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act in any diplomatic or representative capacity.

The service is divided into the following classes: Consuls-general, consuls, commercial agents, vice and deputy consuls, consular agents, marshals, interpreters and clerks. The consuls-general have charge of the consular business at the cities where they are located, usually the capital of the country to which they are assigned, and have also certain supervision over the consulates in the other cities and ports of that country, their supervision, however, being general in character, and not extending to the accounts of the consuls within their jurisdiction. They see that the laws and regulations are complied with, and may, on authority of the State Department, visit and inspect the consulates within their jurisdiction not oftener than once each year. In some countries there are two or more consuls-general, and the territory and consulates are divided between them. The number of consuls-general is thirty-nine in all, the consuls 255, and the commercial agents twenty-four. The consulsgeneral, consuls, and in most cases the commercial agents are citizens of the United States, but some vice and deputy consuls and many of the consular agents and interpreters citizens of the country in which they serve.

The consuls-general, consuls, and cercial agents are classified as follows: First, salaried officers, who are not permitted to engage in business; second, salaried officers, who are permitted to engage in business; third,

officers receiving their compensation by fees and who are also permitted to engage in business. The first class, in which the officers are salaried and not permitted to engage in business, includes all of the 39 consuls-general, 204 consuls and 8 commercial agents. The second class includes 11 consuls, who are salaried officers but are permitted also to engage in business. The third class includes 40 consuls and 16 commercial agents, and in these cases the compensation is by fees and the incumbents are also permitted to engage in business.

The compensation of consular officers is, as a rule, small, and in no case is it as great as is usually pictured in each recurring advent of a new administration. The highest fixed salary paid is $5,000, and that only in the cities of London, Paris, Liverpool, Hongkong, Calcutta, Shanghai and Rio de Janeiro; at Melbourne, $4,500; at Berlin, Montreal, Yokohama and Mexico City, $4,000 each; at Havre and Vienna, $3,500, and at Frankfurt, Osaka, Barcelona, St. Petersburg, Constantinople, Cape Town, Dawson City (Yukon Ty.) and Manchester, $3,000. In addition to this fixed salary, however, consular officers are permitted to retain their notarial fees, but all other fees must be accounted for to the government. These notarial fees, added to the fixed salary, bring the compensation at London and Paris up to about $12,000 to $13,000 per annum; at Liverpool, to about $9,000: at Berlin and Hamburg, about $7,500, and at Vienna, Manchester, Havre, Barce



lona, Osaka, Yokohama, and Mexico City, to about $5,000. There are, in the entire list of consular positions, about 20 places in which the compensation ranges from $5,000 upward; only two, Paris and London, exceeding $10,000 per annum. Formerly consuls were permitted to reta in all fees, and as those for commercial services usually exceeded the notarial fees, the positions were, in numerous cases, extremely profitable. This was especially true of London, Paris, and the great commercial centers of Germany, where the fees for commercial services are large. At Paris, for instance, the official fees which the consul is now required to pay to the government amounted in 1900 to $5 1,580; at London, $63,408; at Liverpool, $27,771; at Berlin, $16,320, and at Hamburg, $14,537. The table which follows gives the fixed salary and notarial fees at each of the places at which the compensation, obtained by combining salary and notarial fees, exceeded $5,000 in the fiscal year 1900:


