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Metric tons. Dollars. Asphaltum ...

3,060 65,467 Carbon oxysulphide

1,120 81,896 Copper


48,537 Silver

492,803 Coal

1,238,835 2,610,015 Lignite

1,292,584 5,918,062 Coal, briquettes

31,137 101,338 Coke

10,036 38,814 Lead

2,166 130,402 Lead ore

526 20,036 Pyrites

79,519 129,879 Gold

2,042,159 Iron ore

1.567,860 1,999,002 Iron, pig

451,647 0,929,527 Salt

182,393 5, 179,782 The number of men employed in Austrian mines in 1899 was 119,126; women. 7,598; youths and children, 6,255; in smelting, 7,751 men and 417 women and juveniles; in salt works, 6,618 men, 974 women and 455 juveniles and children. In Hungary there were 69,111 persons employed in mining and smelting, and 2,197 in salt works.

In 1899 only 246 of the 831 lignite mines in Austria were operated. The workers employed were 47,375 men, 2,286 women and 1,129 youths. The number of operatives at work in the 138 mines of bituminous coal was 62,943, as follows: 55,255 men, 3,268 women and 4,420 youths.

MANUFACTURES.--Recent statistics of workers in Austrian industries are not at hand. In 1890 the number of workers in manufactories was 2,880,897, and these had families and dependents numbering 6,155,510. Of textile factories there were 2,287, having 296,481 workers, of whom 155,098 were in Bohemia.

Of factories for alimentary substances there were 3,047, employing 149,195 workers, and 592 chemical factories, with 33,264 workers. Of cottonspinning establishments there were 153, with 2,392,356 spindles and 33,815 workers, and 194 cotton-weaving establishments, with 47,902 power-looms and 48,384 workers.

In the year 1898-99 there were 214 sugar factories, employing 74,738 workers, and 30 tobacco factories, with 38,547 workers.

The output of the 1.512 breweries in 1897-98 was 19,206,585 hectoliters' (507,055,814 gallons); of the 30,673 distilleries, 1.373,326 hectoliters of alcohol (36,255,806 gallons).

Of the manufactures of the Dual Monarchy the most important is the sugar industry, especially in Bohemia. There are 213 factories producing raw sugar from beetroot, of which 130 are in Bohemia. The area of land under beet cultivation in Austria-Hungary in 18991900 was 802,750 and the crop was 8,480,000 tons, against 7,610,000 tons in the previous year.

In Bohemia the area was 368,030 acres, producing 4,190,000 tons, against 3,600,000 tons in 1898-99, The output of sugar in AustriaHungary in 1899-1900 was 1,098,546 tons; refined, 841,965 tons. In Bohemia the quantity was 551,338 tons; refined, 126,416. In the last sugar year (Aug. 1, 1900-Aug. 1. 1901) the area under beet cultivation in Bohemia was 370,344 acres, and the crop was 3,391,143 tons, a falling-off from the product of the previous year, due to want of rain. The raw sugar produced was 1.003,000 tons, a decrease of about

The hectoliter 26.4 gallons.

35,000 tons, as compared with 1899-1900. The output of raw sugar in Bohemia was 495,000 tons, or 56,000 tons less than in 1899-1900.

The British consul at Trieste, reported (April 10, 1901) several new industries: A jute manufactory, a color manufactory, an iron foundry at Laibach, a steam mill at Mompaderno, near Parenzo, and a brandy distillery, with cream of tartar extraction, at Parenzo.

In 1890 the manufacturing population of Hungary was 913,010 persons, distributed as follows: In clothing, 185,118; in building, 94,212; in wood and timber, 93,625; in iron and metals, 89,385; in foodstuffs, 81,277; in animal products, 31,786; in textile industries, 31,349; in leather and skins, 26,080; in machinery, 13,507; in earthenware and glass, 12,196; in coachbuilding, 10,493; in chemical products, 8,315; in printing, 8,996. Industrial workers and their families and servants numbered 2,157,280, or more than 12 per cent. of the population.

