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refined utterance which prevails in polished society; while the coarse and rustic tones of the vulgar are commonly owing to some early and erroneous habit in this respect. Most of the schoolboy faults in delivery, such as drawling, whining, and a monotonous singing sound, result from a wrong formation of the slide, and may be corrected by a proper course of práctice on this element of speech.
A slide consists of two parts, viz. : the radical, or opening sound, and the vanish, or gradual diminution of force, until the sound is lost in silence. Three things are necessary to the perfect formation of a slide.
1st. The opening sound must be struck with a full and lively impulse of voice.
2d. The diminution of force must be regular and equablenot more rapid in one part than another, but naturally and gracefully declining to the last.
3d. The final vanish must be delicately formed, without being abrupt on the one hand, or too much prolonged on the other.
Thus, a full opening, a gradual decrease, and a delicate termination, are requisite to the perfect formation of a slide.
2. There are three inflections or slides of the voice : the RISING INFLECTION, the FALLING INFLECTION, and the CIRCUMFLEX.
3. THE RISING INFLECTION is the upward bend or slide of the voice; as,
Do you love your home
4. THE FALLING INFLECTION is the downward bend or slide of the voice; as,
rapid in to the laste delicate prolonged of
When are you going
5. THE CIRCUMFLEX is the union of the inflections on the same syllable or word, either commencing with the rising and ending with the falling, or commencing with the falling and ending with the rising, thus producing a slight wave of the voice.
6. The acute accent ['] is often used to mark the rising inflection; the grave accent ['] the falling inflection; as,
Will you réad or spell?
7. When the circumflex commences with a rising and ends with a falling slide of the voice, it is marked thus ~; but when it commences with a falling and ends with a rising slide, it is marked thus , which the pupil will see is the same mark inverted; as,
You must take me for a fool, to think I could do that.
8. The inflections or slides should be used on the accented syllables of important or emphatic words; as,
I will never stay. I said goodly not homely,
DIRECT QUESTIONS, or those that can be answered
by yes or no, usually require the rising inflection; but their answers, the falling; as,
Has any one sailed around the earth ? Yès, Captain Cook.
EXCEPTIONS.—The falling inflection is required when the direct question becomes an earnest appeal, and the answer is anticipated; and when a direct question, not at first understood, is repeated with marked emphasis; as,
Will her love survive your neglèct? and mày not you expect the sneers, both of your wife, and of her parents ?
Do you reside in the cíty? What did you say, sír? Do you reside in the city ?
2. INDIRECT QUESTIONS, or those that can not be answered by yes or no, usually require the falling inflection, and their answers the same; as,
Who said, “A wise man is never less alone than when he is alone?” Swift.
EXCEPTIONS.—The rising inflection is required when an indirect question is used to ask a repetition of what was not at first understood; and when the answers to questions, whether direct or indirect, are given in an indifferent or careless manner; as,
Whóre did you sáy? Shall I tell your enemy? As you pléase !
RULES IN INFLECTIONS.
3. QUESTIONS, WORDS, AND CLAUSES, CONNECTED BY THE DISJUNCTIVE OR, usually require the rising inflection before, and the falling after it; though, when or is used conjunctively, it takes the rising inflection after, as well as before it; as,
Does he deserve praise, or blame? Can youth, or health, or strength, or hónor, or pleasure, satisfy the soul ?
4. WHEN WORDS OR CLAUSES ARE CONTRASTED OR COMPARED, the first part usually has the rising, and the last the falling inflection; though, when one side of the contrast is affirmed, and the other denied, generally the latter has the rising inflection, in whatever order they occur; as,
I have seen the effects of love and hatred, joy and grief, hope and despàir. This book is not mine, but yours. I come to bùry Cæsar, not to praise him.
5. FAMILIAR ADDRESS, and the pause of suspension, denoting condition, supposition, or incompleteness, usually require the rising inflection; as,
Friends, I come not here to tálk. If thine enemy húnger, give him bread to eat.