Notarial CompenCity

Salary. Fees. sation. Paris

.$5,000 $8,869 $13,869 London

5,000 7,478 12,478 Liverpool 5,000 4,734

9,734 Dawson City

3,000 5,423 8,423 Hamburg

2,500 5,844 8,314 Bremen

2,500 4,844 7,344 Berlin

4,000 3,162 7,162 Hongkong

5,000 970 5,970 Osaka

3,000 2.697 5,697 Barcelona

3,000 2,313 5,543 Manchester 3,000 2,499

5,499 Rio de Janeiro. 5,000 457 5,457 Mexico City

4,000 1,389 5,389 Stuttgart

2,500 2,861 5.361 Shanghai

5,000 337 5,337 Calcutta

5,000 287 5,287 Havre

3,500 1,033 5,133 Yokohama

4,000 1,095 5,095 Vienna

3,500 1,542 5,042 The popular theory that the consular service of the United States is changed with each administration is largely erroneous. While there are, at the beginning of each administration, some changes in the service, an examination of the list of consuls shows that in numerous cases the officials have seen many years of service in this line. Indeed, an examination of the list shows that in a large proportion of cases the term of service began as much as a decade ago; and at such important places as Berlin, Brussels, Antwerp, Amsterdam and numerous other cities, the chief officer entered the customs service 15, 20 and in some cases 25 years 'ago, while in many instances the service of the subordinates at the leading consulates and consulates-general covers a long term of years. In some of the cases the service has not been continuous, having been interrupted by change in political administrations, but the number of officials now in the consular service who have had a decade or more of actual experience is large and the proportion constantly increasing, as every year gives new evidence of the wisdom of retaining permanently in the service those who have proved valuable in the work. This fact is recognized by a regulation which provides that any vacancies in positions in a

consulate or commercial agency in which the compensation is between $1,000 and $2,500 shall be filled by transfer or promotion from the consular service or some other position under the Department of State, or by appointment of a person who has formerly served in a capacity tending to qualify him for the position to be filled, or if not so filled the person selected shall be examined as to his qualifications by a board appointed by the Secretary of State for this purpose.

In general terms it may be said that the duties of consuls are: (1) Protection and assistance to American citizens abroad. (2) Protection and assistance to American sea men and to American shipping industries. (3) The judicial capacity in which they act as judges in cases between American citizens in certain countries and in some instances between American citizens and citizens of the country to which they are assigned. (4) Co-operation with the customs service in preventing evasion of duties and in requiring accurate statements of the value of articles sent into the United States. (5) Protection of public health by notifying the health authorities of the United States of the existence of infectious or contagious diseases at cities or ports within their jurisdiction. (6) A scrutiny of the passenger lists of all vessels leaving his port, with a purpose of preventing emigration to the United States of persons whose entrance to this country as immigrants is prohibited by law-Chinese laborers, contract laborers, paupers, or persons likely to become a public charge, insane persons or idiots; persons suffering from contagious or loathsome diseases, felons and criminals, polyga mists, and assisted immigrants. (7) To report to the Secretary of the Treasury the prices current of all articles imported at the port or place in which he is stationed; the character of the agricultural implements in use, and whether imported or of home manufacture; the character and extent of agricultural and horticultural pursuits, etc. (This latter information is transmitted by the Secretary of the Treasury to the Department of Agriculture, is also the monthly report on the character, condition and prospective yield of agricultural and horticultural industries, which the consuls are required to make direct to the State Department for transmission to the Department of Agriculture.) (8) Gathering and transmission to the State Department, for distribution, of information liable to prove valuable to American producers, manufacturers and exporters. (9) To advise the State Department privately of such information as the Consul may consider likely to affect American interests, and (10) to respond to such inquiries and perform such services as the Department may require from time to time.

In the first-mentioned duty--protection and assistance to American citizens abroad-the duties of the Consul are relatively less in the more highly civilized and advanced countries, It is his duty, however, to hear and examine into all complaints made to him by American citizens of improper treatment by the government or by citizens of the country to which he is assigned, and if not satisfactorily adjusted, to report the facts to the Minister or Ambassador for his consideration and action. In

