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for a sorer disease cannot befall them; they fear it more then the plague; for usualy they that have this disease have them in abundance, and for wante of bedding and linning and other helps, they fall into a lamentable condition, as they lye on their hard matts, the poxe breaking and mattering, and runing one into another, their skin cleaving (by reason therof) to the matts they lye on; when they turne them, a whole side will flea of at once, [204] (as it were,) and they will be all of a gore blood, most fearfull to behold; and then being very sore, what with could and other distempers, they dye like rotten sheep. The condition of this people was so lamentable, and they fell downe so generally of this diseas, as they were (in the end) not able to help on another; no, not to make a fire, nor to fetch a litle water to drinke, nor any to burie the dead; but would strivie as long as they could, and when they could procure no other means to make fire, they would burne the woden trayes and dishes they ate their meate in, and their very bowes and arrowes; and some would crawle out on all foure to gett a litle water, and some times dye by the way, and not be able to gett in againe. But those of the English house, (though at first they were afraid of the infection,) yet seeing their woefull and sadd condition, and hearing their pitifull cries and lamentations, they had compastion of them, and dayly fetched them wood and water, and made them fires, gott them victualls whilst they lived, and buried them when they dyed. For very few of them escaped, notwithstanding they did what they could for them, to the haszard of them selves. The cheefe Sachem him selfe now dyed, and allmost all his freinds and kinred. But by the marvelous goodnes and providens of God Towne takes flight.” He recorded a word, “mamaskishallmitch," meaning the "last pox," that is, this visitation of 1633–34. Key into the Language of America (Narragansett Club), 210. Thomas Morton corroborates the desertion of the dying by the living. New English Canaan (Prince Society), 132.

Winter, reported from Richmond Island, in August, 1634, “Theris a great many of the Indyans dead this yeare, both east and west from vs, and a great many dyes still to the eastward from vs.Trelawny Papers, 47.

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not one of the English was so much as sicke, or in the least measure tainted with this disease, though they dayly did these offices for them for many weeks togeather. And this mercie which they shewed them was kindly taken, and thankfully acknowledged of all the Indeans that knew or heard of the same; and their m[aste)rs here did much comend and reward them for the same.

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R. WINSLOW was very wellcome to them in England,

and the more in regard of the large returne he brought IV with him, which came all safe to their hands, and was well sould. And he was borne in hand, (at least he so apprehended) that all accounts should be cleared before his returne, and all former differences ther aboute well setled. And so he writ over to them hear, that he hoped to cleare the accounts, and bring them over with him; and that the accounte of the White Angele would be taken of, and all things fairly ended. But it came to pass [205] that, being occasioned to answer some complaints made against the countrie at Counsell bord, more cheefly concerning their neigbours in the Bay then them selves hear, the which he did to good effecte, and further prosecuting shuch things as might tend to the good of the whole, as well them selves as others, aboute the wrongs and incrochments that the French and other strangers both had and were like further to doe unto them, if not prevented, he prefered this petition following to their Hon[ou]rs that were deputed Commissioners for the Plantations.?

1 In the General Court held January 1, 1634-35, Bradford, was chosen Governor, "to enter upon it the first Tuesday in March next ensueing, and to serue from the same time one whole yeare.” The times for holding courts were also fixed, the first Tuesday in January, March, June, July, September, October, and December. The Assistants elected were Thomas Prence, Edward Winslow, John Alden, Stephen Hopkins, Myles Standish, John Howland and William Collier. Plymouth Col. Rec., 1. 32.

2 Winthrop thought this petition for a commission to withstand the intrusions of the French and Dutch was "undertaken by ill advice, for such precedents might endanger our liberty, that we should do nothing hereafter but by commission out of England.” History, 1. *172. The point seems to have been well taken. The patent issued to New Plymouth, January 13, 1629-30, explicitly gave power "to take, apprehend, seize, and make prize of all such Persons, their Shipps and Goods, as shall To the right honorable the Lords Comissioners for the Plantations in

America. The humble petition of Edw: Winslow, on the behalfe of the plantations in New-England,

