of the plan given in Kiepert's Atlas i'on Hellas (1879, Taf. VI), with the plan herewith on the same scale, showing what has been already found by the American school, is so suggestive that comment is unnecessary.
ARTHUR FAIRBANKS, PH.D., Prof. of Greek, State University of Ioica. CRISPI, FRANCESCO, former Premier of Italy, died at Naples Aug. 11, 1901. It is claimed that almost his only property is his library which is valued at $200,000 and is in his will bequeathed to the town of Palermo. Crispi was born at Ribera, near Girgenti, in the Island of Sicily, on Oct. 4, 1819. As a youth and a young man he rapidly went through his studies and took up the practice of the law in Sicily. He soon became deeply interested in politics and attached himself to the Sicilian-Neapolitan Republic committee.
The committee actively plotted for an insurrection in Sicily. The first attempt was made on Jan. 12, 1818, but failed and Crispi was exiled. He repaired to Piedmont, where be contributed revolutionary articles to various Liberal journals.
Crispi was accused of audacious practices, striking the names of opposed electors from the voting lists, to the number, it was claimed, of hundreds of thousands and contriving otherwise to paralyze the opposition.
The Minister also had the misfortune to seriously offend the German Emperor who advised the King of Italy that Crispi was becoming importunate and must be gotten rid of.
The Italian forces made an unfortunate attack with 14,000 men upon the impregnable positions near Adowa which King Menelek II. of Abyssinia held with 80,000 men. The crushing defeat which followed with the loss of about 6,000 Italian soldiers was attributed whether rightly or not, to the ministry. This happened early in 1896 and Crispi promptly resigned his position without waiting for the assembling of biarliament.
In March of 1898 a special commission was appointed to investigate serious charges against the ex-Premier, Signor Crispi—they reported his culpability but stated that nothing in his conduct could be brought for trial before the High Court. The charges were largely in connection with the wrecking of several banks which had occurred during his administration, and which was found to be due to political extortions practiced upon these institutions by members and agents of the government.
Personally it did not appear that the ex-Premier had profited by what was done, but his unpopular wife, Donna Lina, it seemed, had secured about $2,000,000.
In 1853 Crispi was arrested as a conspirator and driven out of Piedmont. He found refuge in Malta, only to be expelled. Then he went to Paris, where he was arrested by the French government and compelled to go to London.
At Genoa Crispi later met Rosolino Pilo, and together they planned an expedition. It landed on Sicilian soil on April 4, 1860, and the ringing of the bells of the convent of Gancia announced the outbreak of the revolution.
Garibaldi led the expedition, and it succeeded. At Salemi, on May 27, 1860, the decree declaring the fall of the Bourbon dynasty and the kingdom of Sicily was signed. It bore the names of Crispi and Victor Emmanuel, the latter declaring himself for the first time "King of Italy."
As Minister of the new revolutionary government, Crispi pared the way for the annexation of the two Sicilies to the kingdom of Italy. In 1861 he entered the Italian Parliament, and at once assumed the leadership of his party.
He was the President of the Chamber of Deputies 1876, Minister of the Interior 1877-'78.
In 1880 Crispi made the celebrated speech, in which he gave to the world Italy's “new policy.” He attacked France and advocated a German alliance, an increase of the army and navy, and a system of national defense.
He persisted in this policy, seconding the efforts of Bismarck, and in Feb. 1882, the Triple Alliance was formed by treaty. Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy were now allied for mutual proteition this being considered the best defense against the possible combination of France with Russia.
In 1887-'91 Crispi was President of the Council, and Home and Foreign Minister.
Under severe criticism in many parts of Europe, where he was credited with being the dictator of Italian national affairs, exercising authority exceeding that of even King Humbert, the wheel of political fortune again turned, and in 1891 his ministry was defeated.
His successor served two years and then resigned. In 1893 the King called upon Crispi to till the vacant place.
There were stormy times in Italy during his second ministry.
In May, 1895, the government under Signor
CUBA. (SEE PAGE 45.) SANITARY CONDITIONS. -Full reports of the efforts to stamp out yellow fever in Cuba and to remove the causes of the disease have been received at the Insular Bureau of the War Department. The fight of the military authorities against yellow fever began in the City of Santiago almost immediately after its occupation by the military forces of the United States. A summary of the statement issued by the Insular Bureau is as follows:
The yellow fever epidemic at Santiago in 1899 resulted in a death rate of 20 per cent. of all who had the disease. The epidemic began during the absence of General Wood in the North, and it raged without abatement until his return, when prompt measures were taken.