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papers and thus prevent its sailing from the port until proper adjustment of the claims of sea men is made. Cases have occurred in which consular officers have, with the subsequent approval of the Department of State, removed masters of vessels for incompetency, endangering the lives of the passengers and crew, or for misconduct and tyranny toward passengers or crew, but these cases are rare. On the other hand, however, the Consul is required to see that seamen carry out their contracts, and in countries in which the United States have stipulations by treaty or convention providing therefor, or where is permitted by the local authorities, consular officers may cause the arrest of deserting seamen and imprison them until they are required by the master, or send them on board the vessel; if,

many cases consuls are called upo: to adjust differences between American citizens, and the Consular regulations direct that "Consuls shall use every endeavor to settle in an amicable manner all disputes in which their countrymen may be concerned, but shculd take no part in litigation between citizens. They should countenance and protect them before the authorities of the country in all cases in which they may be injured or oppressed, but their efforts should not extend to those who have been wilfully guilty of an infraction of the local laws. It is their duty to endeavor on all occasions to maintain and promote all the rightful interests of citizens and protect them in all privileges provided for by treaty or conceded by usage, and if representations made to the local authorities fail to secure proper redress, the case should be reported to the ConsulGeneral, if there be one, or to the diplomatic representative and to the Department of State." By treaties with most of the countries commonly known as “non-Christian" powers, including China, Siam, Corea, Turkey, Persia, Morocco, Tunis, Tripoli, Madagascar and certain of the islands, consuls have judicial power in civil or criminal cases, or both, and especially in cases between American citizens in those countries. Cases arising between Americans and natives are tried by American consular officers in China, Siam and Madagascar, while those between Americans and other persons not natives are heard before, or arranged by, their respective consular officers. In some countries, cases between Americans and natives are tried by a mixed tribunal consisting of the consular officer and certain local officials. In cases where the crime is of a serious character, resulting in long imprisonment or capital punishment, the case may be appealed to the United States Minister, and in the latter case may also be appealed from the Minister to certain courts in the United States or direct to the President.

In protection of American sea men the duties of the Consul are even more exacting in detail than those to American citizens as a whole; he is required to adjust all differences between seamen and vessel masters with reference to wages, food, personal treatment, term of service, etc., etc.; to act as the guardian and protector of any and all American seamen who may appeal to him, but also to see that they do not violate their agreements with vessel masters through desertion or refusal to perform the services agreed upon; to render this service to the seaman without cost to him and to care for him in case of sickness and return him to the United States free of cost in case of abandonment by the vessel which took him from the United States. Every master of an American vessel engaging seamen at a place out of the United States must make and sign the agreement in the presence of a consular officer, who must see that the seamen understand the contract. It is the duty of the consular officer to collect from the vessel master all arrears of wages due to the sea men up to the date of their discharge, if discharged at his port or within his district, and to consider and decide all questions of compensation and treatment between vessel masters and seamen; and consuls are authorized to retain the ship's

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however, the consul is satisfied that the desertion was caused by cruel treatment, the mariner shall be discharged and receive one month's pay in addition to the wages due at the time of his discharge. It is a part of the law of civilized nations that a merchant vessel entering the port of another becomes subject to the law of that place unless by special treaty agreed otherwise, but experience has show that the local government should abstain as: far as possible from interfering with the inter: nal discipline of the ship, and so by comity it became to be understood among civilized nations that all discipline and all things done on board that affected only the vessel or those belonging to her, and not involving the peace or dignity of the place visited or the tranquillity of the port, should be left by the local government to be dealt with by the authorities: of the nation to which the vessel belongs; and in many cases the local authorities give forci

ble assistance, if necessary, to the consular officer to preserve and enforce his decisions with reference to the crew or officers of the vessel.

The co-operation of consuls with the customs service of the United States in preventing undervaluation and in obtaining accurate statements of the value of articles forwarded to the l'nited States is an important and difficult feature of their duties. The customs laws of the United States provide that no merchandise, other than personal effects or imports exceeding $100 in value, will be admitted to entry at any port of the United States without a duly certified invoice thereof, made before a consul at the city or port from which it is forwarded to the United States. This invoice must state the quantity and value of the goods shipped, and it is the duty of the consul before whom it is made to keep himself so well advised of the value of all classes of merchandise that he may be able to certify whether or not the statement of value is reasonably accurate. These invoices and certitications are made in triplicate, one being supplied to the shipper of the goods, one forwarded to the Collector of Customs of the port to which the goods are shipped, and cne retained by the Consul, and they are utilized by the Customs officials in finally determining the value of the imports and the rates of duty where the duties assessed are "ad valorem," or according to value.