Humbly sheweth unto your Lordships, that wheras your petitioners have planted them selves in New England under his Ma[jes]ties most gratious protection; now so it is, right Hon[orab]les, that the French and Dutch doe indeaouer to devide the land betweene them; for which purpose the French have, on the east side, entered and seased upon one of our houses, and carried away the goods, slew 2. of the men in another place, and tooke the rest prisoners with their goods. And the Dutch, on the west, have also made entrie upon Conigtecute River, within the limits of his Maj[es]ties letters patent, where they have raised a forte, and threaten to expell your petitioners thence, who are also planted upon the same river, maintaining possession for his Maljes]tie to their great charge, and hazard both of lives and goods. attempt to inhabit or trade with the sauage People of that Cuntry within the seueral Precincts and Limitts of his and their seueral Plantacon, or shall enterprise or attempt att any tyme Destruccon, Invasion, Detrimente, or Annoyance to his and their said Plantacon.” Also authority was given to import arms and munition "for their seuerall Defence to encounter, expulse, repell, and resiste by Force of Armes, as well by Sea as by Lande, by all waies and Meanes whatsoever.” As the patent had issued from the Council for New England, the extent and quality of the authority given may have been in doubt. In this respect the Massachusetts Bay charter, issued by the King, to whom belonged the sole prerogative of making war and peace, stood upon a firmer basis. Hazard, State Papers, 1. 253, 302.

In his petition to the Council, in 1635, Winslow sought to awaken interest by directing attention to the economic advantages of securing the territories occupied by the French and the Dutch. Where the French settled, the royal navy could find a supply of masts. In the Dutch parts, an abundance of hemp and flax grew naturally. “All which by our Industry if his Majestie and the State be pleased to continue our liberty of conscience, to keep open the passage of such as will resort to us, and give us so free a commission for displanting French and Dutch as planting the places by us his Majesties loyall Subjects, your Honours shall soone see his Majesties Revenues of Customs by reason of this Plantation enlarged many thousands per annum and this kingdome supplied with many necessaries it wanteth, when as England shall onely part with a part of her overcharged multitudes which she can better misse than beare and for which God hath plentifully provided in the other.” Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, v. 133

In tender consideration hereof your petitioners humbly pray that your Lo[rdshi]pps will either procure their peace with those foraine states, or else to give spetiall warrante unto your petitioners and the English Collonies, to right and defend them selves against all foraigne enimies. And your petitioners shall pray, etc.?

This petition found good acceptation with most of them, and Mr. Winslow was heard sundry times by them, and appointed further to attend for an answer from their Lo[rdshi]pps, espetially, having upon conference with them laid downe a way how this might be doone without any either charge or trouble to the state;

1 The answer made to this petition by Gorges was embodied in a general paper on the plantation, as follows:

“Howsoever the agent of New Plimouth pretende that the comming of the Dutch into the River of Connectacute, was without theire knowledge and that they did laboure to set downe by them to prevent theire farther intrusion uppon his Majestys Territories, It maie be doubted that they rather had intelligence with them, and that it was a practise betweene them: For two speciall reasons. The one that seeing the Rivers to the Eastwards of them be already planted, by such as favoure not theire waies and opinions; To prevent that none of the like Condiĉons come to the West, they make it theire Coloure to sit downe by the dutch, That so they might both inlarge theire extent and be free from the danger that might ensue from such a neighbourehood; neither were they hopeles that by such a peece of service, they might obtaine Commission to continue theire possession and so haue more lawfull warrant for what they had done.

“Theire second reason is that findeing his Majestie and their Lordships begin to be sencible of theire disaffections both to his Majesties government and the state Ecclesiasticall, they seeke in tyme to fortefie themselves, by the aid of the duch and to assuer their trade and commerce by theire meanes, if they be prohibited anie from hence as they expect to be, if they submitt not as they ought, within all probability they intended not to doe, till they finde themselves inforced thereunto, by a stronger hand than theire owne.” Gorges, “ Considerations necessarie ... in settling the Governor of New England,” in Baxter, Gorges, 111. 267. The notes prepared about 1663 by Sir Joseph Williamson state that Winslow was imprisoned because they of Massachusetts or New Plymouth were suspected of having called the Dutch to the Connecti. cut. “And upon this and other such incidents, the Government here discovered the insolence and rebellious humor of the Colony of N. Plimouth, or rather the Colony finding what ill opinion the Government here had of them, they called the Dutch in for their countenance and support against the King." Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, x. 379.

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