Every American soldier stationed in Santiago was sent to the mountains. Department headquarters were sent out of town; prompt isolation of suspicious cases and disinfection of houses where they occurred was made. Hotels and lodging-houses in which cases had occurred were closed. Quarantine measures were rigidly enforced, and detention camps for suspicious cases were organized. The disease at once began to wane.
The result of nearly two years of American rule has been to make Santiago, to all outward appearances, as clean as any American city. Every house where yellow fever curred in 1899 was disinfected three times. Eighty-five miles of streets were swept daily. 25,000 cubic yards of sweepings were hauled out of the city during the year; 118,000 cubic yards of garbage was removed, in the destruction of which 35,000 gallons of crude pe
troleum was used; 4,000 gallons of carbolic acid, 11,000 pounds of chloride of lime perfumed the air in the same good work. No street excavating was permitted.
The result of this work is that there has been no yellow fever in Santiago since Dec. 27, 1899.
The general sanitary condition of the City of Havana continues excellent. During June last there were 198 deaths from all causes. This is the smallest number occurring in any June since 1889. The greatest number of deaths for June occurred in 1898, when there were '1,258; the average since 1893 is 778.10. The rate per 1,000 is equally favorable, being 23.28 for the month of June.
The death rate for June compares favorably with that of many large cities in the civilized world. For example, the death rate in the City of Mexico for the week ending on June 2 was 65.62; Vera Cruz for the week ending on June 1 had a death rate of 37.79; the death rate of the City of Kingston, Jamaica, during May last was 42.22; Rouen, France, for the month of April last had a death rate of 28.43.
The condition of the City of Havana as far as yellow fever is concerned is particularly gratifying. During the month of June there was not a single death or new case in Havana. The records show that since 1761 no previous June has passed with absolute freedom from this disease. There has never been a year that approached the present in its freedom from yellow fever; the last death occurred on March 16.
In January there were twenty-two cases, seven deaths; February, eight cases and five deaths. After this date the new method of disinfection being in operation there were new cases on Feb. 22, 23 and 27 and the 2d and 8th of March. There were no further cases until April 20 and 21, when two occurred, and no more fever until May 6 and 7, when there were four. There were no cases from May 7 to June 30, the date covered by the reports so far received.
Commencing about the middle of February the sanitary authorities based their whole management of yellow fever upon the position that the mosquito is the medium of its transmission from person to person-a theory originally brought forward and elaborated by Dr. Charles Pinlay of Havana, and finally entirely established by complete experiments of the yellow fever commission. When the results of these experiments were made known the Military Governor directed that every effort be made to carry out disinfection on the lines indicated by this discovery, and the result of four months' work has been to strengthen the conclusion reached by this board.
honorably, studiously and with respect for the conventions, in any of the learned or artistic professions.
The opening of the preceding century disclosed the actor still on trial, and the drama eyed with something more than suspicion by the Church, out of whose religious observances it had sprung. But the dawn of the 20th Century found the drama fully recognized as it recreative necessity, and the actor accepted on his own merits, and without prejudice growing out of either the mistakes of history or the timeworn bigotry and intolerance of mankind.
This transformation from open contempt to tolerance and from thinly veiled suspicion to admiring patronage and warm friendship, was slow, often interrupted by cross currents of opposition, but persistent as the eternal sweep of the mighty Mississippi. Every great literary, art and religious movement has beaten almost hopelessly, at times, against the rocks of opposition and petty prejudice, only to find il way for itself at last through the tortuous and danger strewn channel. The history of religion including that which has passed for religion, is filled with lurid chapters flaming out in oppressive bigotry, and in like manner art has fought its way against the hosts of narrowness and prejudice. The principles of genuine art, like those of sincere religion are not for a day, but for all time, and while both the Church and the stage have been obliged to fight not for a hearing alone, but for existence, each has survived the ordeal and established its right to live.
With the opening of the new century, which as yet is less than a year old, both the retrospect and the prospect of the drama seems to be an interesting subject for enlightened comment and discussion. An institution commanding more attention and enlisting greater interest than any other establishment of modern society, except the Church and possibly the school, it can neither be ignored nor swept contemptuously out of sight with an epithet or the breath of Puritanical intolerance. That which has become so interwoven with the fabric of civilization throughout a dozen (enturies did not come by chance. The ruler of the universe implanted a dramatic instinct in every human breast and not all the impossible wisdom of the sophists can either eradicate that principle or prevent its development and exercise.
