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willing thertoe, he resolved to put him from his anchores, and let him drive downe the river with the streame; but commanded the men that none should shoote a shote upon any occasion, except he away at such easy Rates that I thinke they hardly get any thinge by them: Cootes at 2 pounds of bever a peece; Irish stockins at 2 pounds of bever per dosen, and good shurtes and waskotes at į pound of bever a pece. The Indians ar now so well seen into our tradinge Commodities, that heare is litle to be got by yt; for the traders do on vnder sell another and over throw the tradinge with the Indians altogether.” Trelawny Papers, 29. On the other hand much risk attended trading with the settlers or fishermen. Winter complained that they were good buyers but poor payers, and added that the trading boats “ar hardly able to pay for any goods before they haue goods to get the bever, and we must be faine to trust them with goods, yf we meane to put yt away and receauve bever for yt; when they haue goot yt, goods doth pas at Reasonable Rates at the English, yf the price of bever do hold vpe, or else yt will be bad, for heare with vs theris no other payment for goods but bever.Ib. 51. In another letter (53) he gives a list of the commodities he sells to the English with the prices:

“Heare, I put away goods to the English now and then, bread at 6 lb. of bever, pease at 7 lb., cootes, somm at 2 lb., somm 2 lb. 4, stockins 2 lb. per dozen, shues at 6 ounces and som at 7 ounces, but I sell but few; sacke and aquavite 2 gallons per lb. of bever, and som tymes but 6 or 7 quartes per lb., as the times do serue of plenty or scanty; veniger 4 gallons per lb., but sell no great quantity; I haue not sold a hodghed since I Came hither. The Coverletts do not sell well, not aboue į dozen sold of the best at i lb. and į per pece; the hodghed of oyle none of yt sold, but I do purpose to send yt to the Colony (Virginia) in the James. The shurtes sent by the Hunter most sold, but at litle profitt, som for 1 lb. of bever, som at 6s. bever in 1os. per pound; the hatts yet all vnsold; some 6 of the Cittles [kettles) sold at is. 6d. per lb. of bever in 6s. per lb. At this tyme (October, 1634) goods do pas at these Rates, but when the ships ar heare we must sell as they do, or els we shall sell none, for every on doth striue to put away his goods, and on spoyleth the other. I haue but 2 hodgheds of aquavite left and on of sacke. I do not receave any Coote bever, but all new skins, and somm of yt thicke hides; but I must take such as they gett yf I purpose to put away your goods and by many small parcells. The wastcootes all sold, some at 3 quarters of bever per pece and som at 6s. a pece among the company."

While the Plymouth trading houses may have confined themselves to the trade with the Indians, using the goods obtained by the partners from England, they must have felt the competition and been obliged to make their prices to conform. Even at its worst the trade probably yielded large profits, and Josselyn says if the traders did “not gain cent per cent they cry out that they are losers.” Winter himself charged all that the purchasers would pay, and six years later, in 1640, his extortion was exposed. Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., 1. 71.

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commanded them. He spoake to him againe, but all in vaine; then he sente a cuple in a canow to cutte his cable, the which one of them performes; but Hocking takes up a pece which he had layed ready, and as the barke shered by the canow, he shote (200) him close under her side, in the head, (as I take it,) so he fell downe dead instantly. One of his fellows (that loved him well) could not hold, but with a muskett shot Hocking, who fell downe dead and never speake word.” This was the truth of the thing. The rest of the men

carried home the vessell and the sad tidings of these things. Now the Lord Saye and the Lord Brooke, with some other great persons, had a hand in this plantation ;

they write home to them, as much as they could to exasperate them in the matter, leaveing out all the circomstances, as if he had been kild without any offence of his parte, conceling that he had kild another first, and the just occasion that he had given in offering shuch wrong ; at which their Lords[hi]ps were much offended, till they were truly informed of the mater.3

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1 Moses Talbott was the person shot.

Winthrop gave the following additional information to Sir Nathaniel Rich: After Hocking had been shot, "another of Hockins company cominge up upon the decke one of the Plymouth) men asked Howland if he should kill him allso, but he forbade him saying he feard there had been too many killed allreadye: the pinace beinge then driven on shore and in danger, the Pl(y mouth) men saved her, and putt one of their owne men into her to carrye her homewards towards Pasc(ataway).” Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, XX. 44.