6. THE LANGUAGE OF CONCESSION, politeness, admiration, entreaty, and tender emotions, usually requires the rising inflection; as,
Your remark is trúe : the manners of this country have not all the desirable éase and fréedom.
I pray thee remémber, I have done thée worthy service; told thee no líes, made no mistakes ; served without grúdge or grùmbling. :
7. THE END OF A SENTENCE that expresses completeness, conclusion, or result, usually requires the falling slide of termination, which commences on the general pitch, and falls below it; as,
The rose is beautiful
8. AT EACH COMPLETE TERMINATION OF THOUGHT, before the close of a sentence, the falling inflection is usually re
quired; though, when several pauses occur, the last but ore generally has the rising inflection; as,
Every human being has the idea of duty; and to unfold this idea is the end for which life was given him.
The rock crùmbles, the trees fàll; the leaves fáde, and the grass withers.
9. THE LANGUAGE OF COMMAND, rebuke, contempt, exclamation, and terror, usually requires the falling inflection; as,
Thou slàve, thou wretch, thou cùward! Away from my sight!
10. THE LAST MEMBER OF A COMMENCING SERIES, and the last but one of a concluding series, usually require the rising inflection; and all others the falling ; as,
A good disposition, virtuous principles, a liberal education, and industrious hábits, are passports to happiness and honor.
These reward a good disposition, virtuous principles, a liberal education, and industrious hàbits.
11. THE CIRCUMFLEX IS USED when the thoughts employed are not sincere or earnest, but are used in jest, irony, or double-meaning,-in ridicule, sarcasm, or mockery. The circumflex which ends with the rising slide should be given to the negative ideas, and that which ends with the falling slide to positive ideas; as,
This is your plain man, if not your gracious one.
Students will be careful to employ the right slides in sentences that are unmarked, and tell what rule or rules are illustrated by each of the following
EXERCISES IN INFLECTIONS. 1. Do you see that beautiful stár? Yès : it is splèndid ! 2. Will you forsake us? and will you favor us no more ? 3. I said an elder soldier, not a bétter. Did I say better? 4. Are you, my dear sir, willing to forgive ? 5. Why is the hall crowded ? What means this stìr in town? 6. Does that beautiful lady deserve praise, or blame? 7. Will you ride in the carriage, or on horseback ? Neither. 8. Hunting mèn, not boasts, shall be his game. 9. I said gùod, not bád : hàppy, not miserable. 10. O Róme! O my country! how art thou fàllen!
EXERCISES IN INFLECTIONS.
11. Thanks to the Gods! my boy has done his duty. 12. Do men gather grapes from thorns, or ligs from thistles?
13. Is a candle brought to be put under a búshel, or under a béd? 14. Can storied urn, or animated bust,
Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath ?
Or Flattery soothe the dull, cold ear of death ? 15. Fire and water, oil and vinegar, heat and cold, light and dárkness, are not more opposed to each other, than is hunesty to fráud, or více to vìrtue. 16. Is this a time to be gloomy and sád
When our mother Nature láughs around ;
And gládness breathes from the blossoming ground ? 17. Can the great statesman, skilled in deep design,
Protract but for a day precarious breath ?—
Soothe, with his melody, insatiate Death ? 18. Hath a dog móney? Is it possible a cur can lend three thousand dúcats?
19. All the círcumstances and ages of men, poverty, ríches, youth, old age—all the disposítions and passions, mélancholy, lóve, grief, conténtment—are capable of being personified in poetry with great propriety.
20. If thou dost slánder her, and torture me - NÈVER PRÀY MÒRE.
21. But, whatever may be our fate, be assured, be assured that this declaration will stànd. It may cost tréasure, and it may cost blood; but it will stànd, and it will richly compensate for both.
22. The war must go on. We must fight iỉ through. And if the war must go on, why put off longer the declaration of independence? That measure will strengthen us. It will give us character abroad.
23. They boast they come but to improve our state, enlarge our thoughts, and free us from the yoke of error! Yes, they will give enlightened freedom to our minds, who are themselves