The current history of the drama, and of the stage which is its arena, suggests something in the nature of a transition period between the old and the new. It becomes in. stantly apparent to those familiar with dramatic values as they were and are, that while neither the literature nor the acting of the contemporaneous stage is developing those lightning flashes of genius attributed to Kean or that serene glow of splendidly sustained art peculiar alone to Shakespeare, yet the average of effort literary and histrionic, is most commendable and excites the highest hopes for the future. There is no Lessing, Schiller. Sheridan, Goldsmith, Duas and certainly no Moliere or Shakespeare in the field, nor can we match in kind David Garrick, Rachel, Mrs. Siddons. Peg Woffington, J. P. Kemble. Edwin Forrest or the Booths-Junius Brutus or Edwin. But in
DRAMA, A REVIEW.-With the beginning of the 20th Century conditions in the dramatic field were such as to encourage hope among friends and, in a measure, discredit the enemies of the stage. Actors who, for more than a hundred years, extending even beyond the Restoration, had been known to the law, and also to society as “rogues and vagabonds" commenced the new centennial period in full enjoyment of all the honor, distinction and personal recognition attained by others engaged,
shine and tears. The new fad, ridden for a while at a furious hand gallop, proved neither edifying nor profitable and possessing no value as drama nor interest as an exposition of art, it was retired, as most observers believe, to permanent and well deserved oblivion.
The French and American dramatists resisted all temptation, if they regarded it as such, to contribute anything to this symposium of distress and provincial economies. Sardou, with his lurid dramas, Rostand with his poetic romances and the effervescent school of French writers, with their salacious realism and Franco-ethereal philosophy, kept right on, without the slightest recognition of the new movement going on outside, and the American dramatists could not be lured for a moment from what they understood to be the sensible and imaginative aspects of the drama. Mr. Herne, alone of our writers, was moved by personal habits of thought rather than judg
place of the few meteors that appeared in the sky at long intervals, we now observe the steady glow of innumerable stars whose illuminating power is more diffused, leading to the belief that the general condition is more promising and the prospects for the future most alluring.
Genius can never become so common as to be generally observed on the stage or in the literature of the theater, but talent of a high order supplementing an occasional expression of genius is increasingly in evidence and perhaps it would not be amiss to say that this is the most encouraging belief of the early and on some accounts, unimportant fraction of the new century.
On the well recognized principle that “Blessings brighten as they take their flight," enforced by the other proverb that "Distance lends enchantment to the view," the world is inclined to dwell with regret on the past and mourn departed glories which to our pessimistic view are seldom equalled or approached in the present. An adequate perspective is necessary to fully appreciate the achievement of any day or generation and that, alas, is impossible to us. Before that perspective lengthens into a safe distance of time our race is run and we unwillingly shuffle off this mortal coil, troubled by Hamlet's philosophy, yet quite unable to stay the hand of the reaper.
But if we cannot accurately weigh the present developments, a general review of the field must at least convey the impression that there is a healthy condition which may blossom be. fore the year is over into several occasions for special congratulation. Ibsen, Maetterlinck, Halbe and all the tribe of pessimistic problem writers who have mistaken the function of the stage and set it down as a charnel house, where dead men's bones are to be exhibited for the edification of those who are seeking recreation, have given over' temporarily, and perhaps forever, their self-imposed, but most ungracious and useless task. The first months of the new century provide no evidence that the moribund problem play is likely to revive—and admire the literary faculty of Ibsen and his coadjutors as we may and must, there cannot fail to be a sense of relief in the thought that this drastic and unlovely gospel of despair and philosophy of self-inflicted distress has been relegated to the background and is not likely to affect the stage to any considerable extent hereafter.
The English imitators of the Norwegian propagandists, Pinero, Jones and Bernard Shaw among the number, have given over the vain attempt to sacrifice the theater, which is a place of recreation to the tiresome and complex issues of sociology, which belong in the classroom, the study and to the domain of special research. For a considerable time these writers who had won their spurs by reason of clever work along lines which appropriately converged in dramatic representations, made a studious attempt to follow the lead of Ibsen and nauseate audienc in search of entertainment with thesis plays destitute alike of sweetness and light. But audiences were too wise in their generation to accept unpleasant developments in heredity or clammy discussions of the seamy side of life in place of engaging drama with its appropriate alternation of sun
As “ Henry V."
ment to undertake a thesis play with "Margaret Fleming." but no manager could be induced to give the play a setting and Mr. Herne subsequently turned his attention to the homely, but dramatic realism of “Shore Acres" and "Sag Harbor," with which he found that recognition denied him when attempting the Ibsenesque and futile. Bronson Howard made a half-hearted foray into the dominion of abstract problem, with "Aristocracy," but was not encouraged to a second attempt and with these two fugitive undertakings American contributions to an impossible dramatic literature entirely ceased.