3 "The Lords Say and Brook wrote to the Governour and Mr. Bellingham, that howsoever they might have sent a man of war to beat down the house at Kenebeck, for the death of Hockin, etc., yet they thought better to take another course; and therefore desired that some of ours might be joined with Captain Wiggin, their agent


The bruite of this was quickly carried all aboute, (and that in the worst manner,) and came into the Bay to their neighbours their. Their owne barke comming home, and bringing a true relation of the matter,' sundry were sadly affected with the thing, as they had at Pascạtaquack, to see justice done, etc.” Winthrop, History, 1. *145. Before this letter had reached the Bay, the question at issue had been settled, as shown in note on page 188, infra. * A deposition made at Plymouth is given in full as follows:

“Plymoth, 1634. Prenc Governor. "This deponent saieth, that upon the day of Aprill, John Hocking riding at anker within our limitts above the howse, Mr. John Howland went up to him with our bark and charged the said Hocking to waye his ankcors and depart, who answered hee would not, with foule speeches, demaunding whie he spake not to him that sent him fourth. Answere was mad by John Howland that the last yeare a boat was sent, hau. ing no otherbusines, to know whether it was theire mind that hee should thus wronge us in our trade; who returned answer they sent him not hether, and therefore Mr. Howland tould him that hee would not now suffer him ther to ride. John Hocking demaunded what hee would doe, whether he would shout (shoot); Mr. Howland answered but he would put him from thence. John Hocking said and swore he would not shoot, but swore iff we came a bord him he would send us Thus passing by him we came to an anker sumthing nere his barke. Mr. Howland bid three of his men goe cutt his cable whose names were John Frish, Thomas Savory and William Rennoles, who presently cut one, but were putt by the other by the strength of the streme. Mr. Howland seeing they could not well bring the cannow to the other cable, caled him a bord, and bed Moses Talbott goe with them, who accordingly went very reddyly and brought the canow to Hocking's cable. He being upon the deck came with a carbine and a pistole in his hand and presently presented his peece at Thomas Savory; but the canow with the tide was put nere the bow of the barke, which Hocking seeing presently put his peece almost to Moyses Talbotts head, which Mr. Howland seeing called to him desiering him not to shut his man, but take himselfe for his mark; saying his men did but that which hee commaunded them, and therfore desiered him not to hurt any of them. If any wrong was don it was himselfe that did it, and therfore caled againe to him to take him for his marke, saying he stod very fayer; but Hocking would not heare nor looke towards our barke, but presently shooteth Moyses in the head, and presently took up his pistell in his hand, but the Lord stayed him from doing any further hurt; by a shot from our barke, himselfe was presently shoote dead, being shott neere the same place in the head where he had murderously shot Moyses.N. E. Hist. Gen. Reg., IX. 80. This deposition may have been prepared by John Alden, as Winthrop and the colony Records state that he went with Howland to persuade Hocking to retire. From Winthrop it is also learned



cause. It was not long before they had occasion to send their vessell into the Bay of the Massachusetts; but they were so prepossest with this matter, and affected with the same, as they commited Mr. Alden to prison, who was in the bark, and had been at Kenebeck, but was no actore in the bussines, but wente to carie them supply. They dismist the barke aboute her bussines, but kept him for some time. This was thought strange here, and they sente Capten Standish to give them true information, (togeather with their letters,) and the best satisfaction they could, and to procure Mr. Alden's release.? I shall recite a letter or •2• which will show the passages of these things, as folloeth. Good Sir:

I have received your letter by Captaine Standish, and am unfainedly glad of Gods mercie towards you in the recovery of your health, or that about nine men accompanied Alden and Howland in the pinnace, of whom three were sent in a canoe to cut the cables of Hocking's boat. Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceed. ings, xx. 44; Mass. Col. Rec., 1. 119.

1 "Upon the report of this we were muche grieved," wrote Winthrop to Sir Nathaniel Rich, “that suche an occasion should be offered to our enemyes to reproache our profession: and that suche an injurye should be offered to those honorable persons, who for love of us and for furtherance of our beginnings here had so farre e[ngaged) themselves with us, so as we wrote to them to knowe the truethe of the matter and whither they would advowe it they wrote to us againe relatinge the matter in effecte as I have expressed, with justification of the facte etc. yet declaringe their sorrowe, that it had hapned so sadlye, otherwise then they intended: but they did not doubt but their Grant would beare them out; upon this we refuse to holde communion with them till they give better satisfaction.” Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, XX. 44.

? A kinsman of Hocking made the complaint that led to Alden's detention “till answer be receaved from those of Plymouthe, whither they will trye the matter there or noe,” under bonds not to leave the Bay without leave. His bondsmen were Timothy Hatherley and Lieutenant Richard Morris. This action was taken on May 14. Mass. Col. Rec., I. 119. Before a week had passed Alden was released. Winthrop says: “Upon theire (Plymouth) answeare, that themselves would doe justice in the cause we remitted him to them, as havinge no jurisdiction in it to trye it our selves. All that we ayme at is that they may come to see their sinne and repente of it. Which if they shall doe, I would intreat you to intercede with the Lords for them, that the injurye and discourtesy may be passed by, upon suche satisfaction as they can make.” Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, xx. 45.

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