In 1899 the number of manufactories of tovacco (which is a state monopoly) was 21, employing 19,044 workers and producing 561,000,000 cigars and 1,075,500,000 cigarettes.

The output of Hungary's 102 breweries in 1899 was 1,566,251 hectoliters of beer (41,349,526 gallons); of 80,165 distilleries, 1,161.871 hectoliters of alcohol (30,673,394 gallons).

The twenty sugar factories active in 1899 employed 12,239 workers and produced 272,025,594 pounds of sugar.

In the last few years earnest efforts have been made to encourage industrial enterprises in Hungary, and not less than 356 establishments have been opened since 1892, with an aggregate capital of $52,639,606, or an average of $132,000 for each concern. Nearly all of them received government aid. In March it was reported that 08 new factories were planned, including some flax and cotton-spinning mills, having a total capitalization of $8,323,000, to employ 8,700 operatives.

FINANCE.-According to the Ausgleich, the agreement between Austria and Hungary touching their common relations, the expenses for administration of common affairs are borne by the two countries, the quota for Austria at present being 653 per cent, and for Hungary 343 per cent.

For 1901 the budget estimates for the "common affairs of the monarchy" showed the following sources of revenue:

Crowns, Foreign Affairs

319,095 War and Marine

5,410,781 Finance

88,727 Board of Control

1.102 Customs

.125.039,249 Matricular contributions


Total ...

..357,034,706 For the administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1901 the estimates were: Revenue, 42,789,881 crowns; expenditure, 42,591.451 Crowns,

The revenues of Austria, as estimated in the budget statement for 1901, amounted to 1,641,997,585 crowns ($398,184,414, reckoning the crown at 2414 cents), as compared with 1,586,403,933 crowns ($384,702,933) in 1900. The expenditures for 19901 are 1,641,163,344 crowns, against 1,586,403,933 crowns in 1900.

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rose from 111,000,000 A., at which it stood in 1868, to 261,000,000 6. in 1897. To meet this enormous expenditure it became necessary to create an adequate revenue by opening up new sources of income. The most productive source of incoine during this period was found to be direct taxation, including the additional quota of the Land Redemption tax. The system of taxation prevailing at the time of the re-establishment of Constitutional Government was devised by an absolute administration, but it was necessary that it should remain provisionally in force, and in spite of emendations introduced by law, together with new kinds of taxes and rates in the meantime, it is virtually still the basis of the system of taxation.

1 1868 there existed only four kinds of direct taxes, viz., land tax, house tax, income tax and a tax on salaries or wages. The audit showed a clear revenue of 58,000,000 f1. In 1875 the tax on salaries or wages was merged into the newly-organized trade tax, and likewise part of the former income tax was also merged into this trade tax, whilst out of the remaining part four independent kinds of taxes were formed, viz., a tax or interest upon capital, or rents, or mines, and on the income of those public concerns which are by law bound to publish annually a balance sheet of their business,

"Besides these, entirely new taxes were created, such as a duty on transport by rail or steamer, taxes upon luxury and sport, and licenses for carrying arms. To supplement rev. enue, which still proved insufficient to meet the steadily rising expenditure, the General Supplementary Income Tax was imposed in 1875. By these enactments the revenue was raised, in 1876, from 70,000,000 to 80,000,000 fi. In 1879 the so-called taxes upon luxury were abolished, and lottery taxes were introduced instead of them. In 1880 the passenger duties were augmented, and a tax created, to be levied on those persons who, from whatever legal cause, were exempt from military service. This latter tax was subsequently increased in proportion to the income of the person exempted. In the last-mentioned year the additional income tax was considerably increased, and the income of capital deposited at banks and other financial establishments was subjected to taxation. The year 1883 brought some modifications in the law on taxation of land, houses, rents and capital, and also on the General Supplementary Income Tax. These changes fully account for the improvement in the returns of direct taxation. The law of 1883, which exempted the day-laborers' earnings from taxation, in no way influenced the steady rise in the revenue from direct taxation. Thus in 1880 the revenue rose from 81,000,000 to $3,000,000 fl.; in 1883, from 83,000,000 to 92.000,000 A., and in 1884, from 92.000,000 to 94,000,000 fl. In 1887 the passenger duties were again increased, and the revenue in that year was 95,000,000 fl., whilst in 1888 it stood at over 99.000.000 fl. The revenue still continued to rise, reaching in 1897, 108,500,000 A.