The protection of the health of the American public by watchfulness over health conditions in the district assigned to the consul, is an important feature of his duties; he is expected and required to keep himself advised of the health conditions and to promptly notify by cable the authorities of the United States upon the outbreak or appearance of yellow fever, plague, cholera, or other diseases of this character, also to notify them of the sailing of vessels from ports where such diseases exist or from which they would carry goods originating in sections where such diseases exist. These notifications must include the name of the vessel, the date of sailing, and the United States port for which it is bound, also such other information as is available bearing upon the subject.

One of the most important of the numerous duties of the consul, and one which has steadily increased both in importance and in demands made upon him, is that of reporting to the State Department for publication in the l'nited States all available information regarding products, manufactures, inventions, business conditions, and other facts of this character within his jurisdiction which would be valuable to the producers, manufacturers, importers, exporters and financiers in the United States. The field thus covered is of course an extremely broad one, and when the natural activity of the consul is constantly stimulated by questions sent him from the State Department, which in turn are frequently suggested by individuals or organizations desiring special information, the amount of information thus gathered from other parts of the world is very great and very valuable, and its value is again multiplied by the Bureau of Foreign Commerce of the State Department, which not only published it in

detail, in monthly and annual volumes, for general distribution, but gives each day to the press of the country the most important features of the information thus obtained. The scope of this work, in which it is generally conceded hat the consular service of the United States excels that of any other country, can be best measured by the following summarization of the instructions to consuls as to the subjects which should especially engage their attention and upon which they should report: Condition of foreign commerce and internal trade, manufactures, mechanical industries and agriculture, statistics of exports and imports, shipping. revenue and expenditure, debts-national and local, rates of taxiltion, currency, savings and other banks; commercial credits, trade usages, improvements and developments of old and new industries. the introduction of inventions from the United States or imitations of them; importations of food supplies, raw materials, and manufactures from the United States, and the possibility of introducing or increasing them: facilities for communication with the United States and establishment of new lines of communication; development or decline of commercial and manufacturing centers; changes in economic conditions of producing communities, urban and rural; fluctuations in wages, cost of living; hours of labor, labor organization, strikes; regulations for the protection of labor, legislation in the interest of farmers, merchants, manufacturers, inventors, etc.; and especially all changes, actual or prospective, in tariff leg. islation, including new rates of exports, imports or transit duties, with full copies of new tariff regulations as promptly as they can be obtained.

The illustrations given in connection with this article are intended simply to show a few of the out-of-the-way points in which consulates have been established.

0. P. AUSTIN, (Chief, Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Dept.). Washington, D. C.

CORINTH, EXCAVATIONS ON THE SITE OF.-It is now six years since the American School of Classical Studies in Athens began excavations on the site of ancient Corinth, and with the exception of one year when the work was interrupted by the war between Greece and Turkey, it has been prosecuted vigorously each spring. Not long ago the Greek ephor of antiquities, K. Kabbadias, called attention to the results of the American excavations here, anal classed them with the great excavations of the Germans at Olympia and of the French at Delphi. Although some account of the earlier campaigns has appeared while they were in progress, no general survey of the results obtained up to July 1, 1901, has yet been published.