Perhaps it might be said that the entire absence of all thesis plays from our stage during this, the first year of the new century, is the most significant fact in connection with the dramatic situation. Mr. Pinero's "Gay Lord Quex” was supposed to be inspired by a lingering desire on the part of this clever English writer to demonstrate that he could so com
MAUDE ADAMS. As the Little Duke in "L'Aiglon.”
pletely sugarcoat a discussion of social ethics that it would interest the average attendant upon the theater and also absorb those who imagine that they cannot be happy without strong meat. But the “Gay Lord Quex" possessed no distinct element of a problem. It proved to be a comedy of manners and a smart example of dramatic construction, in which English classes were thrown into sharp contrast for the purpose of creating a sense of entertainment. If Mr. Pinero had any intention at the outset of writing a thesis his heart failed him and with something less than the best of grace he fell back into the time-honored manner of playwriting, the objective purpose of which is the diversion rather than the instruction of an audience. When illy done, this fashion of play-making recalls the biting sarcasm of Thomas Carlyle, inspired by the futile literary style of one of his contemporaries. The great, but bitter author of Sartor Resartus and Frederick, likened the operations of this man to those of a house builder or mason, at least in one particular. He would gather with infinite pains a great quantity of material, erect scaffolding, prepare derricks, accumulate all the tools of his trade and then with great fuss and feathers lay a single brick. Mr. Pinero is too smart a workman to laboriously collect lumber and building material, only to reach such a lame and impotent conclusion, but his latest play the raison d'etre of which is a single scene, suggests the belief that he is falling into the error of sacrificing spontaneity to artifice and is more concerned with the dry bones of construction than the spirit that maketh alive.
"The Gay Lord Quex” was probably the most noted comedy of the recent season, not only on account of its author, who is facile princeps among current dramatists, but for the reason that it illustrates a modern tendency to illogical smartness, a disposition to exalt style above substance and accept the Oscar Wilde inven
tion of dramatic epigram in place of moving thought and genuine feeling. Quex is an example of shooting into the air, a process that leaves no mark behind. It does not reach so much as a lame and impotent conclusion, but ends, as it begins, without impressing an appreciable mark upon the target. There is no logical result of all the complications. As the people were when the play opens, so they are when it ends. Nothing has moved forward appreciably, and while the deft complication of the principal act excites suspense and creates sur. prise, and one is conscious of a sense of entertainment which he never feels in listening to the Ibsen plays, yet Mr. Pinero seems to have been more impressed with a desire to be clever in form and brilliant in style than with an impulse to write a play cumulative in interest and not merely imaginative in form, but logical in conclusion. The limit of Quex is a season or two, with a certain success of curiosity, and neither he nor any of his kind can hope to join the deathless procession of dramatic heroes evolved from the splendid imagination of the great masters of art.
Yet, while not disposed to be deceived by Mr. Pinero's latest example of smooth workmanship, we may feel some gratification in the obvious confession on his part that the abstract problem play is no longer a tenable proposition. All that has been done thus far in the new century is a tacit recognition of this same important fact. The rebound from owl. ish stupidity and gruesome realism at first took the direction of farce comedy and comic opera folly. The pendulum always swings to extremes, going first to its limit on one hand and then on the other, and the public taste and fancy, repulsed by the gloom of problems and the meatless inconsequence of thesis plays, was attracted at first by the extreme of irresponsible humor. Even French farces of a certain sort were tolerated for a little time, and plays of passion were welcomed as a relief from the harsh realities and bloodless people of the thesis play. But an intelligent public could not long be content with either extreme, and as the old century closed a marked preference for romantic plays, come. dies of the old school, and legitimate revivals was observed and has been maintained. This may be regarded as the feature of the dramatic situation, bearing with it a belief that a healthier appetite is prevailing. Even the success of Sapho and Zaza and the recrudescence of Camille cannot be viewed with entire disfavor. These plays at least pulsate with human life and command recognition as abstracts and brief chronicles of actual existence and blood-red suffering. They do not present the wooden people, sodden with provincialism and hopelessly dull and uninteresting, who are made to parade through the Skandinavian and German dramas, obtruding phases of character which are neither picturesque nor useful.
The Zazas and Camilles are universal types, while the people snapped up by the Ibsen kodak seem to be exceptional deformities, possessing some slight interest for the scientist, but coldly repulsive to the lovers of a drama that tugs at the heart-strings. This is the open sesame, the touch-stone of success for that class of plays across whose scenes falls the