"Of all the indirect taxes, the consumption and liquor taxes (excise) have, from the beginning, produced the largest amount of rer's enue.

In 1868 the then existing rules and regu

In 1900 the public debt of Austria-Hungary was $1,154,791,000, of which $1,089,113,067 was funded; the interest and other charges (mostly at 3 and 4 per cent.) amounted to $51,175,285. The total joint and special debts of Austria and Hungary in 1897 were $2,722,724,000.

The special debt of Austria in January, 1900, was 1,581,728,212 florins, of which the consolidated debt consisted of 1,566,030,111 florins; floating, 15,728,101 florins. The charge for interest and amortization was 76,277,937 tlorins.

According to the budget estimates of Hungary in 1901 the total of ordinary revenue was 1.012,770,396 crowns; extraordinary revenue, 43,811,901 (rowns; total, 1,056,582,297 crowns ($256,221,206). The total of ordinary expenditure was 970,496,303 crowns: extraordinary, 86,059,914 crowns; grand total, 1,056,556,417 crowns ($256,214,930).

According to the British consular report, No. 2565, on the "Financial Condition of Hungary," the actual public expenditure in

1899 £12.797,292, distributed as follows (at 24 crowns to the pound sterling): Railways

£ 5,594,375 Posts and telegraphs

1,505,512 Public debt

11,861,167 Other services

23,836,208 The Consul-General gives the estimates for the expenditures of the two following years: 1900, £44,172,337; 1901, £44,022,768. The surplus for 1900 was £6,138; for 1901 the estimated surplus is £1,494.

Consul-General Thornton quotes several pages from the pamphlet of Mr. Bencke dealing with the financial administration of Hungary during the thirty years 1868-1897. The following extracts from his report (2565, Annual Series, p. 9 et seq.) relate to the problem of taxation:

**The constant development of public affairs has naturally reacted upon the whole organization, but especially upon the expenditure for the administration of the public exchequer. The changes that hare taken place during the past 30 years are, for instance, the opening up of fresh sources of income, creating, organizing and administering new rates and taxes, the creation of the institute of inspectors of taxes and assessment offices, which afterward had to be abolished, the founding of cadastral offices for the registration of land taxes, and the creation of exchequer courts.

"The total expenditure of the administration


lations for collecting these taxes, such as the taxes on spirits, beer, wine, sugar and meat, were, with some trifling modifications, retained. During the first years of the new administration the revenue derived from this source amounted to from 12,000,000 to 13,000,000 A. per annum.

"After some slight increase in 1875 of the taxes on consumption, the spirit tax was also raised in 1878. But the desired improvement in the revenue was not fully realized. In 1880 the duty on sugar was raised; a year later, the treasury being then in straightened circumstances, consumption taxes on sugar, beer and coffee were introduced as new imports. The last-mentioned tax was, however, again abolished in 1883, whilst that on sugar and on beer was simultaneously further increased. In 1882 the tax on mineral oil was introduced, and in 1884 the fiscal rules relating to this and to the spirit dues were modified, and a tax on compressed yeast was imposed.

“From April 1, 1887, the consumption taxes, especially those on sugar and beer, were again raised, the former by 50 per cent., and the latter by 100 per cent. On August 1 of the same year the tax on sugar, and on September 1 that on spirits, were further increased. Consequent upon these fiscal enactments the corresponding revenues rapidly improved. In 1879 the revenue derived from these sources a mounted to 18,000,000 fl.; in 1880, to 19,000,000 fl.; in 1881, to 24,000,000 f1.; in 1883. to 25,000,000 fl.; in 1881, to 27,000,000 fl., and in the following years to between 30,000,000 and 35,000,000 A., whilst in 1889 they produced over 39,000,000 fl.