In the year 1895-96 the Director of the American School, Dr. Rufus B. Richardson, with the aid of President Benjamin I. Wheeler, at that time a professor in the school, obtained permission from the Greek government to excavate on the site of ancient Corinth. Some four miles up from the modern city under the slopes of Acro-Corinth lies the small modern village of Palaio-Korinthos. The presence of inhabited houses over the remains of the old



city, and the great depth of earth covering these remains, had prevented earlier investigators from prosecuting their work here. Only the massive ruins of an old Doric temple remained above ground to allure and puzzle the student. The land of the villagers has gradually been appropriated by the government, and the difficulties caused by the depth of the ruins have been overcome, until the main features of the plan of Corinth now lie exposed to view.

In the first year, 1896, trial trenches were sunk, leading to the discovery of the theater, and of a paved marble way. Some interesting graves of very early date were also found. The next year the work was stopped by the war, but in 1898 it resumed and the first great success was obtained in the discovery of Peirene. Descending a well about 25 feet deep, the excavators were rewarded by finding that it was not, strictly speaking, a well, but rather a shaft down to a stream of water issuing from tile aqueduct. This stream they followed up the aqueduct and shortly came upon the remains of the ancient fountain house since recognized as the Peirene of Greek legend and history. In 1898 and 1899 this fountain house was laid bare. The ruins of the old temple were cleared, and another fountain, the ancient Glauce, was also excavated. The problem of topography at Corinth was the location of the agora or market place, and in 1899 and the two succeeding years the agora was discovered and a considerable part of it has been excavated.

In material results, apart from the knowledge gained as to the topography of the city, these excavations have not been rich. Ancient Corinth was destroyed by Mummius in 146 B. C., and as most of its monuments were in bronze, it was both easy and lucrative to make the destruction thorough. Farther, it has become clear that the earth covering the ruins has collected in the last few centuries, so that for ages nothing prevented men from ravaging monuments which the Romans had set up, as well as earlier monuments which they had left intact. The remains of sculpture, architecture, etc., are important enough, however, so that some account of them is necessary.

SCULPTURE.-Up to 1900 the remains of sculpture discovered were few and unimportant. In the two years previous several statues had been found, but all were of indifferent workmanship and the heads were missing. The excavations in the agora in the spring of 1900 were more fruitful. A large round base on which were carved two Mænads, part of a relief showing a procession of very delicately cut figures, and a head which has received the name of Ariadne, are perhaps the most important finds. Even more interesting are the fragments of sculpture which probably decorated the propylæa or entrance way of the market place. Two youths of colossal size wearing Phrygian caps, and some other heads, belong to a series of statues which adorned the Corinthian pillars of this building. They did not take the place of columns, as in the south porch of the Erechtheum at Athens, but were attached in front of the pilasters supporting the roof. Part of the ceiling of this building was found, and in two of its coffered recesses are heads of Helios, and of Selene,


VASES, POTTERY, ETC.-During the first campaign at Corinth an interesting series of early vases was discovered in a pair of graves, northeast of the old temple. More than half of these yases are rude pitchers, with rounded body, large mouth and lip, and somewhat awkward handle. Two vases are ornamented with lines rudely incised; the remainder are plain. А comparison with vases found in the islands and in the different strata at Troy, makes it clear that the Corinth vases belong early in the pre-Mycenaean series, but not at its very beginning. In later graves

amphoræ with regular geometric pattern in black glaze In ve been brought to light. It was expected that excavations at Corinth would throw much light on the history of Greek vase painting, particularly on the kind of vases known as "Corinthian." Comparatively little pottery has




been found, and that mostly in fragments. A large kelebe, put together out of fragments has been published by the Director of the School: this is the first specimen of large “Corinthian" bowl, the Corinthian origin of which is beyond question. Specimens of rude "white lekythoi” from fourth century graves, show that Corinth imitated Athens in the use of this kind of vase for the dead. When more material has been collected and examined, we may expect further information along this line.

A few small bronzes, and many little terra cotta objects of different epochs have been found, but none of these are specially interesting.

The number of inscriptions is not large, but two of them deserve mention. On the base of a statue found within the Peirene building, is the name of the person represented, viz.: Regilla, no doubt the wife of Herodes Atticus.

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