“On June 1 in the following year-in CroatiaSlavonia, a month later, the statute regulating the licensing monopoly came into force, opening up a new source of revenue, which in 1890 raised the revenue from this branch of taxation to above 62.000.000 fi.

"From 18:34 onward, the law regulating the collection of the spirit dues within the area of consumption was promulgated, and in June, 1896, the sugar duty was again increased.

"After that time the revenue derived from these sources went up by leaps from C2,000,000 to 77.000.000 fl. Thus the revenue from consumption taxes, from spirits and liquors, rose to six times the amount at which it stood 30 years ago.

"The income from stamps and from duties and fees on legal transactions forms a very important item of revenue."

The income from the tobacco monopoly rose from between 14,000,000 and 15,000,000 fl. in 1876 to over 30,000,000 fi. in 1897. The revenue increased during this period from 10,000,000 fl. to 14,000,000 a year. Of late years the postal, telegraph and telephone establishments have netted the government annually an income of several million florins. Since 1885 the state railways have been a source of profit-the surplus of 1897 being 34,057.000 florins.

The receipts from taxes during the year 1900 were 40,000,000 crowns more than was expected -distributed follows: 4,000,000 crowns more of the tax on shares, the tobacco tax .5,000,000 more, house rents 2,000,000 more, and the sugar tax 24,000,000, etc. It is proposed to raise the tax on intoxicating liquors as much as 20 crowns a hectoliter.

During the last thirty years the public indebtedness of Hungary has gradually increased, as is seen in the following exhibit:

Florins. 1868

268,853,000 1878

746,567,000 1888

. 1,462,598,000) 1899

. 2,475,225,000 This large increase in national obligations has been due in part to investments which have greatly augmented government property. The growth of national property in the last three decades is indicated in the following exhibit:

Value of Real Property.

Florins. 1868

324,975,000 1878

468, 124,000 1888

..1,028,270,000 1897

..1,678,032,000 The amount of the national real property in 1897 was distributed as follows:

Florins. Public roads

84,104,000 Post, telegraph, etc.

2.990,000 Railways

.998,925,000 Marine and Port of Fiume.

19,269,000 Waterways

76,050,000 Buildings of Worship and Public Instruction

27,354,000 The national balance sheet, comparing assets and liabilities, frequently showed a deficit from 1869 to 1891, varying in amount from 1,367,000 florins in 1871 to 49,137,000 florins in 1879. Of late years there has been a surplus of varying magnitude:

Florins. 1895

.39,323,000 1896

58,953,000 1897

50,967.000 BANKING.-During the year ending Dec. 31, 1900, the Austro-Hungarian Bank had 100 offices in Austria and 105 offices in Hungary. The total operations of the Bank in 1900 amounted to 6,092,673,553 crowns, against 6,159,168,134 crowns in 1999. The receipts of all the offices were about 27142 milliard crowns, and about 264 milliard crowns were given out; the turnover was 51,423 million crowns, or 3,743 millions more than in 1899. The supply of gold and bullion at the end of the year was 1,218,099,804 crowns, or nearly 200 millions more than the previous year.

The number of depositors in savings banks of Austria-Hungary in 1:300 was 5,121,000, out of an estimated population of 44,300,000. Tlie amounts of deposits aggregated $1,159,196,600.

RAILWAYS.-In 1898 the railway mileage of Austria was 11,444 miles; government lines, 4,763 miles; companies' lines operated by the government, 1.681 miles; companies' lines operated by the companies, 4,938 miles; foreign lines in Austria, 62 miles. According to the Commercial Yeair Book (1901), the cost of construction of Austrian railways up to Dec. 31, 1897, was $1.119,766,500. The same authority gives the following statistics as to traffic in 1897: number of locomotives, 4,602; number of passenger cars, 10.227; number of freight cars, 104,111; passengers carried. 109,461.273; goods carried, 104,491.612 metric tons; receipts from passengers, 60,305,162 gulden; from freight,

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MAXIMILIAN PLATZ, VIENNA. One of the finest public squares in Europe. For a view of the famous Ring Street, notable for its landscape architecture,

see page 243. 204,820,054 gulden; from miscellaneous, 11,- in 1898 was 5,172. The Commercial Year Book 735,306 gulden; total receipts, 276,860,522 gul- (1901) gives following statistics: Miles of line, den, or $119,150,000 (U. S.); total expenses, 171,- 32.363; miles of wire, 96,580; messages, 14,589,842 gulden, or $73,793,000.

158,000. The number of offices in Hungary In Hungary the government lines had was 3,026; miles of line, 13,675; miles of wire, length of 4,876 miles (Jan. 1, 18999), and the gov'- 66,689; messages, 13,584. ernment also worked 3,439 miles of company The number of post-offices in Austria in 1899 lines, while the companies owned and worked was 6,065; in Hungary, 4,836. The number 1.822 miles. The total mileage of Hungarian of telegraph offices in 1999 was: Austria, railways Dec. 31, 1898, was 10,161 miles; cost 5,371; Hungary, 3,165. In Austria the receipts of construction, 1,287,668,000 gulden. The Com- (posts and telegraphs) in 1899 were 99,059,418 mercial Year Book (1901) gives the following crowns; in Hungary, 45,507,000 crowns. Exfigures: Locomotives, 2,724; passenger cars, penditures were: In Austria, 85,425,706 5,272; freight, 54,920; passengers carried, 60,- crowns; in Hungary, 32,713,000 crowns. 312,000; freight, 38,624,000 metric tons; pas- ARMY.–The strength the Austro-Hunsenger receipts, 32,190,000 gulden; freight re- garian army on peace footing in 1900 was: ceipts, 89,276,000 gulden; total receipts, 128,- Officers, 26,454; nen, 335,239; total, 361,693. 015,000 gulden; total expenses, 76,806,000 The total number of horses was 63,382. gulden.

war footing the figures are: Officers, 45,238; At the close of the year 1899 the mileage of men, 1.826,940; horses, 281.886. The Mannthe railroads of Austria-Hungary was 22,670 licher rifle is used. The Dual Monarchy can miles. The number of miles constructed in bring into the field an engineering corps of 1899 was 726.

16,000 men, also 1,200 guns. Post-OFFICE, ETC.-In 18998 the number of NAVY.-A large number of ships have been post-offices in Austria was 5,883; letters and recently added to the Austro-Hungarian navy, post-cards carried, 876,556,000; newspapers and and others are building. The vessels launched parcels, 220,286,000. The postal revenue (in- in 1899 included 1 battleship of the second cluding telegraph income) was $17,840,000: ex- class, 4 battleships of the third class, 2 armored penditure (including telegraph expenses). $16,- cruisers, 8 protected cruisers, and a fleet of 71 322.000.

torpedo boats (besides several old battleships The number of post-offices in Hungary in refitted). The ironclad “Habsburg," launched 1898 was 4,766; letters and post-cards carried, in 1900, has a displacement of 8,300 tons and a 2:30),802,000; newspapers carried, 108,752,000; horse power of 11,000. The armored cruiser parcels carried, 59,251,000. The postal revenue "Kaiser Karl VI.," has a displacement of 6,100 was $8,531,000; expenditure. $6,370,000. tons and a horse power of 12,000. Its speed is

The number of telegraph offices in Austria 20 knots.




EDUCATION.-The free public school is a comparatively recent institution in Austria. Dr. L. R. Klemm, in the U. S. Education Report, 1889-90, p. 419, says: "The general Austrian public elementary school (people's school), as an institution of rudimentary learning for privileged and nonprivileged classes for rich and poor, subject to the state's supervision, followed a prescribed course of study, that school is a creation of the Maria-Theresian era." Among the memorable dates in the history of Austrian schools he gives the following:

1774. Maria Theresa's school regulations and expulsion of the Jesuits.

1781. Joseph II., edict of tolerance.

1805. Political constitution of the Austrian public school.

1818. First draft of a school law for elementary schools.

1819. Law regulating secondary and perior education passed.

In 18+9 the department of public instruction was established, and from this time abie men were engaged in formulating plans for improving the profession of teaching and reorganizing schools. In 1861 a second law for elementary schools was framed and various attempts at reform were undertaken. The defeat of the Austrian army by the educated army of Prussia in 1866 aroused the nation to the need of a better educational system, and school laws were passed in 1868 and 1869 requiring radical changes. Under these and later laws marked advances have been made in the schools of Austria during the last three decades. "In order to show in a single item the progress made we may instance Vienna: In the year 1869 the number of pupils in the lower schools was only 35,000. Ten years later it had risen to 61,000. The expenditures in 1869 rose from 400,000 forins, or $142,800, to 2,500,000 florins, or $892,500, within ten years.”

Dr. Klemm refers to the obstacles in the way of better management of the schools-the lack of local supervision, the conflicts arising among the various boards, the different nationalities and languages, etc. “That principle of the American common school which makes it the most effective agency of homogeneity, namely, the principle of teaching one language, and one only, is not accepted in Austria, where the Slavic and Teutonic elements. are constantly at war with each other." A great gain was the separation of church and state in education. The public school was no longer a religious institution, and the freedom of science was secured. Professors in the universities were allowed the widest liberty for scientific investigation. The government appropriation for public education was still far below that of Prussia. Austria, with a population of about 24,000,000 in 1889, appropriated $8,307,774, while Prussia with a population of about 30,000,000 in 1890, appropriated $21,581,319 for public education. In 1889 Austria had 60,126 teachers in the public elementary schools, and the average number of pupils to the teacher was 72. Statistics are at hand for Prussia in 1891, when the number of teachers was 70,094, or one for 70 pupils. In Austria the ratio of enrollment to the population was nearly 12 per cent. in 1889 and 13 per cent. in 1891. The

latter year the ratio of enrollment to the population in Prussia was nearly 19 per cent.

Statistics of illiteracy in 1890 brought to light the following results: Number of inhabitants in Austria who could read and write, 13,238,000; number of those able only to read 11,031,000; number of those not able to read or write, 9,605,000. The number of illiterates (above six years) in every 10,000 inhabitants 2,950 in 1890; five years later the percentage was reduced to 2,380.

The memorable dates in the history of the Hungarian schools are the same for the most part as those in Austria. The first Hungarian Minister of Instruction was appointed in 1818. After the separation of Austria and Hungary in 1867, a school law was passed putting the schools on a better footing, and several amendments in the seventies brought other improvements.

The statistical summary of 1889 gave a grand total of 3,160,421 pupils in the educational institutions of Austria (Cisleithania), distributed as follows: Elementary schools

.2,938,575 Secondary schools

70,515 Higher (universities, colleges, etc.).. 28,333 Special (commercial, music, etc.)... 122,968

For Hungary (Transleithania) the grand total was 2,191,790 pupils, distributed as follows: Elementary

.2,071,678 Secondary

43,670 Higher

11,222 Special

62,220 The latest statistics available of elementary education in Austria are for 1897, as follows: Enrollment, 3,627,145; ratio to total population, 15 per cent.: average attendance, 8742 per cent.; number of men teaching. 66,704; women teaching, 20,473; current expenditures, $20,309,101; per capita of enrollment, $6.83. Statistics for Hungary in 1897 were: Enrollment, 2.530,658; ratio to total population, 144 per cent.; ratio to enrollment, 85 per cent.: men teaching. 23,855; women teaching, 7,027; current expenditures, $6,663,705; per capita of enrollment, $8.8.).

The seven universities of Austria had attendance in 1898 as follows: Cracow

.1.223 Czernowitz

377 Gratz

.1.771 Innsbruck

1.087 Lemberg

.1,901 Prague

.1,102 Vienna

5.770 At the three universities of Hungary the attendance in 1898 was: Agram

656 Buda Pesth

.4,387 Klausenberg

992 There are numerous colleges, law schools, technological institutes, agricultural academies. etc., in Austria-Hungary. The number of students in the ten institutions of Austria in 189899 was 5,694; in the six institutions of Hungary, 2.287.

The attendance in the 20 higher institutions of Austria in 1898-99) was 20,778; in the 14 institutions (universities, colleges, schools of min. ing, forestry, etc.) of Hungary, 7.785.

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